CH03 Assess

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Transcript of CH03 Assess

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    Chapter 3

    Victim Assessment and Urgent Care

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    Lesson Objectives

    Explain the importance of performing a detailed and

    systematic assessment.

    List what to look for during the scene survey.

    Identify and describe the steps of the initial assessment.

    Use the SAMPLE mnemonic to obtain a victims history.

    Assess a victims vital signs and perform a physical exam. Know how to perform ongoing assessment of a victim.

    Know how to handle multiple-victim incidents (ie, triage).

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    Assessment (1 of 2)

    Perform a rapid, accurate assessment.

    Skills must be learned well and practicedregularly.

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    Assessment (2 of 2)

    Five-part victim assessment:

    Scene survey Initial assessment

    Victims history

    Vital signs and physical exam

    Ongoing assessment

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    Scene Survey (1 of 2)

    Provides first impression and reveals hazards

    Protect yourself from blood or bodily fluids.

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    Scene Survey (2 of 2)

    What to look for

    What is cause of condition and relatedproblems?

    Is the scene safe?

    Is the victim injured or ill?

    What is the mechanism of injury? Is the victim responsive or unresponsive?

    How many victims are there?

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    Initial Assessment (1 of 4)

    Initial assessment is designed to detect

    life-threatening conditions.

    Determine if the victim is responsive or

    unresponsive.

    If unresponsive, prepare to evacuate.

    Assess breathing problems and bleeding;attend to these problems before

    proceeding further.

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    Initial Assessment (2 of 4)

    Assess the airway

    If responsive personcannot speak or

    cough, treat for

    obstructed airway.

    What to do: Open

    airway using head tilt

    chin lift maneuver.

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    Initial Assessment (3 of 4)

    Assess breathing

    Determine whether victim is breathing normallyand adequately.

    Look, listen, and feel for movement of air.

    What to do:

    Recovery position Rescue breathing

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    Initial Assessment (4 of 4)

    Check for hemorrhage

    Severe bleeding,

    external or internal, can

    be life threatening.

    Check entire body for

    blood.

    Expose affected area. Apply direct pressure.

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    Victims History (1 of 2)

    Use SAMPLE mnemonic to remember

    steps in obtaining history. If victim cannot provide history, obtain it

    from companions.

    Check for a medical identification tag.

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    Victims History (2 of 2)

    SAMPLE mnemonic

    Symptoms

    Allergies

    Medications

    Past relevant medical

    history

    Last oral intake

    Events leading up to

    the injury or illness

    Courtesy of the MedicAlert Foundation. 2006, All RightsReserved. MedicAlertis a federally registered trademark andservice mark.

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    Vital Signs and Physical Exam(1 of 9)

    Assess level of responsiveness, pulse, breathing,

    body temperature, skin condition.

    Check vital signs at the start of physical exam.

    Assess vital signs frequently for unstable victims.

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    Vital Signs and Physical Exam(2 of 9)

    Level of responsiveness: AVPU scale

    A = AlertV = Responds to verbal stimuli

    P = Responds to painful stimuli

    U = Unresponsive to voice or pain

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    Vital Signs and Physical Exam(3 of 9)

    Pulse

    Radial pulse Practice until you

    can find pulse

    easily and quickly.

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    Vital Signs and Physical Exam(4 of 9)

    Breathing

    Snoring Stridor

    Wheezing

    Gurgling

    Rattling

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    Vital Signs and Physical Exam(5 of 9)

    Temperature

    Can alert you to fever, heat illness, orhypothermia.

    Carry a thermometer in your first aid kit.

    Estimate body temperature by placing the back

    of your hand on the victims forehead.

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    Vital Signs and Physical Exam(6 of 9)

    Skin condition

    Color and temperature Moisture

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    Vital Signs and Physical Exam(7 of 9)

    Physical examination

    Perform a thorough, systematic physicalassessment.

    Victims with minor injuries or illnesses might

    not require a complete physical assessment.

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    Vital Signs and Physical Exam(8 of 9)

    Physical examination

    DOTS mnemonic:D = Deformities

    O = Open wounds

    T = Tenderness

    S = Swelling

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    Vital Signs and Physical Exam(9 of 9)

    Physical examination

    After the physical exam You should have a good idea of what is

    wrong with the victim.

    Suspect a spinal injury in any unresponsive

    person injured in a high-velocity episode.

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    Ongoing Assessment

    Used to monitor victims condition.

    Determine whether victims condition isstaying the same.

    Reassess: Breathing, mental status, vital signs

    Every 5 minutes for unstable victims Every 15 minutes for stable victims

    Monitor results of first aid care.

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    Multiple-Victim Incidents (Triage)(1 of 2)

    Emergency situations with two or more victims

    Decide who to care for and evacuate first.

    Tell mobile victims to move to specific area.

    These victims are in lowest-priority category.

    Find highest priority victims by performing

    assessment on remaining victims. Go to

    motionless victims first.

    Spend fewer than 60 seconds with each victim.

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    Multiple-Victim Incidents (Triage)(2 of 2)

    Triage categories:

    Highest priority Second priority

    Lowest priority