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Boundary and Excitation Training February 2003 www.cadfamily.com EMail:[email protected]

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Boundary and Excitation TrainingFebruary 2003

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Boundary Conditions

Why are They Critical?For most practical problems, the solution to Maxwell’s equations requires a rigorous matrix approach such as the Finite Element Method (FEM) which is used by Ansoft HFSS.

The wave equation solved by Ansoft HFSS is derived from the differential form of Maxwell’s equations.

For these expressions to be valid, it is assumed that the field vectors are:single-valued, bounded, and have acontinuous distribution (along with their derivatives)

Along boundaries of media or at sources, Field vectors are discontinuousDerivatives of the field vectors have no meaning

0=⋅∇=⋅∇

∂∂

+=×∇

∂∂

−=×∇

BD

tD

JH

tB

E

ρ

Boundary Conditions define the field behavior across discontinuous boundaries

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Boundary Conditions

Why do I Care?They Force the fields to align with the definition of the boundary condition

As a user I should be askingWhat assumptions, about the fields, do the boundary conditions make?Are these assumptions appropriate for the structure being simulated?

Model Scope/ComplexityThe infinite space of the real world needs to be made finite

Ansoft HFSS Background or Outer boundary

When applied properly, they can be used to reduce the complexitySolution TimeComputer Resources

Failure to understand boundary conditions may lead to inconsistent results

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Boundary Conditions

Application of Boundary Conditions - Case 1Emulate laboratory measurements

Verification/Validation before production

Picture courtesy of Delphi Picture courtesy of Tektronix

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Boundary Conditions

Application of Boundary Conditions - Case 2Isolate part of a structure (i.e. Exciting arbitrary transmission lines)

Not physically possible to measure in the laboratoryFull-Wave analysis not required for total system

Or total system too complexDesign work/Component level optimizationPost production problem solving

Isolated Component – Via Transition

Total System

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What are Common Ansoft HFSS Boundary Conditions?Sources

Wave Ports (External) Lumped Ports (Internal)

Surface ApproximationsSymmetry PlanesPerfect Electric or Magnetic SurfacesRadiation SurfacesBackground or Outer Surface

Material PropertiesBoundary between two dielectricsFinite Conductivity of a conductor

Boundary Conditions

Largely the users responsibility

Transparent to the user

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Example

Example StructureCoax to Stripline

LAYER 2 (SIGNAL)

LAYER 3 (BOTTOM SIDE)

LAYER 1 (TOP SIDE)

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Example

Material PropertiesAll 3D (Solid) objects have material definitions

To complete the model shown previously we must include the airthat surrounds the structure.

air

Note: Substrate/Air boundary included in structure

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Example

Remember! Material Boundary conditions are transparent to the userThey are not visible in the Project Tree

Example Material Boundary: Conductors ð Surface Approximations Perfect Conductors ð Perfect E Boundary (Boundary Name: smetal)

Forces E-Field perpendicular to surfaceLossy Conductors ð Finite Conductivity Boundary

Forces tangential E-Field to ((1+j)/(δσ))(n x Htan).Assumes one skin depth – User must manually force Ansoft HFSS to solve inside lossy conductors that are = a skin depth

smetal

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Example

Surface ApproximationsBackground or Outer Boundary

Not visible in the Project TreeAny object surface that touches it ð Perfect E BoundaryDefault boundary applied to the region surrounding the geometric model

Model is encased in a thin metal layer that no fields propagate through

outer

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Excitations

ExcitationsPorts are a unique type of boundary condition

Allow energy to flow into and out of a structure.Defined on 2D surfaceArbitrary port solver calculates the natural field patterns or modes

Assumes semi-infinitely long waveguideSame cross-section and material properties as port surface

2D field patterns serve as boundary conditions for the full 3D problem

Excitation TypesWave Port – External

Recommended only for surfaces exposed to the backgroundSupports multiple modes (Example: Coupled Lines) and deembeddingCompute Generalized S-Parameters

Frequency dependent Characteristic Impedance (Zo)Perfectly matched at every frequency

Lumped Port – InternalRecommended only for surfaces internal to geometric modelSingle mode (TEM) and no deembeddingNormalized to a constant user defined Zo

MeasurementsConstant Zo

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Excitations

Excitation Types – Boundary ConditionsWave Port

Perfect E or Finite ConductivityDefault: All outer edges are Perfect E boundary.

Port is defined within a waveguide. Easy for enclosed transmission lines: Coax or WaveguideChallenging for unbalanced or non-enclosed lines: Microstrip, CPW, Slotline, etc.

Symmetry or Impedance Recognized at the port edges

RadiationDefault interface is a Perfect E boundary

Lumped PortPerfect E or Finite Conductivity

Any port edge that interfaces with a conductor or another port edgePerfect H

All remaining port edges

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Excitations

Excitation Types – CalibrationPorts must be calibrated to ensure consistent results. Determines:

Direction and polarity of fieldsVoltage calculations.

Solution Type: Driven ModalExpressed in terms of the incident and reflected powers of the waveguide modes.

Definition not desirable for problems having several propagating quasi-TEM modesCoupled/Multi-Coupled Transmission Lines

Always used by the solverCalibration: Integration Line

Phase between PortsModal voltage integration path: Zpi, Zpv, Zvi

Solution Type: Driven TerminalLinear combination of nodal voltages and currents for the Wave Port.

Equivalent transformation performed from Modal SolutionCalibration: Terminal Line

PolarityNodal voltage integration path

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Excitations

Example Solution Types:

T1 T2

Integration LineMode 1

(Even Mode)

Integration Line

Mode 2(Odd Mode)

Modes to NodesTransformation

SPICEDifferential Pairs

ModalPort1 Port2

TerminalPort1 Port2

T1

T2

T1

T2

2 Modes 2 Modes

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Example

What Port Type Should I Use?Example is easy decision

Port touches background (External)Cross Section is Coax (Enclosed Transmission Line)

Wave PortSolution Type: Driven Terminal

SPICE Output

Identify Port Type &Cross Section

Assign Excitation &Calibrate Port

Define Default Post Processing

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Example

Is it Really that Simple?Yes, but the geometric model was setup with several considerations

1. Only the face of the coax dielectric was selected for the port facePort Boundary conditions define outer conductorMaterial Definitions define inner conductor

2. Uniform port cross-sectionOnly supports a single modeHigher-order modes caused by reflections would attenuate before port

Modes attenuate as a function of e-αz, assuming propagation in the z-direction.Required distance (uniform port length) depends on modes propagation constant.

Uniform cross-sectionRule of Thumb: 5x Critical Distance

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Example

How often is the Setup that Simple?If you are emulating laboratory measurements? [Case 1]

Most of the time!Laboratory equipment does not direct connect to arbitrary transmission lines

ExceptionsEmulating Complex Probes with a Port ð Understanding of Probe

If you are isolating part of a structure? [Case 2]For “real” designs - usually only by dumb luck!

User Must Understand and/or Implement Correctly:1. Port Boundary conditions and impact of boundary condition2. Fields within the structure3. Assumptions made by port solver4. Return path

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Example

Side Note: Problems Associated with Correlating Results [Case 2]Can be broken into two categories of problems

1. Complex StructureBGA, Backplane, Antenna Feed, Waveguide “Plumbing”, etcMost common problems result from

Measurement setup – Test fixtures, deembedding, etc. Failing to understand the fields in the structure ð Boundary ProblemReturn path problems – Model truncation

2. Simple StructuresUniform transmission lines

Equations or Circuit ElementsMost common problems result from

Improper use of default or excitation boundary conditionsFailure to understand the assumptions used by “correct” results (Equations or Circuit Elements)

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Return Path

Why are they critical?Any current injected into a system must return to the source

DCChooses path of least resistance

ACChooses path of least inductanceA signal propagates between the signal trace and its reference plane Reference plane is just as important as signal trace!

Why do I care?Many real designs have nonideal return paths

Effects only captured by full-wave simulatorsIsolating parts of a structure

Failure to maintain the correct return path willLimit correlation to measurementsMask or create design problems

Port and Boundary setup most common source of error in model setup

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Return Path Example

Port1

Port2 Port3

No DCReturn Path

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Return Path Example

Port1

Port2 Port3

DCReturn Path

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Return Path Example

DC & RFReturn Path

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Example

Isolate part of structure - Case 2 Isolate Transition

DeembedRecombine using Ansoft Designer - Circuit

Wave Port

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Example

Ansoft Designer - Circuit

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Example

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Example

What went wrong?Isolate Port from Discontinuity?

YesUniform Cross-Section?

NO – The cross section of the port (including its boundaries) is not maintainedMaintain Return Path?

NO – Boundary on port shorts the planes together at edgesIdentical to placing vias at port edge!

All Modes Accounted for?NO – Did not consider Parallel Plate mode

Even if we did, the via (port edge) cuts off mode ð Reason vias are used!

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Example

Stripline

ParallelPlate

Mode Matching

Ansoft Designer - Circuit

Wave Port

2 Terminals

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Example

No DCReturn Path

Port InfluencesResults

Lumped Port

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Example

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Closing Remarks

Understand Boundary Conditions!

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