Course:Statistics Module:Systematic reviews Lecture 1:Introduction to s ystematic reviews

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Course:Statistics Module:Systematic reviews Lecture 1:Introduction to s ystematic reviews Description:Introduction to systematic reviews and how to perform them Author:Dr Susan D. Shenkin. Learning Objectives On completion of this lecture, you should be able to: - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Course:Statistics Module:Systematic reviews Lecture 1:Introduction to s ystematic reviews

  • Course:Statistics

    Module:Systematic reviews

    Lecture 1:Introduction to systematic reviews

    Description:Introduction to systematic reviews and how to perform them

    Author:Dr Susan D. Shenkin

  • Learning Objectives

    On completion of this lecture, you should be able to:

    define what a systematic review isidentify and use some useful resourcesdiscuss the differences between systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials and observational studiesdescribe the process of how to perform a systematic review

  • What is a systematic review?collates all empirical evidence that fits pre-specified eligibility criteria in order to answer a specific research question

  • What is a systematic review?clearly stated objectives with pre-defined eligibility criteria for studiesexplicit, reproducible methodologya systematic search that attempts to identify all studiesassessment of the validity of the findings of the included studies (e.g. risk of bias)systematic presentation, and synthesis, of the characteristics and findings of the included studies

  • What is a meta-analysis?the use of statistical methods to summarize the results of independent studies

    i.e. A specific type of systematic review

  • Why are reviews needed?Massive numbers of publicationsBoth print, and electronic mediaDiverse languagesDifferent countriesPrimary studies can appear contradictoryPsychology and social sciences predated medical systematic reviews (1930s)

  • Why are systematic reviews needed?Literature/narrative/critical review: Often not replicable/updatedMay be biased by prior beliefsMay be commissioned due to published opinionOften miss small but important effectsDifferent reviewers reached different conclusionsAffected by subspecialty of reviewerLittle attempt to discuss heterogeneity

  • Why are systematic reviews needed?Benefits of therapy not brought into clinical practice

    e.g. Clot-busters/beta blockers for heart attacksSR would have identified benefit in mid-1970sNot in clinical practice till 1990s

    Inadequate summaries of current knowledge

    Omitted mention of effective treatment, or suggested only as part of trials

  • Why are systematic reviews needed?As part of student dissertation/PG thesisTo secure grant funding for researchTo propose future research agendaTo establish clinical or cost-effectivenessTo establish feasibility of an interventionTo allow information to be assimilated quickly and easilyTo reduce delay of research to clinical practiceNote this is as substantial a piece of work as original research

  • Problems with systematic reviewsVary in qualityRequire updating (often by time of publication)May not include all studies Non-EnglishGrey literatureEarly literatureQuality assessment can still be subjective

  • Why are systematic reviews needed?Mostly A substantive questionSeveral primary studiesUncertainty Can be ofRCTs (randomised controlled trials) of intervention (vaccine, drug, behaviour)e.g. MMR, clot busters, exercise after strokeObservational studiese.g. Birth weight and IQ, IQ and mortality, WMH and morbidity/mortality

  • Hierarchy of evidence

  • RCTs or observational studiesRCTsgold standard for interventionsMinimise biasExposed/unexposed groups are comparableBigger is better

  • RCTs or observational studiesObservational studiesThe majority of studiesWhen RCTs are not ethical/feasible/doneNeed clarity about design ?filter by methodWhat search techniques are appropriate?Concern about bias, confounding (bigger not always better)Difficult to combine different study designsMay require original dataMeta-analysis can be spuriously precise and misleading

  • Introduction to CochraneArchie Cochrane (1909-88)British epidemiologistAdvocated RCTs to inform healthcare practice

    Cochrane collaborationCochrane Reviews (>4,000) registeredIdentify, appraise and synthesise research-based evidence and present it in accessible format; regularly updatedFocus on interventionsOutstanding general resourceThe School of Medicine, Cardiff University and the Cochrane Archive

  • Introduction to Campbell CollaborationSystematic reviews of the effects of social interventionsPrepare, maintain and disseminate systematic reviews in education, crime and justice, and social welfare Register relevant reviewsLinks to useful methodology sitesEffect sizesCampbell Collaboration Resource Centre

  • Introduction to EPPI-CentreEvidence for Policy and Practice Information and Co-ordinating CentreSystematic reviews of public policyEducation, health promotion, employment, social care, criminal justiceOnline evidence libraryMethods, tools and databases (quantitative and qualitative)EPPI-Centre (March 2007) EPPI-Centre methods for conducting systematic reviews. London: EPPI-Centre, Social Science Research Unit, Institute of Education, University of London.

  • Introduction to PROSPEROCentre for Reviews and Dissemination, YorkEvaluate the effects of health and social care interventions and the delivery and organisation of health care Guidance on systematic reviewsPROSPEROInternational prospective register of SRsDAREabstracts of quality assessed systematic reviews and details of all Cochrane reviews and protocolsNHS EEDHTA

  • Introduction to EQUATOREnhancing the QUAlity and Transparency Of health ResearchStarted March 2006Grew from guideline development groups (including CONSORT)Aim to: provide resources and education enabling the improvement of health research reporting monitor progress in the improvement of health research reporting

  • Introduction to EQUATORDetailed reporting guidelinesCONSORT Statement (reporting of randomized controlled trials) STARD (reporting of diagnostic accuracy studies) STROBE (reporting of observational studies in epidemiology) PRISMA (reporting of systematic reviews), which replaced QUOROM MOOSE (reporting of meta-analyses of observational studies)

    Minimum Information for Biological and Biomedical Investigation (MIBBI) portal e.g. minimum dataset for fMRI studies

  • How to do a systematic review?Define a questionSearch the literatureAssess the studiesCombine the resultsPut the findings in context

  • How to do a systematic review?Define a questionSearch the literatureAssess the studiesCombine the resultsPut the findings in context

  • How to do a systematic review?Define a questionSearch the literatureAssess the studiesCombine the results (Geoff Der)Put the findings in context

  • Presenting and assessing resultsUse the 27-point PRISMA checklistUse the PRISMA flow diagram

    Essential to ensure high quality reviewsUse other checklists for your primary studies

    Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG, The PRISMA Group (2009). Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses: The PRISMA Statement. PLoS Med 6(6): e1000097. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed1000097

  • PRISMA 2009 Checklist



    Checklist item

    Reported on page #

    Risk of bias across studies


    Specify any assessment of risk of bias that may affect the cumulative evidence (e.g., publication bias, selective reporting within studies).

    Additional analyses


    Describe methods of additional analyses (e.g., sensitivity or subgroup analyses, meta-regression), if done, indicating which were pre-specified.


    Study selection


    Give numbers of studies screened, assessed for eligibility, and included in the review, with reasons for exclusions at each stage, ideally with a flow diagram.

    Study characteristics


    For each study, present characteristics for which data were extracted (e.g., study size, PICOS, follow-up period) and provide the citations.

    Risk of bias within studies


    Present data on risk of bias of each study and, if available, any outcome level assessment (see item 12).

    Results of individual studies


    For all outcomes considered (benefits or harms), present, for each study: (a) simple summary data for each intervention group (b) effect estimates and confidence intervals, ideally with a forest plot.

    Synthesis of results


    Present results of each meta-analysis done, including confidence intervals and measures of consistency.

    Risk of bias across studies


    Present results of any assessment of risk of bias across studies (see Item 15).

    Additional analysis


    Give results of additional analyses, if done (e.g., sensitivity or subgroup analyses, meta-regression [see Item 16]).


    Summary of evidence


    Summarize the main findings including the strength of evidence for each main outcome; consider their relevance to key groups (e.g., healthcare providers, users, and policy makers).



    Discuss limitations at study and outcome level (e.g., risk of bias), and at review-level (e.g., incomplete retrieval of identified research, reporting bias).



    Provide a general interpretation of the results in the context of other evidence, and implications for future research.




    Describe sources of funding for the systematic review an