Cost n Performance of WDM PON

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    DESIGN AND COST PERFORMANCE OFWDM PONs FOR

    MULTI-WAVELENGTH USERS

    Dissertation

    zur Erlangung des akademischen GradesDoktoringenieur (Dr.-Ing.)

    vorgelegt der Fakultt fr Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnikder Technischen Universitt Ilmenau

    von Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Jrgen Schussmanngeboren am 01.09.1970 in Klagenfurt

    vorgelegt am 28. April 2008

    Gutachter: 1. Univ.-Prof. Dr. rer. nat. habil. Jochen Seitz

    2. Dr.-Ing. Werner Horn

    3. FH-Prof. Dr. Dipl.-Ing. Thomas Schirl

    Verteidigung am 15. September 2008Verf.-Nr.: EI

    urn:nbn:de:gbv:ilm1-2008000161

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    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    II

    Table of ContentsPreface ........................................................................................................................ 1Acknowledgments ....................................................................................................... 21 Introduction .......................................................................................................... 3

    1.1 Problems in Access Networks .............................................................................. 61.1.1 Bitrate requirements ...................................................................................... 61.1.2 Bitrate Limitation .......................................................................................... 8

    1.1.3 Current Technologies in Access Networks.................................................... 11

    1.2 Organization of this Work ................................................................................. 132 Overview on Optical Access Networks .................................................................. 152.1 Classification of Optical Access Networks .......................................................... 152.2 SDM ................................................................................................................... 212.3 TDM PON ......................................................................................................... 22

    2.3.1 Technological Background ........................................................................... 22

    2.3.2 Standardization ............................................................................................ 312.3.3 Overhead impact .......................................................................................... 34

    2.4 WDM PON ........................................................................................................ 372.4.1 Technological Background ........................................................................... 37

    2.4.2 Downstream Transmission ........................................................................... 42

    2.4.3 Upstream Transmission ............................................................................... 432.4.4 Standardization ............................................................................................ 47

    2.5 Paradigm Shift ................................................................................................... 49

    2.5.1 New Paradigm ............................................................................................. 492.5.2 Characteristics ............................................................................................. 50

    2.6 Summary............................................................................................................ 523 Single-Stage Networks .......................................................................................... 543.1 Wavelength reuse and space demultiplexing ...................................................... 54

    3.2 Wavelength Transfer Matrix .............................................................................. 59

    3.3 WTM Generalization ......................................................................................... 633.4 Network Design .................................................................................................. 67

    3.5 Connectivity Map .............................................................................................. 70

    3.6 Capacity Limits ................................................................................................. 723.7 Summary............................................................................................................ 734 Multistage Networks ............................................................................................. 744.1 Network Design .................................................................................................. 75

    4.1.1 Design Conventions ...................................................................................... 75

    4.1.2 Network Model ............................................................................................ 78

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    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    III

    4.1.3 Constraints of the Design Conventions ........................................................ 784.1.4 Common Design Parameters ........................................................................ 79

    4.1.5 IC WDM PON ............................................................................................. 81

    4.1.6 DC WDM PON ........................................................................................... 854.1.7 Number of wavelengths per user .................................................................. 88

    4.1.8 IC versus DC WDM PONs .......................................................................... 884.1.9 Summary ...................................................................................................... 90

    4.2 Connectivity Map .............................................................................................. 91

    4.2.1 Top-Down Approach .................................................................................... 924.2.2 Bottom-Up Approach .................................................................................. 98

    4.2.3 Examples.................................................................................................... 101

    4.3 Capacity Limits ............................................................................................... 104

    4.4 Power budget ................................................................................................... 1065 Techno- Economic Evaluations ........................................................................... 1085.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................... 1085.2 Generation of Network Architectures ............................................................... 1095.3 Cost Performance ............................................................................................. 114

    5.3.1 Cost Function ............................................................................................ 1145.3.2 Performance Analysis ................................................................................. 115

    5.4 WR Position .................................................................................................... 120

    5.4.1 Network Architecture................................................................................. 1205.4.2 Performance Analysis ................................................................................. 123

    5.4.3 Summary .................................................................................................... 1266 Test Environment .............................................................................................. 1276.1 Implementation ................................................................................................ 127

    6.2 Applications ..................................................................................................... 130

    6.2.1 Video Conferencing .................................................................................... 1316.2.2 HQHS Streaming ....................................................................................... 1317 Conclusion and Perspective ................................................................................ 1368 Bibliography ....................................................................................................... 1399 Appendix A List of Abbreviations ....................................................................... 15510 Appendix B List of used Symbols .................................................................... 161

    10.1 List of General Symbols ................................................................................ 161

    10.2 List of Mathematical Symbols....................................................................... 162

    11 Appendix C Standards ..................................................................................... 165Index ....................................................................................................................... 168

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    PrefaceDue to the incomparable popularity of the World Wide Web, the already enormous and

    still rocketing bandwidth demand may only be satisfied by optical networks, particularlyby using the Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) technology. To obtain WDM

    signals with high bit rates, multiple channels operating at a lower transmission speedare supported on a single optical fiber. This technology is currently applied exclusivelyin core and distributed networks.

    The subject of this thesi