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Transcript of Cassava Value Chain Assessment: Bas-Congo, Kinshasa, pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/ Fermented cassava flour...

  • THE CASSAVA VALUE CHAIN IN BAS-CONGO, KINSHASA, AND BANDUNDU PROVINCES, FPPM (AID-623-C-11-00008)

    i

    THIS ASSISTANCE IS FROM THE AMERICAN PEOPLE JOINTLY SPONSORED BY USAID AND THE GOVERNMENT OF THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO

    Cassava Value Chain Assessment: Bas-Congo, Kinshasa, and Bandundu Provinces

    January 2012 This publication was produced for review by the United States Agency for International Development. It was prepared by DAI for the USAID Congo Food Production, Processing and Marketing in Kinshasa Marketshed (FPPM) Project, contract number AID-623-C-00-11-00008

    31 October 2011

    This publication was produced by DAI for review by the United States Agency for International Development.

  • ii The Cassava Value Chain in West DRC (FPPM Contract No. AID-623-C-11-00008)

    Cassava Value Chain Assessment: Bas-Congo, Kinshasa, and Bandundu Provinces

    By:

    Don Humpal, Bernard Musangu wa Mukendi, Marc Tunieka

    With assistance from:

    Damase Kava, Albert Djimanda, and Isabelle Buisha Bimpa

    20 January 2011

  • THE CASSAVA VALUE CHAIN IN BAS-CONGO, KINSHASA, AND BANDUNDU PROVINCES, FPPM (AID-623-C-11-00008)

    iii

    Acronyms & Abbreviations

    ADER Average Daily Energy Requirement

    Allonge Long shipping sack for cassava; holds about 70 kg. of cossettes

    APTM Association des Producteurs et Transformateurs de Manioc

    Bimpuka Raw cassava paste

    CARG Conseil Agricole Rural de Gestion (Rural Management Council for Agriculture)

    CBSD Cassava Brown Streak Disease

    CF Congolese Franc (valued at 600 CF per USD in this report)

    Chikwangue Steamed cassava (usually prepared and marketed in roll of leaves)

    CMV Cassava Mosaic Virus

    Cossette Dried chip of peeled and leached cassava tuber

    DRC Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Fufu Fermented cassava flour (often mixed with maize flour)

    FPPM Food Production, Processing, & Marketing Project

    IITA International Institute of Tropical Agriculture

    INERA Institut National pour lEtude et la Rcherche Agronomique

    INS Institut National de la Statistique

    IPM Integrated Pest Management

    Matchem Kinshasa-Based SME (involved in processing/marketing of cassava)

    MDER Minimum Daily Energy Requirement

    NGO Non-Governmental/Non-Profit Organization

    ONGD Non-Governmental Development Organization

    SENASEM Service National de Semences

    SNV Service National de Vulgarisation

    USAID United States Agency for International Development

    USG United States Government

    WFP World Food Program

  • iv The Cassava Value Chain in West DRC (FPPM Contract No. AID-623-C-11-00008)

    Contents

    Contents iv

    Tables and Figures vi

    0.0 Executive Summary 1 0.1 CASSAVA PRODUCTION ................................................................................................................. 1 0.2 MARKET ANALYSIS ......................................................................................................................... 2 0.3 VALUE CHAIN MAP .......................................................................................................................... 3 0.4 MARKETING MARGINS .................................................................................................................... 2 0.5 WESTERN CONGO CASSAVA MARKETS ....................................................................................... 2 0.6 PROCESSING ................................................................................................................................... 2 0.7 TRANSPORT ..................................................................................................................................... 4

    1.0 Introduction 6

    2.0. Cassava Production 9 2.1 LONG-TERM PRODUCTION TREND ............................................................................................... 9 2.2 CASSAVA DOMINATES CROP PRODUCTION ................................................................................ 9 2.3 THE DRCS POSITION IN WORLD PRODUCTION ........................................................................ 10 2.4 GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF CASSAVA PRODUCTION ....................................................... 11 2.5 MAINTENANCE OF FERTILITY OF SAVANNA SOILS .................................................................... 12

    2.5.1 Weed control as field size increases ................................................................................... 12 2.5.2 Coping with Low Fertility Soils ............................................................................................ 13

    2.6 CASSAVA VARIETAL IMPROVEMENT ........................................................................................... 14 2.6.1 Productivity Perspective ..................................................................................................... 14 2.6.2 Pest and Disease Tolerance Perspective ........................................................................... 15

    3.0 Processing 16 3.1 MANUAL PROCESSING ................................................................................................................. 16 3.2 RETTING, GRATING, CHIPPING .................................................................................................... 16 3.3 PRODUCT DIFFERENTIATION ....................................................................................................... 17

    3.3.1 Fermentation and Drying..................................................................................................... 17 3.3.2 Unfermented Flour for Blending.......................................................................................... 17

    3.4 PROCESSING CONSTRAINTS ....................................................................................................... 17

    4.0 Market Analysis 20 4.1 CONSUMPTION .............................................................................................................................. 20

    4.1.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 20 4.1.2 Food Balance Sheet ............................................................................................................ 20 4.1.3 Dominance of Food Uses for Cassava ............................................................................... 21 4.1.9 Weaknesses in the Kinshasa Marketshed Consumption Data .......................................... 31

    4.2 MARKET PRICE TRENDS AND SEASONALITY ............................................................................. 31 4.2.1 Staple Food Prices Trends in Kinshasa .............................................................................. 31 4.2.2 The 2008 Food Price Spike and Its Aftermath .................................................................... 32 4.2.3 Seasonal Trends in Cassava Prices on the Kinshasa Market ............................................ 33

  • THE CASSAVA VALUE CHAIN IN BAS-CONGO, KINSHASA, AND BANDUNDU PROVINCES, FPPM (AID-623-C-11-00008)

    v

    5.0 Value Chain Map 35 5.1 CULTIVAR R&D ............................................................................................................................... 35 5.2 PLANTING MATERIAL PROPAGATION ......................................................................................... 35 5.3 SMALLHOLDER PRODUCTION AND ON-FARM PROCESSING .................................................. 35 5.4 SMALLHOLDER-TRADERS ............................................................................................................ 36 5.5 OFF-FARM RURAL PROCESSORS ............................................................................................... 36 5.6 COLLECTORS ................................................................................................................................. 36 5.7 AGENTS .......................................................................................................................................... 36 5.8 TRANSPORTER/AGENTS ............................................................................................................... 37 5.9 URBAN WHOLESALERS AND SEMI-WHOLESALES .................................................................... 37 5.10 MAMANS MANUVRES ................................................................................................................ 37 5.11 MAMANS BIMPUKA ....................................................................................................................... 37 5.12 URBAN PROCESSORS .................................................................................................................. 38 5.13 COMMERCIAL FARMERS .............................................................................................................. 38 5.14 COMMERCIAL VERTICALLY-INTEGRATED GROWER/PROCESSORS ....................................... 38 5.15 RETAILERS ..................................................................................................................................... 38 5.16 POST-RETAIL PROCESSING ......................................................................................................... 39

    6.0 Western Congo Cassava Markets 41 6.1 CASSAVA EXPORTS ...................................................................................................................... 41 6.2 PRODUCT MAKE-UP OF THE KINSHASA MARKET FOR CASSAVA ........................................... 41 6.3 STRUCTURE OF RETAIL SALES ..........................................................................................