CHAPTER 7 To assess the victim’s condition quickly & calmly To steady &...

download CHAPTER 7 To assess the victim’s condition quickly & calmly To steady & support the injured part of the body To minimize shock To call 911 for emergency

of 37

  • date post

  • Category


  • view

  • download


Embed Size (px)

Transcript of CHAPTER 7 To assess the victim’s condition quickly & calmly To steady &...

  • Slide 1
  • CHAPTER 7 To assess the victims condition quickly & calmly To steady & support the injured part of the body To minimize shock To call 911 for emergency help if you suspect a serious injury To comfort & reassure the victim To be aware of your own needs
  • Slide 2
  • THE SKELETON Framework of bones 1.Supports muscles, blood vessels & nerves 2.Protects organs 206 bones Skull= protects brain & supports structures of the face Jawbone= Mandible Collarbone= clavicle Shoulder blade= scapula Breastbone= sternum 12 ribs Shoulder girdle
  • Slide 3
  • THE SKELETON Humerus= upper arm bone Ulna Radius Femur= thigh bone Patella= knee cap Tibia= shin bone Fibula= splint bone Wrist bones= carpals Hand bone= metacarpal Ankle bones= tarsals Foot bones= metatarsals Finger/ toes= phalanx Forearm Lower leg bones
  • Slide 4
  • THE SKELETON Skull Mandible (Hinge- Jt.)
  • Slide 5
  • THE SKELETON Scapula Sternum Clavicle Ribs (12 pairs)
  • Slide 6
  • THE SKELETON Humerus Radius Ulna Carpals Metacarpals Phalanx
  • Slide 7
  • Femur Tibia Patella Fibula
  • Slide 8
  • Tarsals Metatarsals Phalanx
  • Slide 9
  • THE SPINE Backbone 26 vertebrae Intervertebral discs Fibrous tissue which helps make the spine flexible Shock absorption Functions: 1.Supports head 2.Makes upper body flexible 3.Supports bodys weight 4.Protects spinal cord
  • Slide 10
  • SPINAL COLUMN Vertebrae form 5 groups: 1.Cervical (7) 1.Support head & neck 2.Thoracic (12) 1.Anchor for the ribs 3.Lumbar (5) 1.Supports bodys weight & gives stability 4.Sacrum (5 fused) 1.Supports the pelvis 5.Coccyx (4 fused) 1.Forms the end of the spine
  • Slide 11
  • THE SKULL Protects the brain & the top of the spinal cord Supports eyes & other facial structures Made up of several bones, most fused at joints called sutures
  • Slide 12
  • BONES Bone= living tissue containing calcium and phosphorus Minerals that make bone hard, rigid, & strong Able to generate new tissue after injury Certain diseases can weaken bones Inherited problems/ Bone disorders (rickets, cancers, infections) Age Adolescence= can shorten/ impair movement Older= bones can lose density making them brittle (osteoporosis)
  • Slide 13
  • PARTS OF A BONE Each bone is covered by a membrane called the periosteum Compact bone Spongy bone (core) Bone marrow (center cavity
  • Slide 14
  • Slide 15
  • MUSCLES Cause various parts of the body to move Skeletal muscles Voluntary Control movement & posture Attached to bones by strong bands of fibrous tissue= tendons Involuntary Operate internal organs & work constantly Ex: heart Controlled by autonomic nervous system
  • Slide 16
  • JOINTS Where one bone meets another Immovable joints Bone joints are fused Skull (sutures) & pelvis Movable joints Bone ends are joined by fibrous tissue called ligaments Capsule lining= synovial membrane Lubricates the joint
  • Slide 17
  • Surfaces are flat & slide over each other. Ex: Foot & wrist Allows bending & straightening in only 1 plane. Ex: Knees & elbows Allows movement in all directions. Ex: Hip & Shoulder Bone ends meet at right angles Ex: Base of thumb One bone rotates within a fixed collar formed by another. Ex: Base of the skull Movement can occur in most directions Ex: Wrist
  • Slide 18
  • FRACTURES Break/crack in a bone Twist/ wrench Heavy blow Old/ disease Open fracture Bone is exposed May suffer bleeding & shock High risk of infection Closed fracture Skin is not broken Internal bleeding is a risk Stable fracture Ends of injury remain in place Not completely broken Unstable fracture Broken bone ends can easily be displaced May damage blood vessels, nerves & organs
  • Slide 19
  • FRACTURES Recognition: Deformity, swelling, & bruising at fracture site Pain/ difficulty in moving the area Course grading (crepitus) Signs of shock
  • Slide 20
  • TREATING A CLOSED FRACTURE Aims: Prevent movement at the injury site To arrange transportation to the hospital Caution: Do not move victim until injured part is secured & supported Unless immediate danger Do not allow victim to eat/ drink anything 1.Advise victim to keep still; support joints above & below injury with your hands until immobilized with sling/ bandages 2.Place padding around injury for extra support; take/send victim to hospital 1.Arm injury may be transported by car 3.For further support= secure injured part with unaffected part 1.Always tie knots on the uninjured side 4.Treat for shock if necessary; monitor/record vital signs; check circulation (10 minutes) 1.DO NOT raise an injured leg (elevate uninjured leg if necessary)
  • Slide 21
  • TREATING AN OPEN FRACTURE Aims: Prevent blood loss, movement & infection Arrange removal to hospital with comfortable support Caution: Do not move victim until injured part is secured & supported Unless immediate danger Do not allow victim to eat/ drink anything Do not press directly on a protruding bone end SPECIAL CASE: if a bone end is protruding, build up pads of clean, soft, non- fluffy material around the bone until you can bandage over it without pressing on the injury
  • Slide 22
  • TREATING AN OPEN FRACTURE 1.Cover the wound with a sterile dressing; apply pressure around the injury to control bleeding 2.Carefully place a sterile dressing/ padding over and around dressing 3.Secure dressing & padding with a bandage 4.Immobilize injured part as for a closed fracture 5.Treat victim for shock; monitor/ record vital signs; check circulation every 10 minutes
  • Slide 23
  • DISLOCATED JOINT Partially/ completely pulled out of their normal position Strong force Abnormal position Violent muscle contraction Usually affects shoulder, knee, jaw or thumb/fingers May be associated with torn ligaments Recognition: sickening severe pain Inability to move jt Swelling/ bruising Shortening, bending/ deformity Aims: Prevent movement at injury site Arrange removal to hospital with comfortable support
  • Slide 24
  • DISLOCATED JOINT Caution: Do not try to replace a dislocated bone into its socket Do not move the victim until the injured part is secured & supported Remove bracelets, rings & watches Do not allow victim to eat/ drink 1.Advise victim to keep still; help to support injured part in a comfortable position 2.Immobilize 3.Extra support- secure limb to body 4.Arrange to take/ send to hospital; monitor/ record vital signs 5.Check for circulation (10 minutes)
  • Slide 25
  • STRAINS & SPRAINS Injury frequently associated with sports (soft tissue) Occur when tissues are overstretched & partially/ completely torn (ruptured) by violent/ sudden movements Strains & sprains should be treated initially by RICE R- rest I-ice C- compression E- elevation Any doubt- treat as a fracture
  • Slide 26
  • Strains & Sprains Muscle & Tendon Injury Strain, ruptured or bruised Strain= muscle is overstretched Example: Gastrocnemius tear Ligament Injury Sprain= stretching/ tearing of a ligament Sudden/ unexpected wrenching motion Example= sprained ATF ligament in ankle
  • Slide 27
  • STRAINS & SPRAINS Recognition: Pain & tenderness Difficulty in moving the injured part Swelling & bruising Aims: Reduce swelling & pain Obtain medical help if necessary 1.Help victim sit/ lie down; support injured part (preferably raised) 2.Cool the area (cold compress) 3.Apply comfortable support 4.If pain is severe/ unable to move injured part take/ send to hospital
  • Slide 28
  • Slide 29
  • Slide 30
  • FACIAL INJURY Fractures of facial bones are usually due to hard impacts Main danger= blood, saliva, or swollen tissue may obstruct airway Always assume there is damage to the skull, brain or neck Recognition: Pain Difficulty speaking, chewing or swallowing Difficulty breathing Swelling & deformity Bruising Clear fluid/ watery blood from nose or ear
  • Slide 31
  • FACIAL INJURY Aims: Keep airway open Minimize pain & swelling (edema) Arrange urgent removal to hospital Caution: Never place bandage around lower part of face/ jaw in case victim vomits or has difficulty breathing Do not allow victim to eat/ drink If unconscious but breathing= recovery positionrecovery position Not breathing= begin CPR Be aware of the risk of neck injury
  • Slide 32
  • FACIAL INJURY 1.Call 911 for emergency help 2.Help the victim sit down & make sure the airway is open & clear 3.Ask the victim to spit out any blood/ displaced teeth 4.Gently place a cold compress against victims face to help reduce pain & swelling 5.Monitor/ record vital signs
  • Slide 33
  • COLLAR BONE INJURY It is rare for a collar bone to be broken by direct blow Usually from indirect force transmitted from an impact at the shoulder or passing along the arm Young people Recognition: Pain & tenderness Swelling & deformity Aims: Immobilize jt Arrange transportation to hospital
  • Slide 34
  • COLLAR BONE & SHOULDER INJURY 1.Help victim sit down; gently place injured arm across the body & support the e