Chapter 4 How Music Works Part II: Pitch. Pitch and Melody

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Transcript of Chapter 4 How Music Works Part II: Pitch. Pitch and Melody

  • Slide 1
  • Chapter 4 How Music Works Part II: Pitch
  • Slide 2
  • Pitch and Melody
  • Slide 3
  • Pitch: the highness and lowness of musical tones; related to frequency Soundwaves: vibrations that result in musical sound; tones with many vibrations are higher and tones with fewer vibrations are lower Melodic range: the distance in pitch from the lowest to highest note Melodic direction: the upward and/or downward movement of the melody as it progresses Melodic contour: the overall shape of the melody, a product of its range, direction, and other features Introduction
  • Slide 4
  • Pitch and Melody in Mary Had a Little Lamb and a Native American Eagle Dance Song
  • Slide 5
  • Pitch and Melody Comparison: "Mary Had a Little Lamb," Eagle Dance Song Figure 4.1, page 46 CD ex. #1-25 (Eagle Dance)
  • Slide 6
  • Names of Pitches in Western Music
  • Slide 7
  • Pitch names in Western music correspond with alphabet letter names: A B C D E F G There are also some pitches that fall in between the cracks and are named with flats and sharps. The pitch between C and D could be called C# or Db, depending on if it is perceived to be higher than C or lower than D.
  • Slide 8
  • Sounds made by instruments like violins, pianos, flute, trumpet, and xylophone can be identified with pitch names because they have determinate pitch. Some instruments, like shakers, cymbals, triangles, and most drums, have indeterminate pitch. This means that there are competing pitches in the sounds they produce, with no clear winner.
  • Slide 9
  • A scale is an ascending and/or descending series of notes of different pitch. A chromatic scale occurs when all 12 determinate pitches used in Western music are played in order. Notes that have the same pitch but differ in frequency are in different octaves. Men and women sing in different ranges, or registers, because female voices produce higher notes.
  • Slide 10
  • Curing and Causing Illness with Melody Insights and Perspectives
  • Slide 11
  • In some cultures, melodic direction can have cultural ramifications. The Warao shamans of Venezuela use melodies with descending melodies to cure illness, and ascending melodies to cause sickness or even death.
  • Slide 12
  • Insights and Perspectives Scale versus Mode
  • Slide 13
  • A scale usually comprises of a sequence of raw pitches, but a mode is more comprehensive and multidimensional. Modal rules determine what pitches can be used and how to use those pitches. (How to ornament, moving from pitch to pitch, which pitches to emphasize...) Particular modes can be identified with specific emotions, times of day, yearly seasons, or dramatic rituals.
  • Slide 14
  • Insights and Perspective s When High is Low and Low is High
  • Slide 15
  • Even the concept of low and high are culture specific. The Are are people of Malaita (Solomon Islands, Micronesia) perceive pitch opposite of how Westerners understand it. Their low pitches are what Westerners would describe as high, and their high pitches are our low pitches.
  • Slide 16
  • Common Scales in Western Music: Major, Pentatonic, Minor, and Blues
  • Slide 17
  • Some Western music uses all 12 pitches, but more often, musical scales are used that only use select pitches. Major Pentatonic Minor Blues
  • Slide 18
  • The major scale is produced by playing the white keys of the piano starting on C. It has seven pitches per octave, and in C major, C is the tonic (first scale degree.) Westerners have been culturally preconditioned to perceive this scale as happy. Listen to Online Musical Illustration #3.Online Musical Illustration #3.
  • Slide 19
  • The pentatonic scale has only five pitches per octave. Pentatonic scales exist in China, Indonesia, Japan, Uganda, and elsewhere. The Western pentatonic scale is essentially a major scale without the fourth and seventh degrees. Listen to Online Musical Illustration #4 and Online Musical Illustration # 5.Online Musical Illustration #4Online Musical Illustration # 5.
  • Slide 20
  • There are a number of different minor scales - listen to Online Musical Illustration #6 for an illustration of a major scale, a harmonic minor scale, and a melodic minor scale. Online Musical Illustration #6 An interval is a name for the distance between two notes of a scale - instead of a whole step between the second and third scale degrees, minor scales use the smaller half step. Westerners interpret this as sounding sad.
  • Slide 21
  • Pitch and Scales in Non-Western Musical Systems
  • Slide 22
  • The Western pitch system is just one of many great musical systems worldwide. Indian music recognizes 22 pitches per octave, but like Western music, builds scales upon seven ascending and seven descending pitches. Middle Eastern music in the Arab tradition uses 24 pitches per octave, and recognizes microtones. This allows for great melodic ornamentation, or decoration.
  • Slide 23
  • The blues scale combines parts of the major, minor, pentatonic, and traditional African scales. A blues scale starting on the pitch C has these six pitches: C Eb F F# G Bb. Listen to Online Musical Illustration #8.Online Musical Illustration #8. Listen to CD ex. #1-19 for an example. (Charles Atkins, A Funny Way of Asking. )
  • Slide 24
  • Modulation: Moving from One Scale and Key to Another Insights and Perspectives
  • Slide 25
  • Different scales use different tonics, or home notes. If a piece moves from a scale with one tonic to a scale with another tonic, it is called modulation. For example, a piece might modulate from C Major to F Major (Online Musical Illustration #9.)Online Musical Illustration #9.
  • Slide 26
  • Pitch, Chords, and Harmony
  • Slide 27
  • A melody is produced by a series or of notes. A harmony is produced by a group of two or more different pitches sounded simultaneously. A chord that makes sense within the context of its musical style is in harmony. Sometimes a piece can have just one chord, like some hip hop songs, or several can occur in a chord progression. Chords and harmony in musics of other world cultures and in experimental Western musics often depart from standard Western conventions.