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Chapter 7 AXIAL SKELETON. Skeletal System GROSS ANATOMY. OBJECTIVES. Distinguish between the axial and appendicular skeletons and name the bones of each. Explain the types of vertebra, the curvature of the vertebra, and number them. Explain the types of ribs and number them. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Chapter 7 AXIAL SKELETON

Chapter 7

Chapter 7AXIAL SKELETONSkeletal SystemGROSS ANATOMYOBJECTIVESDistinguish between the axial and appendicular skeletons and name the bones of each.Explain the types of vertebra, the curvature of the vertebra, and number them.Explain the types of ribs and number them.Explain the differences between the male and female skeletons pelvic cavity.Are their any additional variations in other locations in the body?


Anatomical Terms used for Bone Featurespage 1TermsBody: main partHead: enlarged endNeck: constriction between head and bodyMargin or border: edgeAngle: bendRamus: branch off bodyCondyle: smooth rounded articular surfaceFacet: small flattened articular surface

ProjectionsProcess: prominent projectionTubercle: small rounded bumpTuberosity: knobTrochanter: tuberosities on proximal femurEpicondyle: near or above condyle

Anatomical Terms used for Bone Featurespage 2RidgesLine or linea: low ridgeCrest or crista: prominent ridgeSpine: very high ridgeOpeningsForamen: holeCanal or meatus: tunnelFissure: cleftSinus or labyrinth: cavityDepressionsFossa: general term for a depressionNotch: depression in bone marginFovea: little pitGroove or sulcus: deeper, narrow depression

General InformationThere are 206 bones of the human body.The bones of the skeleton are divided up into AXIAL BONESAPPENDICULAR BONESAXIAL SKELETONgeneral bonesSkullAuditory ossiclesHyoid BoneVertebral ColumnRib Cage (thoracic cage)

80 bones

APPENDICULAR SKELETONgeneral bonesContains: Pectoral GirdleUpper LimbPelvic GirdleLower LimbFunction: Protects the Brain, Spinal Cord & Vital Organs located in the Thorax126 Total Bones


Skull (aka: Cranium)Neurocranium (Braincase)Viscerocranium (Face)NeurocraniumParietalTemporalFrontalSphenoidOccipitalEthmoidParietal Bone

Lamboid SutureCoronal SutureSquamous Suture

Temporal Bone

Temporal Bone Landmarks

Mastoid ProcessStyloid ProcessZygomatic ProcessExternal Acoustic Meatus(ear canal)

Carotid Canal (Carotid Foramen)Temporal Bone Landmarks

Temporal Bone Landmarks9) Internal Acoustic MeatusFrontal Bone & Landmarks

Supraorbital Margin

Sphenoid Bone & Landmarks

Resembles a bat or butterflySella Turcica (houses pituitary)Occipital Bone & Landmarks

Opening where brain & spinal cord connect

Foreman MagnumOccipital Condyle

(articulation {meeting of two bones} between the skull & 1st Vertebra)

Ethmoid Bone

Ethmoid Bone Landmarks

Inferior Nasal Concha

Middle Nasal Concha

Olfactory Foramina holes in the Cribriform Plate


Closes during the 1st yearCloses at end of 2nd yearVISEROCRANIUMViscerocranium (face)Bones of the FaceMaxillaZygomatic cheekbonePalatineLacrimalNasalInferior Nasal ConchaMandibleVomer

Mandibular CondyleMandible LandmarksMaxilla Landmarks

Palatine ProcessIncisive Foramen

Lacrimal Bone

Inferior Nasal Concha


Hyoid Bone

Unlike other bones, the hyoid does NOT articulate with other bones.Its name is derived from the Greek word hyoeides meaning "shaped like the letter upsilon" ().


Maxillary Sinus

Sphenoidal Sinus

TermsWormian Bonesalso known as extra sutural bones[1] are extra bone pieces that occur within a suture in the cranium. These are irregular isolated bones which appear in addition to the usual centers of ossification of the cranium and, although unusual, are not rare.TermsForamen holeCondyle smooth, rounded articular surfaceArticular of or relating to jointsProcess prominent projectionFossa general term for a depressionCanal/Meatus tunnelTHORACIC (rib) CAGEFunctions of the Vertebral ColumnSupports weightProtects the spinal cordAllows spinal nerves to exit the spinal cordProvides site for muscle attachmentPermits movement of head & trunkVertebral Columngeneral informationConsists of 26 bones called vertebraeVertebrae can be divided into 5 regions:(C) Cervical vertebrae (7)(T) Thoracic vertebrae (12)(L) Lumbar vertebrae (5)Sacral bone (1)Coccygeal bone (1)

*hint to remember the numbers think of mealtimes (7, 12, and 5)

Developing embryo have about 33-34 vertebrae that fuse: 5 sacral fuse to form 1 boneCounting VertebraeThe vertebrae are designated by a letter (C, T or L) with a number after the number.The number indicates the number of the vertebrae from superior to inferior within each region.Curvature of the Vertebral ColumnThere are 4 major curvatures which help accommodate our upright posture by aligning our body weight with our pelvis and lower limbs.2 curvatures appear during embryonic development

Appear during embyronic developmentFirst Cervical VertebraeThe first cervical (neck) vertebra is called the atlas. It supports the head. The atlas bone is named for the Greek god Atlas who was condemned to support the earth and its heavens on his shoulders.

Second Cervical Vertebrae The second cervical vertebra is called the axis. It is so-named because the uppermost cervical vertebra (called the atlas) rotates about the odontoid process of the second cervical vertebra. The joint between the axis and atlas is a pivot type of joint. It allows the head turn.The Latin word "axis" means axle or pole. The axis bone serves as the axle about which the atlas (and the head) turn.

Dens (aka: Odontoid Process)Transverse Foramen

Transverse Foramen indicated by the BLUE ARROWSAnatomy of VertebraeBody weight bearing portionArch projects posteriorly from the bodyVarious Processes

SACRAL VERTEBRAEHighly modified5 vertebrae are fused into a single bone called the SACRUM


ANTERIOR VIEWCOCCYXtailboneMost inferior portion of the vertebral column and usually consists of 3-5 semi-fused vertebrae that form a triangleEasily broken

RIB CAGE (thoracic cage)Functions of the RIB CAGEProtects vital organs within the thoraxForms a semi-rigid chamber that can increase and decrease in volume during respirationConsists of:3 thoracic vertebraeThe ribsAssociated costal(rib) cartilagesSternumRibsThere are 12 pairs of ribsTrue Ribs (vertebrosternal ribs)Superior 7 RibsArticulate with the thoracic vertebrae and attach directly to their costal cartilages to the sternumFalseInferior 5 pairsArticulate with the thoracic vertebrae but DO NOT ATTACH directly to the sternum.Consist of 2 groupsVertebrochondral Ribs (8th, 9th, 10th ribs)Joined by common cartilage to the 7th ribFloating Ribs (vertebral ribs) (11th & 12th ribs)Do NOT attach to sternum

Each rib has two extremities, a posterior or vertebral, and an anterior or sternal, and an intervening portionthe body or shaft.

STERNUMbreastboneSword Shaped3 PartsManubriumBodyXiphoid Process

Superior Margin of the manubrium has a JUGULAR NOTCH or suprasternal notch