Chapter 3 Culture © 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood. Outline 3 Ways to Measure Culture Cultural...

download Chapter 3 Culture © 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood. Outline 3 Ways to Measure Culture Cultural Differences in 4 Components of Emotion Subjective Feelings Behavior

of 47

  • date post

    05-Jan-2016
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    213
  • download

    0

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of Chapter 3 Culture © 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood. Outline 3 Ways to Measure Culture Cultural...

Lets Talk About Culture!

Chapter 3 Culture

2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood1Outline3 Ways to Measure CultureCultural Differences in 4 Components of EmotionSubjective FeelingsBehavior (facial expressions, vocalizations)Cognitive AppraisalsPhysiologyGender and Cultural DifferencesVideo: Culture and Emotion

2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood2(Masuda et al., 2005)1Low Sadness5High Sadness1Low Happiness5High HappinessCentral Figure:How Positive? How Negative? 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood3(Masuda et al., 2005)

#1 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood4#2

(Masuda et al., 2005)

2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood5CultureA group-specific practice that emerged from the interaction between a group and its environment.

Social Constructivist cultural differences exist!Basic Emotions no cultural differences!

Snow Monkey (Japanese Macaque)(Schirmer, 2015, p.357) 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood63 Ways to Measure CultureIndividualism/Collectivism (Markus & Kitayama, 1991)

Power Distance (Matsumoto, 1996)

Linear vs. Dialectical Epistemology

2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood7 2015 M. Guthrie YarwoodI often do "my own thing"The well-being of my coworkers is important to me.One should live one's life independently of others.If a coworker gets a prize, I would feel proud.I like my privacy.If a relative were in financial difficulty, I would help within my means.I prefer to be direct and forthright when discussing with people.Red = Individualistic; Black = Collectivist1 = strongly disagree; 5 = strongly agree8 2015 M. Guthrie YarwoodI often do "my own thing"The well-being of my coworkers is important to me.One should live one's life independently of others.If a coworker gets a prize, I would feel proud.I like my privacy.If a relative were in financial difficulty, I would help within my means.I prefer to be direct and forthright when discussing with people.Red = Individualistic; Black = Collectivist9Individualism/Collectivism (Markus & Kitayama, 1991)

CollectivismIndividualismIndividual UniquenessEquality

InterdependenceHierarchy; Status

2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood10Individualism/Collectivism (Markus & Kitayama, 1991)

CollectivismIndividualismIndividual Uniqueness

Interdependence

China, JapanAmerica, Western EuropeJapanese American, Chinese American 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood11SELFMOTHERFATHERBROTHERFRIENDSISTERROMANTIC PARTNER 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood12SELFMOTHERFATHERBROTHERFRIENDSISTERROMANTIC PARTNER 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood13Power Distance(Matsumoto, 1996)Vertical SocietyHorizontal SocietyHigh social hierarchyLow social hierarchy 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood14Power Distance(Matsumoto, 1996)Vertical SocietyHorizontal SocietyHigh social hierarchyLow social hierarchyAmericaJapanPhilippinesGuatemalaMalaysiaAustriaIsraelDenmark 2015 M. Guthrie YarwoodUnited KingdomHigh PDLow PD15Linear vs. Dialectical EpistemologyLinear Epistemology:AristotleGoal = Happiness; optimize positive feelingsDialectical Epistemology:Confucianism, Taoism, BuddhismGoal = Moderation; balance b/w positive and negative feelings 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood16Cultural Differences in Emotion Components 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood17Cultural Differences in Emotion ComponentsSubjective FeelingsBehavior Facial Expressions, VocalizationsCognitive AppraisalsNote: Review Scherer (1997) study on universal cognitive appraisalsPhysiological Responses 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood18Subjective FeelingsSocially Disengaged Emotions: Ego-Focused EmotionsAnger, PrideSocially Engaged Emotions: Other-Focused EmotionsGuilt, Friendliness, ShameDiary Study: Japanese vs. American university studentsEngaging = Guilt, Friendliness; Disengaging = Anger, Pride

(Kitayama et al., 2004) 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood19(Kitayama et al., 2004) 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood20(Kitayama et al., 2004) 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood21(Kitayama et al., 2004) 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood22(Kitayama et al., 2004) 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood23Subjective FeelingsDialectical cultures more likely to experience mixed emotions

Evidence:East Asia > Asian-Americans > Americans(Scollon et al., 2004; Perunovic et al., 2007; Shiota et al., 2010) 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood24Facial ExpressionsIV = Japanese vs. American ParticipantsIV = 1) Central figure expression matches crowd or 2) Central figure expression does not match crowd

DV = Participants perceived intensity of emotion felt by central figure(Masuda et al., 2005) 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood25Cultural Differences: Interpreting Emotional Expressions(Masuda et al., 2005)

2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood26Cultural Differences: Interpreting Emotional Expressions

(Masuda et al., 2005)

2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood27 2015 M. Guthrie YarwoodCultural Differences: Interpreting Emotional Expressions28 2015 M. Guthrie YarwoodCultural Differences: Interpreting Emotional Expressions29Cultural Differences: Interpreting Emotional Expressions

(Masuda et al., 2005)

2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood30Cultural Differences: Interpreting Emotional ExpressionsEye Gaze Patterns: Caucasian vs. Asians

Surprise, Fear, Disgust, Anger

Face Areas: Left eye, right eye, bridge of nose, center of face, mouth

(Jack et al., 2009) 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood31

(SR = Same Race; OR = Other Race; Jack et al., 2009)WC = Western CulturesEA = East Asian Cultures 2015 M. Guthrie YarwoodLeft eye, right eye, bridge of nose, center of face, mouth32

(Jack et al., 2009) 2015 M. Guthrie YarwoodGreatest Focus, Smallest Focus33Cultural Differences in Display Rules (expressions)Japanese (vs. Americans) More likely to mask negative feelings in front of other people.More appropriate to express anger to out-groups

Americans (vs. Japanese):More appropriate to express disgust and sadness to in-group and happiness to public

:(Ekman, 1972; Friesen, 1972; Matsumoto, 1990) 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood34VocalizationsEuropean English and Himba tribe in NamibiaListened to emotional story, then selected 1 of 2 vocalizations that matched the emotion in storyBasic Emotions: English and Himba selected correct vocalizations Did not vary with voice whether English or HimbaMore difficulty with positive emotions

2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood[Sauter, D.A., Eisner, F., Ekman, P., & Scott, S.K. (2010). Cross-cultural recognition ofbasic emotions through nonverbal emotional vocalizations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), 107, 2408-2412. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0908239106]

35

2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood36Cognitive AppraisalsReview Scherer (1997) StudyJoy most universal emotionShame and guilt similar appraisalsCultural differences for African and Latin American participantsCultural differences in morality, external causation, coping 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood37Do cultural differences exist in the way appraisals specific emotions? 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood38Physiological ResponsesApplied Facial Feedback Hypothesis

Ps instructed to make facial expressions associated with a distinct emotion

Universality?

Cross-Cultural Differences? 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood39

IndonesiaUS 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood40Gender and EmotionsWomen = more sadness, fear, shame, guilt, positive emotions

Men = more anger

Biological/universal or gender roles/culture? 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood[Fischer, A., Mosquera, P.M.R, van Vianen, A.E.M., & Manstead, A.S.R. (2004). Gender and cultural differences in emotion. Emotion, 4, 87-94. doi: 10.1037/1528-3542.4.1.87]41Gender and EmotionsMen and women in 37 countriesPredictor: Gender Empowerment MeasureOutcome: Intensity, expressionPowerful emotions: anger, disgustPowerless emotions: fear, sadness, shame, guilt 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood[Fischer, A., Mosquera, P.M.R, van Vianen, A.E.M., & Manstead, A.S.R. (2004). Gender and cultural differences in emotion. Emotion, 4, 87-94. doi: 10.1037/1528-3542.4.1.87]42Gender and Emotion IntensityPowerful emotions: no gender differencesPowerless emotionsWomen rated as more intense than menWomens ratings did not depend on GEMMens ratings varied with GEM more intense for Low GEM countries

2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood[Fischer, A., Mosquera, P.M.R, van Vianen, A.E.M., & Manstead, A.S.R. (2004). Gender and cultural differences in emotion. Emotion, 4, 87-94. doi: 10.1037/1528-3542.4.1.87]43Gender and Behavior ChangesAntagonismMen reported more antagonism than womenWomens antagonism varied with GEMLow GEM: women reported less antagonismHigh GEM= no gender differencesCryingWomen reported more crying than men

2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood[Fischer, A., Mosquera, P.M.R, van Vianen, A.E.M., & Manstead, A.S.R. (2004). Gender and cultural differences in emotion. Emotion, 4, 87-94. doi: 10.1037/1528-3542.4.1.87]44Eliciting Events of AngerTarget of Romantic Partners High-GEM women

Reasons for AngerProblems/conflicts in RR High GEM womenAttack on status High GEM men and women

2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood[Fischer, A., Mosquera, P.M.R, van Vianen, A.E.M., & Manstead, A.S.R. (2004). Gender and cultural differences in emotion. Emotion, 4, 87-94. doi: 10.1037/1528-3542.4.1.87]45Gender Differences: Cultural or Universal?Universal for intensity of powerful emotions and cryingBoth!Greater gender inequalityFor men, leads to more restrictive emotionality (less intense powerless emotions) But, does not lead men to adopt the female role (more intense powerless emotions) For women, leads to more expressions of antagonism (more powerful emotions) and adoption of male role 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood[Fischer, A., Mosquera, P.M.R, van Vianen, A.E.M., & Manstead, A.S.R. (2004). Gender and cultural differences in emotion. Emotion, 4, 87-94. doi: 10.1037/1528-3542.4.1.87]46SummaryCultural Differences exist in the 4 Components of EmotionsSelf-reported experience (emotions felt, emotional intensity, mixed emotions)Appraisals (morality, causality, coping)Behavior (expressions, vocalizations)P