Chapter IV: Landscape Units & Character-Defining Features ... The treatment approach focusing...

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Transcript of Chapter IV: Landscape Units & Character-Defining Features ... The treatment approach focusing...

  • S T . E L I Z A B E T H S W E S T C A M P U S LAND SCAPE PRESERVATION PLAN

    Chapte r IV: Landscape Uni t s & Charac te r -Def in ing Fea ture s Pro tec t ion , Pre se rva t ion & Rehab i l i t a t ion

    I V . 1  

    H e r i t a g e   L a n d s c a p e s   L L C ,   P r e s e r v a t i o n   L a n d s c a p e   A r c h i t e c t   &   P l a n n e r s

    A. INTRODUCTION TO PROTECTION, PRESERVATION &

    REHABILITATION The future direction of the St. Elizabeths West Campus is to preserve, rehabilitate and restore the landscape character and features while addressing the requirements of the DHS use. The LPP envisions that reuse with the 2016 plan. In this discussion, accompanied by historic and current photographs, detailed plans and narrative, the 2016 landscape is put into clear focus as a functional, achievable and appropriate for this National Historic Landmark campus. Related, complementary components of these efforts are:

     Protection of remaining historic landscape during the construction period  Preservation of extant resources in place or replacement in-kind and in-location  Rehabilitation for new use with materials, infrastructure, and systems upgrades  Restoration and Reconstruction of specific documented elements of the landscape that are

    well documented but absent or fragmented Protection addresses the zones and resources requiring consideration to ensure that campus landscape features endure the adaptation to future uses. Specific areas that are not subject to construction can be set aside and protected from the traffic and activities of the construction period. Protection of areas of the historically significant landscape essentially ensures the preservation of a large group of character-defining elements of the campus landscape. Beyond these areas of protection specific construction protection practices can preserve features adjacent to construction. The companion to preservation of extant resources is the replacement of degraded historic elements to match the historic specifications in-kind and in location. The following outline, derived from the 2009 Cultural Landscape Report (CLR), summarizes the principal concepts of landscape treatment recommendations with preservation treatments varying based on the documentation and the preset status of the landscape resources:

  • S t . E l i z a b e t h s W e s t C a m p u s L a n d s c a p e P r e s e r v a t i o n P l a n Chapter IV: Landscape Units & Character‐Defining Features, Protection, Preservation & Rehabilitation 

    I V . 2  

    H e r i t a g e   L a n d s c a p e s   L L C ,   P r e s e r v a t i o n   L a n d s c a p e   A r c h i t e c t   &   P l a n n e r s

    PRESERVE: Respect remnant historic features through sound stewardship  Protect the landscape character-defining features during rehabilitation  Respect and incorporate historic landscape evolution, focus on the late 1930s  Retain historic spatial organization and visual relationships to the extent possible  Preserve historic circulation  Protect and manage historic vegetation and design during construction and beyond  Preserve and rehabilitate specific historic landscape features REHABILITATE, RESTORE & RECONSTRUCT: Enhance historic character through replacement of degraded and documented absent character-defining features  Rehabilitate historic spatial patterns, land uses and visual and spatial organization to the

    greatest degree possible through referencing historic patterns and characteristics to guide new design, recapturing degraded elements, and removing non-historic elements

     Restore and Rehabilitate degraded and documented but absent character-defining elements of the campus landscape, including the arboretum style tree and shrub collection, the historic lighting, benches, gardens, fountains and site details

     Rehabilitate and Reconstruct degraded circulation elements using materials that match the original

    INTRODUCE: Provide appropriate new elements within the historic campus landscape  Harmonize historic character and new campus landscape components  Identify new landscape elements that are compatible with the historic character and

    features of the campus through the accommodation of new uses  Use historical precedents to detail appropriate new elements in the landscape

    Of initial focus is the need to protect the intact cultural landscape features that contribute to the historic character of the campus. Significant historic elements in modified or degraded form can be repaired or reconfigured to enhance the site. In the course of new campus interventions, an opportunity arises to rehabilitate the historic character of an area by removing contemporary features that obscure or degrade the historic campus. The relocation of a parking area from the primary façade of a building, for example, would help to renew the views and spatial patterns from the period of significance. Potential also exists to enhance the historic character of St. Elizabeths West Campus by replacing particular missing landscape features and elements of design from the period of significance. The placement of entirely new features in the landscape should harmonize with the character of the historic campus yet remain distinguishable from the historic fabric to the discerning eye. Subtle alterations in design, style, material and other aspects of a new element can help blend it into the campus landscape. With a combined approach of preservation, replacement, and compatible introduction of new features, the St. Elizabeths West Campus can be effectively enhanced to address historic character and contemporary needs. While meeting the sustainability goals for the West Campus, design and construction activity must balance the needs of sustainability with the protection of the National Historic Landmark.

  • S t . E l i z a b e t h s W e s t C a m p u s L a n d s c a p e P r e s e r v a t i o n P l a n Chapter IV: Landscape Units & Character‐Defining Features, Protection, Preservation & Rehabilitation 

    I V . 3  

    H e r i t a g e   L a n d s c a p e s   L L C ,   P r e s e r v a t i o n   L a n d s c a p e   A r c h i t e c t   &   P l a n n e r s

    For the work envisioned at St. Elizabeths there are relevant sustainability issues for detailed consideration in planning construction, such as limiting site disturbance, managing soils resources and protecting historic trees. Furthermore the reuse of campus features, and materials yields a modest carbon footprint when compared to shaping a new landscape. Preservation is a highly sustainable practice; careful detailing can make it more so. Compatible, appropriate introduction of landscape elements to enhance historic character and allow for new functionalities is a component of rehabilitation. The DHS campus use also requires high security and related controls and elements. These functional elements of perimeter fencing, observation posts, security lighting and so forth are purpose-suited and required. While these campus security elements are new insertions into the campus, they are being designed and positioned for the best possible integration. Other than this integration overview, the functional elements of the campus security system are not addressed herein. The treatment approach focusing primarily on Preservation and Rehabilitation engenders a preservation philosophy that shapes decision-making about physical interventions and ongoing management of the West Campus. Preservation treatment approaches for the historic character- defining features are discussed for each landscape unit in this section. Compatible new features recommended for introduction are presented by feature type. This approach is articulated as a guiding philosophy to address multiple goals in the renewal of the St. Elizabeths cultural landscape. The recommendations are intended to advise the process of preserving or replacing in-kind character-defining landscape features while accommodating new uses that are compatible with the historic character of the campus landscape. This chapter provides a comprehensive approach for treatment and management of the character-defining landscape features of the West Campus targeted to the 2016 plan that projects a fully functional campus fitted out for DHS uses. The following graphic materials present the 2016 landscape and serve as references for this chapter:

     Plan 19: 2009 - 2016 Protection  Plan 20: 2009 - 2016 Protection, Construction, Staging  Plan 21: 2016 Land Uses  Plan 22: 2016 Visual Spaces & Views  Plan 23: 2016 Trees, Shrubs, Turf, Meadows  Plan 24: 2016 Woodlands & Ravines  Plan 25: 2016 Circulation Elements & Objects

    Plan 25nw: 2016 Circulation Elements & Objects, NW Plan 25ne: 2016 Circulation Elements & Objects, NE Plan 25sw: 2016 Circulation Elements & Objects, SW Plan 25se: 2016 Circulation Elements & Objects, SE

     Plan 26: 2016 Tree & Shrub Collection Plan 26nw: 2016 Tree & Shrub Collection, NW Plan 26ne: 2016 Tree & Shrub Collection, NE Plan 26sw: 2016 Tree & Shrub Collection, SW Plan 26se: 2016 Tree & Shrub Collection, SE

  • S t . E l i z a b e t h s W e s t C a m p u s L a n d s c a p e P r e s e r v a t i o n P l a n Chapter IV: Landscape Units & Character‐Defining Features, Protection, Preservation & Rehabilitation 

    I V . 4