ConservationPlanter,DrillandAir-Type Seeder Selection Guidline

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Transcript of ConservationPlanter,DrillandAir-Type Seeder Selection Guidline

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    Conservation Planter, Drill and Air-TypeSeeder Selection GuidelineJ . E . Mo rr i son , J r . R . R . Al len , D . E . W i lk ins , G. M. Powel l , R . D . Gri sso , D . C . Er ba ch ,

    M EM B ER M EM B ER M EM B ER M EM B ER AS S OC. M EM B ER M EM B ERASAE ASAE ASAE ASAE ASAE ASAEL. P . Hern d o n , D . L . M u r ray , G . E . F o rm an ek , D . L . P fo s t , M . M . Her ro n , D . J . B au m er t

    MEMBER ASSOC. MEMBER ASSOC. MEM BER MEMBER ASSOC. MEMBER ASSOC. MEMBE RASAE ASAE ASAE ASAE ASAE ASAE

    ABSTRACTTHIS guideline contains descriptions of machinesused for planting in conservation-tillage conditionsand of soil-engaging components for those machines.The functions of available components are discussedrelative to soil and crop residue conditions that may beencountered with conservation tillage. The guideline aidsin determining planting machine specifications byidentifying c omp onents th at will work best under specificanticipated conditions. The user can then match thosespecifications with available commercial machines ormodify existing machines by adding the desiredcomponents .

    INTR ODUC TIONConservation-tillage planting conditions require theuse of special "conservation-seeders," such as specialrow-crop p lan ters , d r i l l s , o r a i r - type seeders .Conservation-seeders are machine which have beendesigned or modified to be different machines or to havedifferent machine components than those which havebeen designed for planting into residue-free tilledseedbeds. Farmers, as well as action-agency personnel,consultants, and other farm advisors need to be aware ofthe machine requirements for conservation-tillageplanting. Because many machines have been developedand marketed in specific regions, local advisors andfarmers are not necessarily familiar with the availabilityand performance capabilities of special machines andcomponent opt ions.

    Article was submitted for publication in August, 1987; reviewed andapproved for publication by the Power and Machinery Div. of ASAE inMay, 1988.The authors are members of ASAE SW-225 Conservation Systemstechnical committee and the content has been prepared as a SW-225/1Subcommi t t ee pro jec t : J O H N E . MO RRISO N (Chai rman) ,Agricul tural Engineer , USDA-ARS, Temple, TX; RONALD R.ALLEN, Agricul tural Engineer , USDA-ARS, Bushland, TX; DALE E.WILKINS, Agricul tural Engineer , USDA-ARS, Pendleton, OR; G.MORGAN POWELL, Extens ion Engineer , Kansas State Univers i ty,Manhattan; ROBERT D. GRISSO, Assis tant Professor , Univers i ty ofNebraska, Lincoln; DONALD C. ERBACH, Agricul tural Engineer ,USDA-ARS, Ames, IA; LEE P. HERNDON, Engineer , USDA-SCS,Washington, DC; DAVID L. MURRAY, Project Engineer , Deutz-All is Corporat ion, Independence , MO; GARY E. FORMA NEK ,Engineer , USDA-SCS, Port land, OR; DONALD L. PFOST, Extens ionEngineer , Univers i ty of Missouri , Columbia; MAYNARD M.HERRON, Engineer , Hess ton Corporat ion, Hess ton, KS; andDANIEL J . BAUMERT, Engineer , USDA-SCS, W. Warwick Is land,RI.

    The objectives of this guideline are: (a) to providebackground information, for public agencies, equipmentsuppliers, and farmers; and (b) to assist in the selectionof conservation-seeders to match specific needs. Theguideline includes a description of general types ofconservation seede rs, lists of mach ine com ponen t op tionsf o r s e v e n p l a n t i n g f u n c t i o n s , a n d l i m i t e drecommendations for the selection of component optionsfor specific conditions.General Types of Conservation Seeders

    Conservation seeders include many variations of row-crop planters, drills, and air-type seeders. Thesemachines typically include separate components for soiland residue cutting, depth control, soil opening for seedplacement, and seed slot closure. Some machines alsohave components for row preparation, uncovered-seedfirming, and seed covering (Fig. 8). The majordistinctions among conservation seeders are given in thefollowing descriptions of six types of seeders.PlantersRow-Crop Planters: Row-crop planters are used toestablish widely spaced crop rows which allow wheeltraffic or cultivation between rows. Rows are usually atleast 60 cm (24 in.) apa rt. Seed is singulated and meteredfor each planter row unit. The soil-engaging componentsoperate independently between row units. Surfaceresidue accumulation and blockage between row units isuncommon because of the wide row spacings.Equipment options include coulter attachments, rowpreparation devices to permit ridge planting, in-rowsubsoil rippers, fertilizer and pesticide placementattachments, and ballast or springs to increasedownforce on row units. Most of these devices permit theplanter to also be used for planting residue-free tilledseedbeds. Major distinctions among row-crop plantersare designs for broadcast-tillage, strip-tillage, slot-planting, and for ridge-planting versus planting on non-ridged surfaces.Narrow-Row Planters: Narrow-row planters are usedwhen mechanical cultivation is not going to be used andwhen there is some advantage, such as higher yields, tojustify the investment in a more expensive machine.Rows are typically 19 to 50 cm (7.5 to 20 in.) apart (Fig.9) . Some planters are set up to have groups of narrow-row units separated by wider spacings for unplantedwheel traffic lanes. The width of individual seedmetering hopp ers and of side-mounted unit gauge wheelsoften limit the narrowness of the row spacings. Residue

    30 0 A PPLIED EN G IN EERIN G in A G RICU LTU RE

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    (front view)

    1.1. Smooth coulter 1.2. Notched coulter 1.3. Coulter with depth bands

    (front view)

    1.4.a. Offset bubb le coulter 1.4.b . Offset rippled coulter 1.4.c. Offset fluted coulter

    (front view)flRPRRflI x B E E d

    1.5. Straw straightener 1.6. Powered blade or coulter 1.7. Strip rotary tiller

    (oblique view]

    1.8 Dual secondary residue discs

    Fig. 1Component options for soil and residue cutting.

    accumulation and blockage between row units can be aproblem with closely spaced row units which are notstaggered. Narrow row spacings can sometimes beachieved by the use of planters with remote seedmetering units or by use of frames and hitches thatcouple two or three row-crop planters in tandem fornarrow-row "sol id-seeding."

    DrillsDisc Drills: Conservation disc drills (no-till) use singleor double discs for furrow openers and presswheels forsoil firming and depth gauging. Most manufacturersoffer coulters or staggered double-disc openers forcutting soil and residue. Ballast may be added to framesor row units to improve soil penetration.The following com men ts apply to other types of drills,as well as to disc drills: Seed cup block-offs andmoveable openers allow row spacing adjustments.Normally, drill meters do not singulate seed nor provideas uniform row-to-row seeding rate as planters,especially at low seeding rates. Depth control hastraditionally been less accurate, because there isinadequate space for some types of depth controlcomponents. Clearance for residue may be limiting whenseeding into high-residue conditions, but staggering ofadjacent row units increases clearances and residu e flow.Row spacing is sometimes wider than desired to allowadequate space for depth gauge wheels or for residueflow. Common uses of disc drills are for seeding small

    Vol. 4(4):December, 1988 30 1

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    2 . 1 . Sweep row cleaner(top view)

    2.2.a. Even discs row cleaner

    (front view)

    (top view)2.2.b. Staggered discs row cleaner

    "1"2.3. Horizontal-disc row cleaner 2.4 . Wide fluted coulter loosener 2.5. Chisel ripper

    N(front view)

    K K (front view]

    V2.6. Subsoil ripper 2.7. Packer roller 2.8. Basket roller

    2.9. Rotary cultivator 2.10 . Spring tine cultivator 2.1 1. S-time cultivatorFig. 2Component options for row preparation.

    grains, soybeans, peas, and other "solid-seeded" cropsand for interseeding grasses and legumes.Hoe Press Drills: Hoe-opener press drills are primarilyused in drier climates for seeding small grains where thedepth to moist soil may be 7.6 cm (3 in.) or more (Fig.10). The hoe opener can penetrate and place the seed inmoist soil, leaving a small furrow without having an

    excessive amount of soil covering the seed. Much of thedrill weight is carried on rear presswheels that roll in theseeded furrows to improve soil firming for seed-soilcontact and furrow stability. The openers are spaced andstaggered for residue flow. Models with coultersmounted in front of the openers have improved seedingthrough crop residues but large amounts (5000 kg/ha302 APPLIED ENGINEERING in AGRICULTURE

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    (top view) (top view) O3 . 1 . Double-disc opener; with shoe 3.2. Staggered double-discopener; without shoe 3.3 Runner opener

    3.4. Stub-runner opener 3.5 Hoe opener 3.6. Single-disc opener

    (oblique view)

    3.7. Coulter opener 3.8. Chisel opener 3.9. Wide-sweep opener

    (top view)

    3.10. Triple-disc opener 3.11. Powered blade or coulter openerFig. 3Component options for soil opening for seed placement.

    (4500 lb/acre) or more of wheat straw) may causeblockages. Moisture content and orientation of wheatstubble greatly affect the amount of straw that can betolerated.Air-Type SeedersAir Seeders: Air seeders consist of two machine unitswhich are hitched and pulled in tandem (Fig. 11). Thefirst machine has a central seed hopper with a meter thatdischarges