[Psy] ch03

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Transcript of [Psy] ch03

  • 1. MyersPSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed)
    • Chapter 3
  • The Nature and Nurture
  • Of Behavior
  • James A. McCubbin, PhD
  • Clemson University
  • Worth Publishers

2. Genes: Our Biological Blueprint

  • Chromosomes
    • threadlike structures made of DNA that contain the genes
  • DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
    • complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes
    • has two strands-forming a double helix--held together by bonds between pairs of nucleotides

3. Genes: Our Biological Blueprint

  • Genes
    • biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes
    • a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein
  • Genome
    • the complete instructions for making an organism
    • consisting of all the genetic material in its chromosomes

4. Genes: Their Location and Composition Nucleus Chromosome Gene Cell DNA 5. Evolutionary Psychology

  • Natural Selection
    • the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations
  • Mutations
    • random errors in gene replication that lead to a change in the sequence of nucleotides
    • the source of all genetic diversity

6. Evolutionary Psychology

  • Evolutionary Psychology
    • the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using the principles of natural selection
  • Gender
    • in psychology, the characteristics, whether biologically or socially influenced, by which people define male and female

7. Evolutionary Psychology

  • Men preferred attractive physical features suggesting youth and health
  • Women preferred resources and social status

8. Behavior Genetics

  • Behavior Genetics
    • study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior
  • Environment
    • every nongenetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us

9. Behavior Genetics

  • Identical Twins
    • develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two, creating two genetically identical organisms
  • Fraternal Twins
    • develop from separate eggs
    • genetically no closer than brothers and sisters, but they share the fetal environment

Identical twins Fraternal twins Same sex only Same or opposite sex 10. Behavior Genetics

  • Temperament
    • a persons characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity
  • Heritability
    • the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes
    • may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied

11. Behavior Genetics

  • Interaction
    • the dependence of the effect of one factor (such as environment) on another factor (such as heredity)
  • Molecular Genetics
    • the subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes

12. Environmental Influence

  • Two placental arrangements in identical twins

13. Environmental Influence

  • Experience affects brain development

Impoverished environment Rat brain cell Rat brain cell Enriched environment 14. Environmental Influence

  • A trained brain

15. Environmental Influence

  • Culture
    • the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
  • Norm
    • an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior

16. Environmental Influence

  • Personal Space
    • the buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies
  • Memes
    • self-replicating ideas, fashions, and innovations passed from person to person

17. The Nature and Nurture of Gender

  • X Chromosome
    • the sex chromosome found in both men and women
    • females have two; males have one
    • an X chromosome from each parent produces a female child
  • Y Chromosome
    • the sex chromosome found only in men
    • when paired with an X chromosome from the mother, it produces a male child

18. The Nature and Nurture of Gender

  • Testosterone
    • the most important of the male sex hormones
    • both males and females have it
    • additional testosterone in males stimulates
      • growth of male sex organs in the fetus
      • development of male sex characteristics during puberty
  • Role
    • a set of expectations (norms) about a social position
    • defining how those in the position ought to behave

19. The Nature and Nurture of Gender

  • Gender Role
    • a set of expected behaviors for males and females
  • Gender Identity
    • ones sense of being male or female
  • Gender-typing
    • the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role

20. The Nature and Nurture of Gender

  • Gender and Culture

21. The Nature and Nurture of Gender 22. The Nature and Nurture of Gender

  • Social Learning Theory
    • theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished
  • Gender Schema Theory
    • theory that children learn from their cultures a concept of what it means to be male and female and that they adjust their behavior accordingly

23. The Nature and Nurture of Gender

  • Two theories of gender typing