Circadian Field Photometry

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  • Circadian field photometry December 1, 2006

    PETTERI TEIKARI petteri.teikari@tkk.fi

    PROJECT WORK OF MEASUREMENT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY FOR THE COURSE S-108.3120 PROJECT WORK

    Course credits:

    ECTS Points

    Grade (1-5):

    Supervisors signature:

    M.Sc. Tuomas Hieta

  • Symbols and abbreviations................................................................................................. 3 1. Introduction ............................................................................................................ 4 2. Circadian photobiology ......................................................................................... 6

    2.1 Circadian rhythms .........................................................................................................7 2.2 Circadian clock mechanism ..........................................................................................8 2.3 Physiology of the eye ....................................................................................................9

    2.3.1 Ophthalmological optics ..................................................................................................... 12 2.3.2 Pupil pathways .................................................................................................................... 15 2.3.3 Eye movements ................................................................................................................... 17

    2.4 Light characteristics ....................................................................................................19 2.4.1 Spectrum ............................................................................................................................. 19 2.4.2 Spatial distribution .............................................................................................................. 22 2.4.3 Intensity............................................................................................................................... 23 2.4.4 Timing................................................................................................................................. 24 2.4.5 Duration .............................................................................................................................. 25 2.4.6 Photic history ...................................................................................................................... 26 2.4.7 Polarization ......................................................................................................................... 26

    3. Eye and photometric measurements .................................................................. 27 3.1 Electrical activity ........................................................................................................27

    3.1.1 Electroretinogram (ERG) .................................................................................................... 27 3.1.2 Electooculogram (EOG)...................................................................................................... 29

    3.2 Eye tracking ................................................................................................................30 3.2.1 Pelz et al. (2000, 2004) ....................................................................................................... 32 3.2.2 Li et al. (2006): openEyes ................................................................................................... 33

    3.3 Pupil size .....................................................................................................................37 3.3.1 Video-driven infrared pupillography .................................................................................. 38 3.3.2 Photorefractometry.............................................................................................................. 40 3.3.3 Digital photography ............................................................................................................ 41

    3.4 Digital-imaging circadian photometry ........................................................................43 3.4.1 Circadian-weighed luminancephotometers (Gall et al., 2004) ............................................ 43 3.4.2 Digital photography (Hollan et al., 2004) ........................................................................... 45

    3.5 Dosimeters ..................................................................................................................47 3.5.1 LichtBlick (Hubalek et al., 2004)........................................................................................ 48 3.5.2 Daysimeter (Bierman et al., 2005) ...................................................................................... 49

    4. Dosimeter design and simulation........................................................................ 54 4.1 Eyetracker and/or pupil size measurement..................................................................54 4.2 Dosimeter ....................................................................................................................56

    4.2.1 Photodiode-based dosimeter ............................................................................................... 56 4.2.2 Spectroradiometer-based..................................................................................................... 61

    5. Conclusions ........................................................................................................... 63 6. References ............................................................................................................. 65

  • Symbols and abbreviations 3

    SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS wavelength max peak wavelength W/cm2 microwatt per square centimeter A/Hz amperes per root hertz A/W amperes per watt acv circadian action factor Ap pupil area Ar area of the image at the retina As source area B noise bandwidth [Hz] B() action spectra for blue light hazard (ICNIRP) B() biological/circadian action spectra b-lx blue-lx, unit for blue-colored illuminance BY hypothetical luminous efficiency function for

    circadian responses. c() circadian action function cd/m2 candelas per square meter, unit for luminance dB decibel DC direct current dp pupil diameter dr diameter of the image at the retina ds diameter of the source E Energy Ec corneal irradiance en noise voltage density Er retinal irradiance f frequency f focal length g gram h Plancks constant Hg high-pressure mercury Hz Hertz, unit for frequency Id dark current If feedback (gain) current Ijn Johnson noise current In noise current in noise current density In,e noise current from en in,e noise current density from en Ip photocurrent Itot total noise current J/cm2 Joules per square centimeter K Kelvin, unit for (color) temperature kB Boltzmann constant kbauds/s kilobauds per second lm/w lumens per watt, unit for luminous efficacy Ls source radiance lx lx, unit for illuminance mA milliampere mAh milliampere hour MB megabyte Mbps megabits per second MHz megahertz mm millimeter M melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cell

    spectral efficiency nm nanometer, normal unit for wavelength nV nanovolt pA picoampere Pr retinal power P spectral irradiance at the eye [W/m2/nm] Rf feedback (gain) resistance Rsh shunt resistance R photosensitivity S S cone spectral efficiency T temperature [K] V()

    spectral sensitivity curve for photopic vision V/Hz volts per root hertz V rod spectral efficiency function V10 photopic spectral sensitivity for centrally fixated

    large target

    VDC volts, direct current W watt Xec circadian radiation quantity Xv photometric radiation quantity angular subtense of the source lens transmittance luminous flx [lm] e, Spectral radiance [Wm-2] ohm, unit for resistance s solid angle [sr]

  • Symbols and abbreviations 4

    +/+ wild type mice ADC analog-to-digital converter AgCl silver chloride CBT core body temperature CBTmin core body temperature minimum CCD charge-coupled device CCT correlated color temperature CD compact disc CIE International Commission on Illumination CMOS complementary metal oxide semiconductor CP constant posture CR constant routine CRH corticotropin-releasing hormone CT circadian time DLMO dim light melatonin onset DLMOff dim ligh melatonin offset DLMOn dim light melatonin onset DMH dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus dmSCN dorsomedial suprachiasmatic nucleus dSPZ dorsal subparaventricular zone EB eye blink ECG electrocardiogram EEG electroencephalogram EOG electrooculogram ERG electroretinogram ERP early-receptor potential EW Edinger-Westphal nucleus fMRI functional magnetic resonance imaging FOV field of view FWHM full width at half maximum GNU GNU's Not Unix GPL General Public License GTP ganosine triphosphate hbw half bandwidth hbw half bandwidth IC integrated circuit IEEE-1394 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers,

    standard 1394 (FireWire, i.LINK) INL inner nuclear layer ipRGC intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cell IR infrared IRC intensity response curve IRED infrared LED KRG potassiumretinogram LASIK laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis LCD liquid crystal display LED light emitting diode LGN lateral geniculate nucleus LRP late-receptor potential MPO medial preoptic region mRGC melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells M-RGC magno-retinal ganglion cells NIF non-image forming ONL outer nuclear level PF prefrontal PLR pupillary light reflex PPRF paramedine pontine reticular formation PRC phase response curve P-RGC parvo-retinal ganglion cells PRK photorefractive keratectomy PU Pupillary Unrest PUI Pupillary Unrest Index RANSAC Random Sample Consensus REM rapid eye movement sleep RGC retinal ganglion cell RHT retino-hypothalamic tract RI retinal illuminace RMS root-m