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  • Buddhist Architecture Prof.Abhijeet B. Shinde, Pravara Rural College of Architecture,Loni

  • BUDDHIST ARCHITECTURE

    Prof. Abhijeet B. Shinde, Pravara Rural College of Architecture, Loni From A History of Indian Buddhism_From Sakyamuni to Early Mahayana by H Akira

  • BUDDHIST ARCHITECTURE

    Prof. Abhijeet B. Shinde, Pravara Rural College of Architecture, Loni

    INTRODUCTION In the 6th century BCE , two men,

    Siddhartha Gautama (the Buddha, or enlightened one) and Mahavira Jain, both from marginal clans, asserted the idea of an independent and individual journey to spiritual bliss, or nirvana, that contradicted not only the principles of warfare, but also the highly regimented Vedic rituals.

    The main difference between the two men was that while meditation-based practices were at the core of the Buddhas teachings, Mahavira Jain insisted on a radical vegetarianism that including a prohibition on farming, since that inadvertently killed soil worms.

  • BUDDHIST ARCHITECTURE

    Prof. Abhijeet B. Shinde, Pravara Rural College of Architecture, Loni

    INTRODUCTION Asoka (r. 272231 BCE) adopted

    Buddhism as state law and moral order The difference between Asoka and his

    predecessors was that he adapted Buddhist teachings into a new moral and social order for his empire that he called the dhamma.

    In essence Buddhism became a state religion.

    To promote his dhamma, which consisted of about thirty-three edicts, Asoka had them etched in stone tablets, on the side of prominent rocks, and inside cave sanctuaries, all in the vernacular language of his kingdom.

    The Brahmi inscription on the pillar

  • Ashokan Pillars He also carved them on the sides of

    pillars, about twenty of which have survived.

    One such pillar, in Lauriya Nandangarh (in Bihar), made from a single piece of polished sandstone, rises 12 meters above the ground and extends 3 meters into the earth.

    Though it is surmounted by an ornate capital, it is the shaft with the inscribed edicts that is of primary significance.

    BUDDHIST ARCHITECTURE

    Prof. Abhijeet B. Shinde, Pravara Rural College of Architecture, Loni

    Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/sunainasuneja/211826694/ (downloaded Sept. 2006)

  • Ashokan Pillars The Ashokan pillars consist of a stylized

    lotus base that supports an ornamental drum on which there are sculptures of animals ranging from the bull to the lion signifying royal authority.

    Most famous is the pillar found at Sarnath, the site of the Buddhas first sermon, the lotus base and drum of which is topped by a capital of four lions.

    Surmounting all this, at least originally, was the Buddhist wheel of law, which has, in turn, been adopted as the symbol of the modern Indian nation.

    BUDDHIST ARCHITECTURE

    Prof. Abhijeet B. Shinde, Pravara Rural College of Architecture, Loni

    The Lion Capital on the ground at Sarnath, before 1911, probably 1904-05

  • Ashoka Asoka also memorialized the major

    sites associated with the Buddhain particular his birthplace (Lumbini), the site of his enlightenment (Bodh Gaya), the location of his first sermon (Sarnath), and the place of his death (Kushinagar).

    The Buddha was never represented as a human figure in Asokas time.

    Representations of the Buddha began to be made in the 1st century CE and have become important in the Buddhist tradition ever since.

    BUDDHIST ARCHITECTURE

    Prof. Abhijeet B. Shinde, Pravara Rural College of Architecture, Loni

  • Monolithic Pillars

    Boldly Designed, Finely Proportioned &

    conceptually well balance

    Purpose Solely monumental as they were free standing pillars, not part of architectural composition

    Broadly Divided in Two parts 1. Shaft 2. Capital o Two Pipes joined together by copper bolt

    accurately fitted into tenon made for it o Shaft is circular piece of Stone tapering

    towards upperside(40-50ft long ) o Capital Placed on top of tapering shaft

    BUDDHIST ARCHITECTURE

    Prof. Abhijeet B. Shinde, Pravara Rural College of Architecture, Loni

  • Monolithic Pillars Capital further Divided in Three parts

    1. Inverted lotus or bell

    2. Base pedestal

    3. Animal with dhamma chakra

    o Capital Design Symmetrical from all 4 directions

    BUDDHIST ARCHITECTURE

    Prof. Abhijeet B. Shinde, Pravara Rural College of Architecture, Loni

  • Barabar hill caves Buddhist ascetics were

    responsible for the oldest rock-cut caves in India, which date to the mid 3rd century BCE

    They are located in the Barabar Hills of Bihar, 20 miles north of Bodh Gaya.

    There are four caves, consisting of two chambers each: a rectangular hall followed by a round room with a hemispherical ceiling.

    BUDDHIST ARCHITECTURE

    Prof. Abhijeet B. Shinde, Pravara Rural College of Architecture, Loni

    Plan, section, and interior: Lomas Rishi Cave

  • Barabar hill caves One of them, the Lomas Rishi Cave, is

    incomplete.

    This cave has deeply carved openings and a wooden roof outline with a finely etched elephant frieze centered on a stupa.

    Since this cave has no inscription, it probably dates to Asoka, though its exterior may well have been carved later.

    BUDDHIST ARCHITECTURE

    Prof. Abhijeet B. Shinde, Pravara Rural College of Architecture, Loni

    External Elevation: Lomas Rishi Cave

  • BUDDHIST ARCHITECTURE

    Prof. Abhijeet B. Shinde, Pravara Rural College of Architecture, Loni

    INTRODUCTION Late in the 2nd century BCE ,

    Asokas Mauryan Empire began to disintegrate, resulting in the formation of a series of smaller kingdoms:

    1. The Sunga in the west, 2. The Satavahanas to the south,

    and in 3. The north the Shakas. This transformation paralleled

    an equally important transformation within Buddhism that had important implications in the field of architecture.

  • BUDDHIST ARCHITECTURE

    Prof. Abhijeet B. Shinde, Pravara Rural College of Architecture, Loni

    INTRODUCTION As originally conceived, the Buddhist

    monkhood was strictly mendicant. Its members lived itinerantly in poverty

    and survived by begging; they were not allowed to erect shrines, acquire property, or deify the Buddha. This form of Buddhism was subsequently referred to as Hinayana (or the Lesser Vehicle).

    In time, as Buddhism began to receive royal patronage and its practitioners became more diverse, a more monastic and populist form of Buddhism, known as Mahayana (or the Greater Vehicle) emerged that required the establishment of institutions where monks could live and study.

  • Stupa III

    Great stupa

    Temple 17

    Temple 40

    Global history of architecture

    Plan Stupa complex at Sanchi

    BUDDHIST ARCHITECTURE

    Prof. Abhijeet B. Shinde, Pravara Rural College of Architecture, Loni

    The most important of the remaining Sunga period Buddhist complexes is Sanchi, which was founded by Asoka and flourished for thirteen centuries.

    The complex is located near the ancient town of Vidisa, along the fertile river valleys of the southern trade route (or dakshinapatha).

    It is located on a hill that rises sharply above the valley, making its three stupas distinctly visible from afar.

    The surrounding hills are also surmounted by stupas, all of which establish the area as a sacred landscape.

    Large groups of visiting monks came to Sanchi in processions.

    STUPAS

  • BUDDHIST ARCHITECTURE

    Prof. Abhijeet B. Shinde, Pravara Rural College of Architecture, Loni

    STUPAS

    Stupas started out as reliquary mounds, or chaityas, which can denote any sacred place such as where a funeral pyre had occurred;

    They were usually marked off by a wooden railing. Asoka had the Buddhas bodily remains divided into eight parts and

    distributed throughout his empire as relics, with their location marked by ceremonial mounds. (Stupa means piled up.)

    Built by the thousands and becoming the dominant symbol of Buddhism, stupas came to embody many meanings, some standing in for the body of the Buddha, others for his enlightenment, and yet others serving as a cosmic diagram.

    The fundamental elements of a stupa are present in the oldest of Sanchis stupas, the so-called Stupa II (ca. 100 BCE).

    Stupa II at Sanchi

  • Conceptually, a stupa is a cosmological diagram linking the body of the Buddha to the universe.

    The central mass consists of an earthen hemispherical mound faced with fired bricks, with a shallow berm (or medhi ) ringing its base.

    This round structure is then surrounded by a stone balustrade (or vedika) that replicates a construction out of wood.

    BUDDHIST ARCHITECTURE

    Prof. Abhijeet B. Shinde, Pravara Rural College of Architecture, Loni

    STUPAS

    Plan diagram: Stupa II at Sanchi

    Both the interior and exterior surface of the vedika are carved with shallow reliefs and medallions depicting scenes and events of Buddhist significance.

    The vedika has openings on four sides, aligned to the cardinal directions. These are accessed not on axis, however, but at right angles, through bent

    entrances, all of which open in a counterclockwise direction. The cross axis of the cardinal directions, coupled with the directional

    openings, form a space-time cosmological diagram, or mandala, in the form of a svastika (or swastika).

  • The idea of the stupa

    BUDDHIST ARCHITECTURE

    Prof. Abhijeet B. Shinde, Pravara Rural College of Archite