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    REFERENCING WORKHOP

    How to Cite References

    Chicago Style

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    Learning Aims To understand what is Plagiarism

    To understand what is Referencing

    To understand why you should reference

    To learn to recognise details required to

    make up a citation

    To learn to construct citations

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    What is Plagiarism? Plagiarism is presenting other peoples

    words and ideas as your own; or using

    other peoples words and ideas withoutacknowledgement

    It is a serious ACADEMIC OFFENCE.Will lead to your work being disregarded

    or disciplinary action being taken

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    72%In the United States

    of students admitted cheating on a written assignment

    Based on the research of Donald L. McCabe, Rutgers UniversitySource: CIA Research. Center for Academic Integrity, Duke University, 2003 .

    http://academicintegrity.org/cai_research.asphttp://academicintegrity.org/cai_research.asphttp://academicintegrity.org/cai_research.asp
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    If you have

    included thewords and ideasof others in yourwork that you

    neglected to cite,

    had help youwouldnt wantyour teacher toknow about,

    OU HAVE PROBABLY PLAGIARISED!

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    Intentional Plagiarism

    Copying a friendswork

    Buying orborrowing paper

    Cutting andpasting blocks oftext from

    electronic sourceswithoutdocumenting

    Mediaborrowingwitho

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    Careless paraphrasing Poor documentation Quoting excessively

    Failure to use yourown voice

    n- n en onaPlagiarism

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    ExcusesIts okay ifI dont get caught!

    I was too busy towrite that paper!(Job, big game, too much homework!)

    My teachersexpect

    too much!

    Ive got to getinto

    ??? U.!

    I and parents/bosses

    expect As!

    This assignmentwas BORING!

    Everyone does it!

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    What are the Consequences?

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    Is it worth

    the risk? 0 on the assignment Referral to administrators Suspension or dismissal

    from school and/oractivities

    Note on student record Loss of reputation among

    the school community Loss of job Prosecution

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    Nope!

    Facts that are widely known Information or judgments

    considered commonknowledge

    Need no documentation!

    Hooray for

    commonknowledge!

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    Examples of Common Knowledge

    Pak Lah is thepresent PrimeMinister ofMalaysia

    The Japaneseattacked PearlHarbor on

    December 7,1941

    TheEiffelTowerisinParis(duh!)

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    No need to cite or quotewhen:

    You are discussingyour ownexperiences,

    observations, orreactions

    Compiling the resultsof original research,

    from scienceexperiments, etc.

    You are usingcommon knowledge

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    Why Must You Uphold AcademicIntegrity?

    When you copy you cheatyourself. You limit your ownlearning.

    The consequences are notworth the risks!

    It is only right to give creditto authors whose ideas youuse

    Citing gives authority to theinformation you present

    Citing makes it possible foryour readers to locate yoursource

    Education is not an us vs.them game! Its aboutlearning to learn!

    Cheating is unethicalbehavior

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    Examples of Plagiarism

    Downloading essays from the Internet and submitting as your ownwork

    Buying, borrowing or stealing someone elses essay and submitting as

    your own

    Copying, cutting and pasting text from the Internet Using the words of someone else and presenting it as your own ie

    copying sections from a book or article and presenting it without

    acknowledgement Using significant ideas from someone else and presenting it as your

    own i.e. putting someone elses ideas without

    acknowledgment Quoting word for word without quotation marks and acknowledgment Using too much of other peoples work Avoid long quotations, too

    much direct quotations (even with proper acknowledgment) is notacceptable

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    Then what is the right wayof borrowing the ideas of

    others?

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    How to Avoid PlagiarismInevitably your writing will include discoveries, ideas and writings of experts

    in your field of study but this must be incorporated carefully in yourwork

    1. Use your own words and ideas

    2. Do not copy and paste information, write a few connecting sentences orparagraphs and then present it as your own work

    3. If you have to incorporate the ideas and writings of others, incorporate itcarefully making sure you give credit when you use:

    * Someone elses ideas, opinion or theory

    * Any facts, statistics, graphs, drawings or any information

    that is not common knowledge

    4. Quoting, ParaphrasingandSummarising are different ways to incorporatethe work of other writers in your own writing

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    How to Avoid Plagiarism

    5. Avoid using other peoples work and making minor cosmetic

    changes.

    Example:

    Changing the word often to frequently or reversing the order of

    a sentence

    6. Whenever you are in doubt, it is safer to CITE.

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    LearnHow Io Incorporate Work of

    Others Into Your Own Work

    To avoid plagiarism, you have to understand how to

    effectively incorporate materials into your own writing by

    knowing : How to quote correctly from a source

    How to paraphrase the words and ideas of others

    How to summarise the words and ideas of others

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    What is a Quotation?

    The exact reproduction of the written or spoken words

    Matches the source word for word

    Appears within quotation marks

    Must be attributed to the original source

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    What is Paraphrasing?

    Presenting a text in your own words but keeping the same

    meaning

    Does not match the source word for word

    Must be attributed to the original source

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    6 Steps to Effective Paraphrasing Re-read the original passage until you understand the full meaning Put the original away and write your paraphrase on a note card Write down a few words below your paraphrase to remind you how

    you would use the material. At top of note card, write keyword orphrase to indicate the subject of your paraphrase Check your paraphrase with the original to ensure what you have

    written accurately express all the essential information in a new form Use quotation marks to identify unique terms or phrases you have

    borrowed exactly from the source Record the source(including the page) on your note card so that you

    can make acknowledgement easily when you incorporate the materialin your assignment

    (Taken from Purdue university Online writing Lab at

    http://owl.english.purdue.edu/ )

    http://../shlim/Desktop/http;/www.wisc.edu/writing/handbook/index.htmlhttp://../shlim/Desktop/http;/www.wisc.edu/writing/handbook/index.html
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    What is Summarising?

    Involves putting main ideas of the text in your own words

    Presents a broad overview; as such it is much shorter than

    the original text

    Does not match the source word for word

    Must be attributed to the original source

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    Useful Websites on Academic Writing

    University of New South Wales, The Learning Centre How to Quote, Paraphrase and Summarise:

    http://www.lc.unsw.edu.au/onlib/sumpara.html

    Purdue University Online Writing Lab (OWL) http://owl.english.purdue.edu/

    University of Wisconsin-Madison website on The Writing Center http://www.wisc.edu/writing/Handbook/QuotingSources.html

    http://www.wisc.edu/writing/Handbook/index.html

    http://owl.english.purdue.edu/http://../shlim/Desktop/http;/www.wisc.edu/writing/handbook/index.htmlhttp://owl.english.purdue.edu/http://www.lc.unsw.edu.au/online/sumpara.htmlhttp://www.lc.unsw.edu.au/online/sumpara.htmlhttp://owl.english.purdue.edu/http://owl.english.purdue.edu/http://../shlim/Desktop/http;/www.wisc.edu/writing/handbook/index.htmlhttp://../shlim/Desktop/http;/www.wisc.edu/writing/