Cover Crops for Pest Management and Weed Suppression - Plumer

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Transcript of Cover Crops for Pest Management and Weed Suppression - Plumer

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Cover Crop BenefitsinAgriculture Production

Michael PlumerCover Cropsmanaging for benefitsRadish weed control, nematode reductionCereal ryeweed control, nematode reductionHairy vetchweed control by mulchAnnual ryegrassnematode reduction, mulch effectCrimson clovermulch effectRapeseeddisease reduction, nematode reductionSpring oatsfall weed control

Disease Reduction by Cereal rye and rapeseed 3 year study at 8 locations in Illinois

Septoria brown spot- significant reduction behind cover crop, especially following cereal ryeBacterial blight no infection found behind cover crop

Bond, SIUEastburn, U of Il.Disease ReductionRhizoctonia significantly reduced with cereal rye and rapeseedIncreased soybean stand behind cereal rye and rapeseedReduction in Rhizoctonia lesions Soybean yield significantly higher following cereal rye vs no cover crop

Bond, SIUEastburn, U of Il

Rapeseed in late April controlling winter annuals

Soybean after green manure of rapeseedSoybean No winter cover cropSDS showingDisease suppression by cover cropsTreatmentSCN eggs/100cc

Changes inEgg countSDS Foliar DiseaseDX 8/26Foliar DiseaseAUDPCYield(bu/A)Fallow (No winter crop)+589 a25.2a157.7a65.4 bCover crop (rapeseed)-313 b16.8b103.9a67.5 abGreen manure (rapeseed)-691 b5.5c37.1b69.6 aP > F .002.0001.0010.07Means followed by the same letter are not significant (P=0.05), according to Fishers LSD test.J. Bond, SIUSoybean cyst nematodesSignificant reductions following cereal rye and rapeseed at all 8 locations all 3 years

3 year 8 location summaryCereal rye and rapeseed showed that they provided increased protection of soybeans against the effects of:SDSRhizoctoniaSoybean cyst nematodesBrown stem rot ----cereal rye

Bond, SIU --Eastburn, U of Il.Soybean Cyst nematode suppressionby annual ryegrassTreatmentNW Plot yieldSW Plot yieldBare soil48.948.2Cereal rye53.852.3Annual ryegrass55.760.6Plumer, U of Il

Dense stand of crimson clover controlling winter annuals and early spring weedsAnnual ryegrass winter annual control

Ryegrass suppression of Palmers amaranth

U of FloridaRyegrass cover crop

Hairy Vetch, mulch controlling most winter annuals

Hairy vetch mulch with only 2,4-D, atrazineWeed control variable due to speed of vetch decomposition

difference in vetch varieties

Understanding what a good stand really is for weed control

Annual ryegrass with vetch and crimson clover 5 days after herbicide application--2,4-D and 1.25# ae glyphosateControls winter annualsUnderstanding cereal rye and weed controlGood allelophathy when youngRequires uniform stand seeded on timeSame time as wheat for best controlSeeding rate for weed control 70-90#/aDepends on planting dateFor good weed control must grow till anthesisEarlier kill, reduces level of weed control -- only winter annualsThere are significant differences in varietiesWeed ControlControlling resistant weeds with cereal ryeGlyphosate resistant marestail (horseweed)Herbicide program: $40/a + not always effectiveCereal rye $16-24/aMulch and allelopathy effect from high residue cereal rye cover crop

Aerial seed with cereal rye, radishHad sunlight on the ground at seeding21

Serious mares tail population, 3 year study

Cereal rye70#/a WEED CONTROLPlumer2012

Replicated trial, rye residue removed mid May 2013% Resistant Marestail Controlwith cereal rye cover crop3 year study; 8 replicationsGlyphosate sprayed mid May and 2 weeks later at 1.5#/a ae

Uniform solid stand is critical for weed control

Rye at pollination, only time to get good controlby crimping ave. 95+%

Crimped and drilled soybeans

This is the level of rye cover that is needed for good weed control

Stage of growth when cereal rye can damage corn the mostAllelopathy issuesCorn must be planted 2 deep and slot tightly closed to reduce problem, or wait 2 weeks after killing rye to plant

Mature cereal rye mulch with only glyphosate burndown- June plantingCorn into high residue issuesCover crop removes all the nitrogen in top 12 of soil- soil tests show < 3#/a at cover terminationRequires in furrow nitrogen, and/or 50-70#/a surface applied at planting- issue of tie up surface applied as wellor 30+ #/a starterEarly research shows cover crop nitrogen takes temperature, moisture and time to become available

Oats and radish controlling winter annualsNew radish developments2014 there were 34 different varietiesMany have totally different qualitiesKill different nematodes or propagates nematodesMichigan State University doing extensive workWork starting on evaluation for soybean cyst nematode, root knot nematode, sugar beet nematode, corn nematodes

Radish- which one do you want

Consider cover crop strip tillRequires precision plantingRequires good GPS autosteer/RTKNeeds to be timelyGetting it planted on time is importantReduce seeding rate in stripRadishes 11.5#/aRapeseed 3-4#/aControls winter and early weeds while providing bare, tilled row for early planting

How to plant one cover crop in 30 rows

Bio-strip till with radish and rapeseedBio strip till 30 cover crops

1.5#/a radishRapeseed 2#/aFeb. 15

Planting on bio-till row of dead Radish

Seeding on the Radish winter killed rownotice low residue in rowEstablishment early or perennial cover cropsAnnual ryegrass/legumes establishment at V-6 to7

Seeding middles only improves establishment and planting crop next spring in strips Use less seedIncreased fall growthBetter winter hardinessIncreased fall grazingImprove weed control

Dr. W Curran, Penn State U.WeedsIf Tillage and Herbicides controlled weeds---

Why are we still doing it every year??

Dr. D. BeckQuestions??

Soybean Cyst NematodesEgg Count
Bare Cereal RyeAnnual Ryegrass

NW7533717*117**SW3650320* 0**LF1559722*386*JA1202390*279*

4 different locations over 2 years. I have the before egg counts as well. Each field was in corn before the cover crop was planted, and the bare ground plots were sprayed to eliminate all winter annuals.