Cereal processing and cereal based 2018-10-19¢  Cereal processing and cereal based foods...

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  • Cereal processing and cereal based

    foods

    Prof. Dr. Véha Antal- Dr. Szabó P. Balázs

    TÁMOP-4.1.1.C-12/1/KONV-2012-0014 „Élelmiszerbiztonság és gasztronómia vonatkozású egyetemi

    együttműködés, DE-SZTE-EKF-NYME „ projekt segítségével jött

    létre

  • Contents

    1. Baking technology.................................................................................................................. 4

    1.1. Raw materials .................................................................................................................. 5

    1.1.1. Flour ......................................................................................................................... 5

    1.1.2. Yeast....................................................................................................................... 12

    1.1.3. Salt.......................................................................................................................... 14

    1.1.4. Water ...................................................................................................................... 14

    1.2. Secondary raw materials ............................................................................................... 15

    1.2.1. Fats, improvers including emulsifiers .................................................................... 15

    1.2.2. Sugars ..................................................................................................................... 16

    1.2.3. Milk products ......................................................................................................... 17

    1.2.4. Malt products.......................................................................................................... 18

    1.3. Processing...................................................................................................................... 19

    1.3.1. Scaling.................................................................................................................... 19

    1.3.2. Mixing .................................................................................................................... 20

    1.3.3. Fermentation........................................................................................................... 25

    1.3.4. Dough make-up/shaping ........................................................................................ 26

    1.3.5. Proofing.................................................................................................................. 28

    1.3.6. Baking .................................................................................................................... 30

    1.3.7. Cooling ................................................................................................................... 34

    1.3.8. Storing .................................................................................................................... 35

    2. Pasta production ................................................................................................................... 36

    2.1. Raw materials of pasta products.................................................................................... 37

    2.2. Mixing ........................................................................................................................... 38

    2.3. Extruding....................................................................................................................... 38

    2.4. Drying............................................................................................................................ 41

    2.5. Packaging ...................................................................................................................... 42

    3. Asian noodle......................................................................................................................... 44

    3.1. Processing...................................................................................................................... 45

    3.2. Classification................................................................................................................. 48

  • 3.3. Mixing ........................................................................................................................... 49

    3.4. Resting........................................................................................................................... 49

    3.5. Sheeting......................................................................................................................... 49

    3.6. Cooking noodles............................................................................................................ 50

    3.7. Drying noodles .............................................................................................................. 50

    4. Tortilla technology ............................................................................................................... 53

    4.1. Main ingredients............................................................................................................ 54

    4.2. Mixing ........................................................................................................................... 55

    4.3. Dividing......................................................................................................................... 56

    4.4. Pressing/moulding......................................................................................................... 56

    4.5. Baking ........................................................................................................................... 57

    4.6. Cooling .......................................................................................................................... 58

    4.7. Packaging ...................................................................................................................... 59

    References .............................................................................................................................. 112

  • 1. Baking technology

    In the past the simplest baking products were made from flour and water. Today all baked

    products are made from a few main ingredients. They are the flour and the water. We also

    added some other ingredients for example: milk, fat, eggs, sugar, salt, flavoring, sweeteners,

    liquid and leavening agents. The difference is the amounts of the ingredients. The other

    difference is the combine of the ingredients and the production (different mixing, different

    baking).

    The baked goods are basic nutrition, but many goods are high sugar, fat content. The main

    product is the bread, for example:

    • Yeast bread (yeast produces carbon dioxide gas through the fermentation process)

    • Quick bread (this type of bread leavened with air or steam, and we use baking soda or

    baking powder)

    Famous bread types are:

    • Baguette (France)

    • Balady (Egypt, Syria)

    • Chapatti (India)

    • Man-tu (China)

    • Tannouri (Iran)

    • Pan (Japan)

    • White bread (Hungary)

  • Figure 1. Flowsheet of baking technology

    The short technology are the following: scaling the ingredients; mixing and kneading the

    dough; fermentation; punching down the dough; portioning the dough; rounding the portions;

    make-up: shaping the portions; proofing; baking; cooling; storing.

    1.1. Raw materials

    1.1.1. Flour

    Flour is the main and most important ingredient, every baked product contains it. It

    determines the dough and the end of products texture (hold and expand with leaving agents),

    flavor, nutrition, and binding all ingredients. We can talk about wheat flour, and non-wheat

    Mix flours

    Knead dough

    Ferment

    Mold

    Rise

    Bake

    Bread

    Wheat flour Yeast

    Ingredients

    Production Process

  • flour. The millers work together with bakers to produce the right flour for the baker’s

    products.

    The wheat flour contains insoluble proteins (this is gluten), which determine the texture of a

    baked product (elastic characteristic), and the volume of the products. The other main content

    of the flour is the starch. This is an important compound in flour that strengthens the baked

    products through the starch gelatinization. It determines the crumb, and the products interior.

    Types of Wheat Flour

    Whole-Wheat Flour: weak gluten (combined with all purpose flour)

    White Flour

    Durum Flour (Semolina)

    All-Purpose Flour: the wild spread flour

    Pastry Flour

    Cake Flour: less gluten content (it causes the tender structure of cake)

    Gluten Flour

    The classifications are the following:

    wholemeal (whole wheat grain)

    wheatgerm (10 % wheatgerm added during the milling process)

    organic (it is grown to organic standards)

    brown (85 % of original grain, only the bran and germ are removed )

    white (75 % of wheat grain, most of the bran and germ are removed)

    malted wheat grain (malted grains are added)

    The typica