Chinese Elementary School Teachers’ Perceptions of ... Perceptions of...

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  • Chinese Elementary School Chinese Elementary School Teachers Perceptions of StudentsTeachers Perceptions of StudentsTeachers Perceptions of Students Teachers Perceptions of Students

    Classroom Behavior ProblemsClassroom Behavior Problems

    Caiyun Zhang, Ph. D.Caiyun Zhang, Ph. D.11Paul Caldarella, Ph.D. Paul Caldarella, Ph.D.

    Michael Richardson, M.S.Michael Richardson, M.S.Ryan Shatzer, M.S.Ryan Shatzer, M.S.

    11Department of Psychology and Special Education, China National Institute for Educational Department of Psychology and Special Education, China National Institute for Educational Research, Beijing, ChinaResearch, Beijing, China

    Funding for this manuscript was provided in part by grant#BBA060013 from the ChineseFunding for this manuscript was provided in part by grant#BBA060013 from the ChineseNational Educational Science Foundation.National Educational Science Foundation.

  • An ongoing relationship (12 years) Visits to China and the US Sharing research presentations Collaborating on publications and researchCollaborating on publications and research

  • P t ti O iPresentation Overview

    Background M th dMethodResultsDiscussion QuestionsQuestions

  • BackgroundBackground

  • Teachers Perceptions of Misbehavior

    Studies over the past 20 years Studies over the past 20 years Many different parts of the worldMany different parts of the worldy py p

    Teachers perceptions can influence:Teachers perceptions can influence: Responses to studentsResponses to studentsResponses to students Responses to students ConfidenceConfidence

  • Factors that Can Influence Perceptions

    Teachers experienceTeachers experienceSt d t d l lSt d t d l l Students grade levelStudents grade level

    Student genderStudent gender Demographic areaDemographic area Classroom settingClassroom settingClassroom settingClassroom setting

  • Teachers Perception Studies Most Most frequent frequent and and troublesometroublesome behavior:behavior:

    WestWest Talking out of turnTalking out of turn

    China China DaydreamingDaydreaming

  • Teachers Perceptions in China Ding et al. (2008) proposed differences due to:Ding et al. (2008) proposed differences due to:

    Students personalities Students personalities Class sizes Class sizes Teaching styleTeaching style

  • Teachers Perceptions in China Percentage of teachers that spend Percentage of teachers that spend too too

    much timemuch time on behavior problems:on behavior problems:pp West West

    50%50% ChinaChina

    34%34%

    Ding et al.:Ding et al.: Differences possibly due to Confucian Differences possibly due to Confucian yy

    heritage emphasizing respect and social orderheritage emphasizing respect and social order

  • Current StudyCurrent Study Limited research on Chinese teachers perceptionsLimited research on Chinese teachers perceptions

    Seek better understandingSeek better understanding Seek better understandingSeek better understanding Hope to help teachers resolve student misbehaviorHope to help teachers resolve student misbehavior

    Compare findings of Ding et al. using:Compare findings of Ding et al. using:Larger sample (527 vs 244)Larger sample (527 vs 244) Larger sample (527 vs 244)Larger sample (527 vs 244)

    Focus on elementary schools (grades 1Focus on elementary schools (grades 1--6 vs 16 vs 1--12)12) More provinces (5 vs 2)More provinces (5 vs 2) New behavioral categoriesNew behavioral categories New behavioral categoriesNew behavioral categories

    Examine influencing factorsExamine influencing factors Teacher experience, school quality, settingTeacher experience, school quality, setting

    Explore beyond frequency/troublesomeExplore beyond frequency/troublesome Explore beyond frequency/troublesomeExplore beyond frequency/troublesome Negative Effects on DevelopmentNegative Effects on Development Difficult to TolerateDifficult to Tolerate Issues when Trying to ResolveIssues when Trying to ResolveIssues when Trying to ResolveIssues when Trying to Resolve

  • Method

    Phase IPhase IDevelopment of Problem Behavior CategoriesDevelopment of Problem Behavior CategoriesDevelopment of Problem Behavior Categories Development of Problem Behavior Categories & Questionnaire & Questionnaire

    Phase IIPhase IIDistribution of Questionnaire & AnalysisDistribution of Questionnaire & AnalysisDistribution of Questionnaire & AnalysisDistribution of Questionnaire & Analysis

  • Phase I Behavioral Category DevelopmentBehavioral Category Development

    Interviewed 18 teachersInterviewed 18 teachers 10 categories were developed 10 categories were developed Finalized by two expert teachersFinalized by two expert teachers

    Questionnaire Questionnaire Based on Wheldall and Merretts (1988)Based on Wheldall and Merretts (1988)Based on Wheldall and Merrett s (1988)Based on Wheldall and Merrett s (1988) Questions adapted to the Chinese contextQuestions adapted to the Chinese context Additional questions addedAdditional questions addedAdditional questions addedAdditional questions added Pilot tested with 38 teachers Pilot tested with 38 teachers

  • Students cant focus on the learning

    Non-attention

    gcontent, and have no idea what the teacher is teaching. They just sit there quietly and appear to be thinking about other things (day dreaming)

    Laughing at others

    other things (day-dreaming).

    Students laugh at classmates when they are answering the questions or workingLaughing at others are answering the questions or working on teachers assignments, saying things like stupid. They look down on others by using negative words, glaring disparagingly or speaking with tones of disdain.

    Students move around in their seats or Over-active dont stay in their seats, often making

    noises that affect other students ability to listen to the class. They play with things on the desk or in the drawer They moveon the desk or in the drawer. They move around in the classroom without permission.

  • Talking o t of t rnStudents cant listen to others; they i t t t h d th t d t ithTalking out of turn interrupt teachers and other students with unrelated things to affect teaching negatively. They talk about unrelated topics to the class, to themselves, or to p , ,other students: for example, laughing or talking without permission.

    Uncooperative Students dont join in the study group. They play by themselves and appear not to care about the group's performance, or make an effort at group work They talk about a lot ofeffort at group work. They talk about a lot of things unrelated to their teamwork in the study group.

  • Not following the taskStudents dont bring school supplies and do their own thing in the class. They act slowly and cant keep up with the t h ' t Th t l tteachers' requests. They cant complete classroom learning tasks on time.

    Students disturb others in various ways

    DisruptiveStudents disturb others in various ways during the class, such as taking others things on the table, drawing on others books, pushing others constantly. They i t f ith th l i d th iinterfere with others learning and their ability to do homework.

    Students are reluctant to comply with theNon-compliance

    Students are reluctant to comply with the class rules, unwilling to listen to the teachers directions, and try to defend themselves unreasonably. They are unwilling to recognize and correct their mistakes. They like to criticize others and shirk their responsibilities.

  • Emotional dist rbanceStudents are unable to control their emotions crying or quarrelling when Emotional disturbanceemotions, crying or quarrelling when frustrated or dissatisfied. They have conflicts with others in the class, attacking or fighting with others.

    Withdrawal

    g g

    Students appear to feel nervous in the class, seem afraid of speaking, seldom take the initiative to raise their hands to answer questions. They often sit quietly by themselves, dont join in the activities in the class and rarely discuss within the class, and rarely discuss with others. They seldom communicate with the teachers.

  • Questionnaire itemsQuestionnaire items

    1. Do you think you have spent too much timetoo much time dealing with students' behavior problems in your class?p y

    2. Assuming a 40-minute class, how long do you spendhow long do you spend on students' behavior problems?

    3. What is the most frequentmost frequent behavior problem in your class?4. What is the most troublesomemost troublesome behavior problem in your class?5. What classroom behavior problem do you think has the most most

    negative effectsnegative effects on students' development?6 Wh t i th b h i bl h dl t l th dl t l t i l ?6. What is the behavior problem you can hardly toleratehardly tolerate in your class?7. How manyHow many students usually have behavior problems in your class?

    How many are boys? How many are girls?8 Are the boys or girlsboys or girls behavior problems more troublesome in your8. Are the boys or girlsboys or girls behavior problems more troublesome in your

    class?9. Have you had trouble resolvingtrouble resolving students behavior problems in the

    past?past?10. What are the most difficult issuesmost difficult issues for you in resolving students

    behavior problems?

  • Phase II: Survey Administration Item Category Number

    M l 95 ParticipantsParticipants 527 teachers527 teachers

    Gender MaleFemale95432

    Grade1-23-45 6

    171 178 178

    SettingSetting

    5-6 178

    Class size< 3030-49> 50

    66 170 291

    < 5 109gg 27 schools 27 schools 5 provinces5 provinces

    Years tea