Capital Budgeting

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Transcript of Capital Budgeting

Chapter 9 Introduction

Capital budgeting is the decision-making process used in the acquisition of long-term physical assets. Traditional capital budgeting projects include decisions to invest in the following:

A new hotel A casino expansion Addition of a bar to a restaurant Replacement of a sprinkler system at a hotel9-12005 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

Hospitality Financial Management By Robert E. Chatfield and Michael C. Dalbor

Chapter 9 Introduction

Capital budgeting decisions are crucial to a firms long-term financial health.

Successful capital budgeting projects usually generate a positive cash flow for a long period of time. Unsuccessful capital budgeting projects do not return sufficient cash flow to justify the investment. Such projects usually continue to generate losses or are liquidated for a large one-time loss. Capital budgeting decisions set a firms future course by determining what services will be offered, how they will be offered, and where they will be offered.9-22005 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

Hospitality Financial Management By Robert E. Chatfield and Michael C. Dalbor

Organization of Chapter 9

Different types of capital budgeting projects; classification of projects by purpose and by type of analysis Project cash flows and principles of cash flow estimation Project costnet investment estimation9-32005 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

Hospitality Financial Management By Robert E. Chatfield and Michael C. Dalbor

Organization of Chapter 9

A projects future cash inflowsnet cash flow estimation Project terminationafter-tax salvage value estimation Project depreciation and its impact on cash flow9-42005 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

Hospitality Financial Management By Robert E. Chatfield and Michael C. Dalbor

Classifying Capital Budgeting Projects

The purpose of a project may be to:

Grow the firm causing future sales, profits, and cash flows to increase; includes typical expansion projects. Reduce the firms future operating costs causing future profits and cash flows to increase; examples include new, more efficient air conditioners or new kitchen equipment requiring less maintenance. Meet legal requirements or satisfy ethical considerations; examples include fire alarm and fire suppression systems.9-52005 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

Hospitality Financial Management By Robert E. Chatfield and Michael C. Dalbor

Classifying Capital Budgeting Projects

Independent versus mutually exclusive projects.

An independent project requires a stand-alone decision. The project is analyzed in isolation and not compared to other projects. An example is a proposal to add a new 200-room tower to a hotel.

Hospitality Financial Management By Robert E. Chatfield and Michael C. Dalbor

9-6

2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

Classifying Capital Budgeting Projects

Mutually exclusive projects require a choice between two or more projects. For example, a decision to replace the air conditioning system with brand x, brand y, or brand z is a mutually exclusive decision. If you decide to invest in a new air conditioning system by brand x, then brands y and z have been excluded!

Hospitality Financial Management By Robert E. Chatfield and Michael C. Dalbor

9-7

2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

Project Cash Flows

Estimating a projects impact on a firms future cash flows is a crucial part of the investment decision. Some basic principles need to be followed when estimating a projects cash flows:

An incremental basis An after-tax basis Indirect effects should be included Costs should be measured as opportunity costs and not based upon historical or sunk costs

Hospitality Financial Management By Robert E. Chatfield and Michael C. Dalbor

9-8

2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

Project Cash Flows

The capital budgeting decision is essentially based upon a cost/benefit analysis.

The cost of a project is called the net investment. The benefits from a project are the future cash flows generated. We call these the net cash flows.9-92005 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

Hospitality Financial Management By Robert E. Chatfield and Michael C. Dalbor

Net Investment

The net cash outflows required to ready a project for its basic operation; the net investment includes:

Cost of any assets + Delivery costs + Installation costs + Any required increase in net working capital After-tax salvage value from replaced assets

Hospitality Financial Management By Robert E. Chatfield and Michael C. Dalbor

9-10

2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

Net Cash Flows

These are the future cash flows generated from a project once it commences operation. The net cash flows are expected to continue throughout the projects economic life. The net cash flow for each year is:

( Earnings before taxes x (1 t) + ( Depreciation - ( Net working capital

Hospitality Financial Management By Robert E. Chatfield and Michael C. Dalbor

9-11

2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

Net Cash Flows

And ( Earnings before taxes is estimated by:

( Sales revenue ( Operating expenses ( Depreciation

Interest expense is generally not included in the net cash flows since it will be taken into account later through the firms required rate of return.

Hospitality Financial Management By Robert E. Chatfield and Michael C. Dalbor

9-12

2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

Terminal Nonoperating Cash Flow

These are special one-time cash flows that only occur at the end of a projects life. They are added to a projects last net cash flow. They include:

After-tax salvage value of the projects assets Return of any increased net working capital

Hospitality Financial Management By Robert E. Chatfield and Michael C. Dalbor

9-13

2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

Computation of After-Tax Salvage Values

Taxes owed on salvage value depend upon the salvage price relative to the assets book value. As assets book value is the assets original acquisition cost minus all depreciation taken on the asset (accumulated depreciation).

Hospitality Financial Management By Robert E. Chatfield and Michael C. Dalbor

9-14

2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

Computation of After-Tax Salvage Values

If an asset is sold for its book value then no taxes are owed. If an asset is sold for more than book value, then taxes are owed on this excess. If an asset is sold for less than book value, then taxes are reduced. The loss acts as a tax shelter, reducing taxes by an amount equal to the firms marginal tax rate times the deficit.2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

Hospitality Financial Management By Robert E. Chatfield and Michael C. Dalbor

9-15

Depreciation

The depreciation actually affecting cash flow is MACRS depreciation used for taxes. MACRS depreciation varies by type of asset but always depreciates to a zero value, not an estimated salvage value. Here we will simplify by assuming straight-line depreciation to a zero value.

Hospitality Financial Management By Robert E. Chatfield and Michael C. Dalbor

9-16

2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

Depreciation

Depreciation shelters income from taxes. Thus, greater depreciation reduces taxes. Depreciation is not an out-of-pocket expense. Thus an increase in depreciation will reduce profit but increase cash flow.

Hospitality Financial Management By Robert E. Chatfield and Michael C. Dalbor

9-17

2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

Summary of Chapter 9 Topics

The significance of good capital budgeting decisions to a firms long-term financial health Projects can be classified according to:

Purpose Independent versus mutually exclusive decisions9-182005 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

Hospitality Financial Management By Robert E. Chatfield and Michael C. Dalbor

Summary of Chapter 9 Topics

The cash flows associated with a project are crucial to the investment decision. They include:

Net investment Net cash flows Terminal nonoperating cash flows

Hospitality Financial Management By Robert E. Chatfield and Michael C. Dalbor

9-19

2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458