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Transcript of Chapter 13 (Qal Perfect Strong Verbs): Goals · PDF file Chapter 13 (Qal Perfect Strong...

  • HebrewSyntax.org ©JCBeckman 7/22/2015 Copy freely BY-NC-SA CC

    Chapter 13 (Qal Perfect Strong Verbs): Goals

    � Know how to parse and translate Qal perfect verbs.

    – Chapter 13 is strong verbs

    – Chapter 14 is weak verbs

    � Memorize the Qal Perfect strong verb paradigm sheet.

    – You won’t have to write Hebrew outside of class, but

    you need to know the details of this paradigm in

    order to recognize weak verbs and non-Qal verbs.

    – Quizzes will repeatedly ask you to write the whole

    paradigm or particular forms from the paradigm.

    � “Write קטלקטלקטלקטל in the Qal Perfect 3cp” – Accents are a required part of the paradigm.

    13-1

  • HebrewSyntax.org ©JCBeckman 7/22/2015 Copy freely BY-NC-SA CC

    Chapter 13 (Qal Perfect Strong Verbs): Agenda

    � Meaning and Parsing

    � Principles of Verb Spelling

    � Paradigm

    – Perfect Sufformatives

    – Writing the Qal Perfect

    � Practice Qal Perfect Strong Verbs

    � Deviations from the Paradigm

    – ננננ3 and 3תתתת verbs – Stative verbs

    � Practice Parsing 3תתתת3 ,ננננ, and Stative verbs

    13-2

  • HebrewSyntax.org ©JCBeckman 7/22/2015 Copy freely BY-NC-SA CC

    The Qal is Simple Action, Active Voice 13-3

    Active Passive Reflexive

    Simple

    Action

    Qal (Q)

    “He saw”

    “He is holy”

    Niphal (N)

    “He appeared” =

    “He was seen”

    Niphal (N)

    “He saw

    himself”

    Cause

    a state

    (?)

    Piel (D)

    “He caused it

    to be holy”

    Pual (Dp)

    “It was caused

    to be holy”

    Hithpael (Ht)

    “He caused

    himself to be

    holy”

    Cause

    an action

    Hiphil (H)

    “He caused them

    to see it”

    Hophal (Hp)

    “It was caused

    to be seen”

    Derived Stem = Every stem except for the Qal

  • HebrewSyntax.org ©JCBeckman 7/22/2015 Copy freely BY-NC-SA CC

    Translating the Perfect

    � English past: She studied

    � English present: She is wise (state of being)

    She knows (verb of perception)

    She loves (verb of attitude)

    � English past: She was wise (state of being)

    � English present perfect: She has studied

    � English past perfect: She had studied

    � English future perfect: She will have studied

    The Hebrew Perfect describes an action or state

    as a whole rather than as a process.

    13-4

  • HebrewSyntax.org ©JCBeckman 7/22/2015 Copy freely BY-NC-SA CC

    The Perfect is a Finite Verb

    � Qal Perfect

    – QP3ms = Qal Perfect 3rd person Masculine Singular

    – QP1cp = Qal Perfect 1st person Common Plural

    � Finite Verbs

    – Verbs with ‘Person’ (1st, 2nd, 3rd)

    – Perfect, Imperfect, Imperative, Jussive, Cohortative

    � Not finite verbs

    – Infinitive Construct

    – Infinitive Absolute

    – Participle

    13-5

  • HebrewSyntax.org ©JCBeckman 7/22/2015 Copy freely BY-NC-SA CC

    Chapter 13 (Qal Perfect Strong Verbs): Agenda

    � Meaning and Parsing

    � Principles of Verb Spelling

    � Paradigm

    – Perfect Sufformatives

    – Writing the Qal Perfect

    � Practice Qal Perfect Strong Verbs

    � Deviations from the Paradigm

    – ננננ3 and 3תתתת verbs – Stative verbs

    � Practice Parsing 3תתתת3 ,ננננ, and Stative verbs

    13-6

  • HebrewSyntax.org ©JCBeckman 7/22/2015 Copy freely BY-NC-SA CC

    Stem Vowel = VS is V2 for Most Verbs

    � V2 is VS for most verbs. קָ קָ קָ קָ טַ טַ טַ טַ לללל VS = ַ ַ ַ ַ = A � If R2 is a vowel letter, V1 is VS קּוקּוקּוקּוםםםם . VS ּוּוּוּו = = Û

    – Even if that vowel letter disappears קָ קָ קָ קָ םםםם . VS = ָ ָ ָ ָ = Ā

    13-7

  • HebrewSyntax.org ©JCBeckman 7/22/2015 Copy freely BY-NC-SA CC

    Stem Vowel is Accented in Finite Verbs (Usually)

    � ללללַט� ַט� ַט� ַט� קָ קָ קָ קָ ְלּתָ ְלּתָ ְלּתָ ְלּתָ ַט� ַט� ַט� ַט� קָ קָ קָ קָ , ְלּתְ ְלּתְ ְלּתְ ְלּתְ ַט� ַט� ַט� ַט� קָ קָ קָ קָ , ְלִּתיְלִּתיְלִּתיְלִּתיַט� ַט� ַט� ַט� קָ קָ קָ קָ , ְלנּוְלנּוְלנּוְלנּוַט� ַט� ַט� ַט� קָ קָ קָ קָ ,

    � Accent after VS if:

    1. VS is Shewa or a Hatef Vowel ( ֳ ֱ ֲ ֳ ֱ ֲ ֳ ֱ ֲ ֳ ֱ ֲ ) QP3fs הטְ טְ טְ טְ ָק� ָק� ָק� ָק� הָל� הָל� הָל� ָל� QP3cp ּוטְ טְ טְ טְ ָק� ָק� ָק� ָק� ּול� ּול� ּול� ל�

    2. The verb has a heavy sufformative

    QP2mp םםםםְלֶּת� ְלֶּת� ְלֶּת� ְלֶּת� טַ טַ טַ טַ קְ קְ קְ קְ QP2fp ןןןןְלֶּת� ְלֶּת� ְלֶּת� ְלֶּת� טַ טַ טַ טַ קְ קְ קְ קְ 3. The verb has a pronominal suffix

    QI1cs+2ms יטַ טַ טַ טַ קְ קְ קְ קְ יְלִּת� יְלִּת� יְלִּת� ָךָךָךָךְלִּת� 4. VS is not in the last two syllables

    םםםםקּוקּוקּוקּו . QI2fp יָנהּוּוּוּוְּתקְּתקְּתקְּתק יָנהֶמ� יָנהֶמ� יָנהֶמ� ֶמ�

    13-8

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    Shewa Before Finite Verb Sufformatives

    � ל לָקַט� לָקַט� לָקַט� הטְ טְ טְ טְ ָק� ָק� ָק� ָק� ,ָקַט� הָל� הָל� הָל� ָל� ּתָ ּתָ ּתָ ּתָ לְ לְ לְ לְ ָקַט� ָקַט� ָקַט� ָקַט� , ּתְ ּתְ ּתְ ּתְ לְ לְ לְ לְ ָקַט� ָקַט� ָקַט� ָקַט� , ִּתיִּתיִּתיִּתילְ לְ לְ לְ ָקַט� ָקַט� ָקַט� ָקַט� , , ּוטְ טְ טְ טְ קָ קָ קָ קָ ּול� ּול� ּול� ל� םםםםֶּת� ֶּת� ֶּת� ֶּת� לְ לְ לְ לְ ְקטַ ְקטַ ְקטַ ְקטַ , ןןןןֶּת� ֶּת� ֶּת� ֶּת� לְ לְ לְ לְ ְקטַ ְקטַ ְקטַ ְקטַ , נּונּונּונּולְ לְ לְ לְ ָקַט� ָקַט� ָקַט� ָקַט� ,

    � No Shewa if the Shewa would go where there is:

    1. An unchangeable long vowel

    מּומּומּומּוּוּוּוּוָיק� ָיק� ָיק� ָיק� י יִׂש� יִׂש� יִׂש� ִמיִמיִמיִמיִׂש� ּוּוּוּואאאא����ּב� ּב� ּב� ּב� יִּתבְ ִּתבְ ִּתבְ ִּתבְ יֶנ� יֶנ� יֶנ� ָנהָנהָנהָנהֶנ� יִנבְ ִנבְ ִנבְ ִנבְ יֵנ� יֵנ� יֵנ� ִתיִתיִתיִתיֵנ�

    2. V1 of the Qal Perfect

    מּומּומּומּוָק� ָק� ָק� ָק� ָמהָמהָמהָמהָׂש� ָׂש� ָׂש� ָׂש� 3. אאאא3 אאאא3] . quiesces]

    תָ תָ תָ תָ אאאאָמָצ� ָמָצ� ָמָצ� ָמָצ� ָנהָנהָנהָנהאאאאִּתְקֶר� ִּתְקֶר� ִּתְקֶר� ִּתְקֶר�

    13-9

  • HebrewSyntax.org ©JCBeckman 7/22/2015 Copy freely BY-NC-SA CC

    Chapter 13 (Qal Perfect Strong Verbs): Agenda

    � Meaning and Parsing

    � Principles of Verb Spelling

    � Paradigm

    – Perfect Sufformatives

    – Writing the Qal Perfect

    � Practice Qal Perfect Strong Verbs

    � Deviations from the Paradigm

    – ננננ3 and 3תתתת verbs – Stative verbs

    � Practice Parsing 3תתתת3 ,ננננ, and Stative verbs

    13-10

  • HebrewSyntax.org ©JCBeckman 7/22/2015 Copy freely BY-NC-SA CC

    Perfect Sufformatives (All Stems) Are Similar to Pronominal Suffixes

    Pronominal Suffix Perfect Sufformative Comment

    3MS � 3FS ּה ָ ה ָ Same except Mappiq 2MS ָך ּתָ �כ ָ Both have .ת 2FS ְך ּתְ �כ ְ Both have .ת 1CS י ִ ִּתי Both have י ִ 3MP ֶהם ּו 3FP ֶהן ּו 2MP ֶכם ֶּתם �כ ם Both have .ת ֶ 2FP ֶכן ֶּתן �כ ן Both have .ת ֶ 1CP נּו נּו Same

    Verb has ּתּתּתּת where Pronoun has ככככ

    13-11

  • HebrewSyntax.org ©JCBeckman 7/22/2015 Copy freely BY-NC-SA CC

    ַ

    ָ ה ְ

    ּתָ ַ ְ

    ּתְ ַ ְ

    ִּתי ַ ְ

    ּו ְ

    ּתֶ ַ םְ

    ּתֶ ַ ןְ

    נּו ַ ְ

    are R1R2R3 Work back to front.

    1. Write the sufformatives.

    2. Put Shewa ( ְ ְ ְ ְ ) before the sufformatives. 3. Add Dagesh Lene in תתתת after the Shewa. 4. VS is Pathach ( ַ ַ ַ ַ )

    unless put Shewa there in step #2.

    5. Accent VS except accent next syllable if

    5a) Shewa in step #2 replaced VS 5b) Heavy sufformative (2mp and 2fp)

    6. V1 is Qamets ( ָ ָ ָ ָ ) except reduced if heavy sufformative (2fp/2mp).

    7. Put Metheg in Qamets when followed by Shewa

    to indicate it is Qamets, not Qamets Hatuf.

    ה ָ