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Persia Attacks the Greeks

Persia Attacks the GreeksChapter 5 Section 3

PeopleCyrus the GreatRuled from 559 to 530 BCE, he started the Persian Empire and was known for treating his subjects wellDariusRuler of Persian Empire who reorganized it into 20 provinces (satrapies) to make it run better.XerxesSon of Darius, he vowed revenge against the Athenians and led the Persians in a new invasion of Greece in 480 BCE

PeopleThemistoclesAthenian general who created the strategy to fight against Xerxes and his Persians. (cut off the shipments of food brought in by boat and starve them out)Herodotus (p.135) Author of History of the Persian Wars, he described the conflict as one between freedom and dictatorship. Persian Wars is considered to be the first real history in Western civilization

PlacesPersiaArea that is now southwestern IranMarathonA city located close to Athens, and the site of one of the first battles between Persia and the Greeks. ThermopylaeA narrow pass through the mountains, and the location of an important battle during the 2nd Persian invasion.

Places/DefineSalamisa narrow strait and location of a naval battle in which the Greeks defeated the larger Persian shipsSatrapiesprovinces(20 in number) in ancient Persia, created by Darius to make a more efficient governmentSatrapruler of each province, he acted as judge, tax collector, chief of police, and recruiter for the army. All satraps answered to the king.

OtherZoroastrianism-state religion of Persia for over 1000 years-believed in supreme forces of good and evil-believed humans had the right to choose between right and wrong-good will triumph in the end

Questions1) The people of Persia lived in the area of what present day country? Iran

2) Why was Cyrus considered a fair ruler?He treated all of his subjects, including his conquered ones fairly. He also allowed the captive Jews in Babylon to return home.

Questions3) Why did Darius create satrapies?The empire grew too large to manage easily, so by creating the satrapies he made the government more efficient.

4) Who were the Immortals?The Immortals were a group of 10,000 specially trained soldiers who guarded the king. They were called Immortals because as soon as one died, he was immediately replaced.

Questions5) Zoroastrianism was the religion of Persia. It was similar to Judaism because it was monotheistic.

Questions continued6) What led to the Persian Wars?After the Athenian Army helped the Greeks in Asia Minor attempt a rebellion against their Persian rulers, Darius decided the Greeks had to be stopped from interfering.

7) Describe the Battle of Marathon.

The Greeks were outnumbered 2 to 1, and the Persians waited for the Greeks to advance. They did not, so finally the Persians retreated to their ships. After the cavalry got on board, the Greeks charged down onto the plain and caught the Persians by surprise as they were standing in the water. They were easily defeated.

8) A few thousand Greeks were defending the narrow mountain pass against many Persians successfully, until a traitor led them around the Greeks to mount a rear attack. Leonidas and a few hundred of his men held them off long enough to let the Athenian navy assemble their ships. It was Persian victory, but an important battle for both sides.

9) The strait of Salamis was near the city-state of Athens.

10) The battle of Plataea was a turning point of the Persian War. When the Greek city-states united, forming the largest Greek army ever, they crushed the Persians. It convinced the Persians to retreat to Asia Minor.

11) What led to the collapse of the Persian Empire?

Persian rulers continued to raise taxes and spend that money on luxuries. The royal families also had many internal problems. All of this made Persia vulnerable to attack.