Cassava Flour Session 2 Current Use

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    Starch Potential in Bra zil

    CHAPTER4

    STARCHPOTENTIALINBRAZIL1

    M. P. Cered a*, I . C. Tak itan e*,G. Chuzel**, and O. Vilpoux***

    Cassava Starch Production

    and UsesBrazilian starch production is almost1 million tons per year: 76% frommaize (700,000 t/year), 23% fromcassava (220,000 t/year), and theremainder from other crops such aspotato and rice (500 t/year) (AdemirZanella, 1992-1993, personalcommunication). Being traditionalBrazilian foods, the last two crops areunlikely ever to play an importantrole in the starch market.

    About 45% of maize starch isused raw (320,000 t/year), 40% asglucose and malto-dextrins(280,000 t/year), and 15% asmodified starches (100,000 t/year).In contrast, about 68% of cassavastarch is used raw (150,000 t/year),18% as modified starch(40,000 t/year), 10% as sour starch

    (22,000 t/year), and about 3% astapioca (8,000 t/year) (AdemirZanella, 1992-1993, personalcommunication).

    Because of its high quality and

    high value (US$1.50/kg), arrowrootwill take a significant part of thefuture starch market. Cassavastarch, in contrast, is a low-valueproduct, with prices ranging fromUS$0.27 to US$0.40/kg (AdemirZanella, 1992-1993, personalcommunication).

    Annual world productionof starch is currently about29 million tons, obtained from maize(12 million), wheat (10 million),potato (4 million), cassava(0.8 million), and others (2.2 million)(Chuzel, 1991). The main starchproducers are USA (maize), Canada(wheat), and the European Union(potato).

    The USA imports 150,000 t ofcassava starch, the EU 50,000 t, andCanada 10,000 t, representing only

    about 1% of world starch production,but 25% of the worlds cassava starchproduction. Japan imports another300,000 t of cassava starch(Lorenz Industry, 1990, personalcommunication). These countriesuse cassava starch to manufacturemodified starches (Table 1).

    Knight (1974) lists differentstarches and their use in food

    (waxy starch has a high level ofamylopectin, a result of geneticmodification):

    * Faculdade de Cincias Agronmicas (FCA),Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), SoPaulo, Brazil.

    ** CIRAD/SAR, stationed at UNESP/FCA.

    *** French Technical Cooperation, stationed atUNESP/FCA.

    1. No abstract was provided by the authors.

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    Cassa va Flour and Starch: Progress in Research and Development

    Us e Starc he s us e d Fun c t ion

    Spice for salads Maize + waxy Provide stability in acidity, cutting,starch mixtures and temperature

    Filling for Waxy starch Provides texture, transparency,fresh-fruit pies and acid stability

    Filling for Waxy starch Provides stability in acidity and frozenfrozen-fruit pies texture (does not coagulate), and

    transparency

    Maize-type cream Waxy starch Provides heat stability and high viscosity

    Ready-made puddings Maize + waxy Provide stability in temperature, frozenstarch mixtures texture, and cutting

    Baby foods Waxy starch Provides stability in frozen texture andhigh viscosity

    Table 1. Applications (in percentage) of cassava starch in USA and the European Union.a

    Crop Product

    Glucose Fructose Alcohol Paper Modified Raw

    Maize 30 20 10 10 20 10

    (40) (20) (-) (10) (20) (10)

    Wheat 50 30 10 - 10 -

    (60) (20) (-) (10) (10) (-)

    Potato - - - - 90 10

    (-) (-) (-) (10) (80) (10)

    Cassava - - - - 100 -

    (-) (-) (-) (-) (100) (-)

    a. Percentages in parentheses are values for the European Union.

    SOURCE: Lorenz Industry, 1990, personal communication.

    environmental conditions andcompetition with the tobacco industry,

    which has a quicker turnover of crops(cassava takes 1 year to mature).

    Cassava Starch Industriesand Marke t s

    Cassava starch industries are locatedin Santa Catarina, Paran (78%), SoPaulo, Minas Gerais, and Mato Grossodo Sul (Table 5) with 56 industriesregistered with the AssociaoBrasileira dos Produtores de Amido deMandioca (ABAM, 1992-1993). But

    the founding of many new industriesmay have increased this number to 70.Processing capacity is variable, for

    Brazil, the worlds leadingproducer of cassava (Table 2), uses80% of its production in food.

    Although the national production ofcassava is spread over most Brazilian

    states (Table 3), northern andnortheastern Brazil grow 67% of thenational crop. Most is used asfoodof the 1991 crop, only 4% wastransformed into starch.

    Table 4 compares cassavaproduction in Paran state with thatin Santa Catarina: planting area inthe first increased by 64%, as didproduction (65%), in the last 10 years.

    In contrast, in Santa Catarina,planting area dropped by 35%, as didproduction (-13%), because of

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    Starch Potential in Bra zil

    example, the average is 221 t/day inParan state and 109 t/day in SantaCatarina. These industries haveequipment of international standard.

    The Centro Raizes Tropicais(CERAT), Universidade EstadualPaulista (UNESP), researched 12cassava flour industries in SantaCatarina in 1993 through interviews,

    which showed an overall production of10,450 t. These results, however,differed from ABAMs data of the same

    year (16,750 t).

    Cassava starch production facesstrong competition from maize starch,

    the prices of which are stable, andquality is high and consistent. Suchcompetition inhibits the growth and

    expansion of cassava starch use. Thestructure of the maize starch marketin Brazil is oligopolistic and is formed

    by three multinational enterprises:National Starch, Cargil, and CornProducts Corporation.

    Maize and cassava starches arecommercialized in the same markets:foodstuffs (cheese breads, cookies,ice-creams, chocolates, processedmeat, and forcemeats), paper andcardboard, textiles, pharmaceuticalproducts, glues and adhesives, andmodified starches.

    The biggest problem facing the

    cassava starch industry is a pricevariability that ranges between 60%and 70%. Prices for cassava roots

    Table 2. World production of cassava roots (in millions of tons). Numbers are rounded.a

    Producer 1961-1965b 1969-1971b 1991c

    Major producers 50.0 (67) 63.5 (66) 99.4 (65)

    Brazil 21.9 (29) 29.9 (31) 24.6 (16)

    Thailand 1.7 (2) 3.2 (3) 20.3 (13)Nigeria 7.2 (10) 9.4 (10) 20.0 (13)

    Zaire 7.7 (10) 10.2 (11) 18.2 (12)

    Indonesia 11.8 (16) 10.6 (11) 16.3 (11)

    Otherd 24.5 (33) 33.2 (34) - -

    Total 75.0 (100) 96.7 (100) 153.7 (100)

    a. Values in parentheses signify proportion of total by percentage.

    b. Compiled from FAO, 1990.

    c. CIAT, 1993.

    d. About 75 countries.

    Table 3. Brazilian cassava production, 1991 crop, by region.

    Region Area Output Proportion of Average(ha) (t) national crop yield

    (%)a (t/ha)

    North 328,792 4,461,354 18 13.5

    Northeast 1,132,889 12,005,948 49 10.5

    Middle west 68,819 1,082,950 5 15.7

    Southeast 134,775 2,118,052 9 15.7

    South 277,835 4,862,480 19 17.5

    Total 1,943,110 24,530,784 100 -

    a. Numbers are rounded.

    SOURCE: IBGE and CEPAGRO, 1992.

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    22 Table 4. Cassava production in the states of Paran and Santa Catarina, Brazil, 1981-1993. Numbers are rounded.

    Year of Area Growth rate Production Growth crop (ha) (%) (millions of tons) (%)

    Paran Santa Paran Santa Paran Santa ParanCatarina Catarina Catarina C

    1981/82 62,490 100 1.2 100

    1982/83 69,870 12 1.3 13

    1983/84 74,688 20 1.4 19

    1984/85 85,800 88,443 37 100 1.7 1.1 41

    1985/86 85,800 84,812 37 -4 1.7 1.2 39

    1986/87 85,445 75,738 37 -14 1.8 1.2 52

    1987/88 85,242 69,469 36 -21 1.8 1.1 52

    1988/89 77,839 74,756 25 -15 1.6 1.2 33

    1989/90 101,854 67,596 63 -24 2.1 1.1 79

    1990/91 102,265 63,370 64 -28 2.2 1.0 86

    1991/92 100,000 56,873 60 -36 2.1 1.0 721992/93 137,000 57,379 119 -35 2.0 1.0 65

    Ave

    SOURCE: IBGE, various years.

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    Starch Potential in Bra zil

    of cassava starch (f.o.b. at factory) aremore stable than those of cassavaroots, which are vulnerable to theroots perishability and fluctuate withroot production. Products usingcassava and maize starches are elastic,that is, income positive, whereasproducts from cassava flour areinelastic.

    Table 5. Brazilian starch production (in tons) for 1993, and estimated for 1994.

    State Starch industries Production Estimated(no.) 1993 production 1994

    Paran 23 132,900 189,600

    Santa Catarina 21 31,550 56,600

    So Paulo 5 15,500 28,600Mato Grosso do Sul 4 23,000 29,300

    Mato Grosso 2 1,500 5,100

    Esprito Santo 1 3,000 5,000

    Total 56 207,450 314,200

    SOURCE: ABAM, 1993.

    varied erratically between US$19.50(1983), $33.50 (1992), and $51.00(1989) per ton during 1980-1992(Ademir Zanella, 1992-1993, personalcommunication).

    Other problems include the factthat the Brazilian cassava starchindustries must also stop workingfor 4 months/year. Low rootproduction, a long vegetative cycle, andan inferior quality starch also makecassava starch production costly,compared with that of maize starch. Inthe last 3 years, maize prices havefallen against those of cassava roots,thus making the prices of maize starchmore competitive and maize starchmore available, and thus more used byindustries