BLS Skills Lecture

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INTRODUCTION TO BLSKinds of Life Support 1. BLS an emergency procedure that consists of recognizing respiratory or cardiac arrest or both and the proper application of CPR to maintain life until a victim recovers or advanced life support is available. 2. ACLS the use of special equipment to maintain breathing and circulation for the victim of a cardiac emergency. 3. Prolonged Life Support for post resuscitative and long term resuscitation


ADULT CHAIN OF SURVIVAL1. Immediate recognition of cardiac arrest and activation of the emergency response team 2. Early CPR with an emphasis on chest compressions 3. Rapid defibrillation 4. Effective Advanced life Support 5. Integrated post-cardiac arrest care

ADULT CHAIN OF SURVIVAL1. Immediate recognition of cardiac arrest and activation of the emergency response team

Immediate recognition of cardiac arrest and activation of the emergency response teamy C - Circumstance (What is the emergency) y H - Help available / help given y A - Address (give a landmark) y N - Name of caller / No. of victims y T - Telephone no.

ADULT CHAIN OF SURVIVAL2. Early CPR with an emphasis on chest compressions

ADULT CHAIN OF SURVIVAL3. Rapid defibrillation

Automated External Defibrillator

ADULT CHAIN OF SURVIVAL4. Effective Advanced Life Support

ADULT CHAIN OF SURVIVAL5. Integrated post cardiac arrest


THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM y It delivers oxygen to the body, as well as removes carbon dioxide from the body. y The passage of air into and out of the lungs is called respiration. y Breathing in is called inspiration or inhaling. y Breathing out is called expiration or exhaling.

THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM y It delivers oxygen and nutrients to the bodys tissues and removes waste products. y It consists of the heart, blood vessels, and blood.

BREATHING & CIRCULATION1. Air that enters the lungs contains about 21% oxygen and only a trace of carbon dioxide. Air that is exhaled from the lungs contains about 16% oxygen and 4% carbon dioxide. 2. The right side of the heart pumps blood to the lungs, where blood picks up oxygen and releases carbon dioxide. 3. The oxygenated blood then returns to the left side of the heart, where it is pumped to the tissues of the body.

BREATHING & CIRCULATION4. In the body tissues, blood releases oxygen and takes up carbon dioxide after which it flows back to the right side of the heart. 5. All body tissues require oxygen, but the brain requires more than any other tissue. 6. When breathing and circulation stop is called CLINICAL DEATH. (0-4 mins = brain damage not likeley; 4-6 mins = brain damage probable.)

In all instances that the person is not breathing and/or does not have a pulse, you should always start CPR.

BREATHING & CIRCULATION7. When the brain has been deprived of oxygenated blood for a period of 6 minutes or more an irreversible damage probably occurred. This is called the BIOLOGICAL DEATH (6-10 mins = brain damage probable; over 10 minutes = brain damage is certain). 8. It is obvious from the above stated facts that both respiration and circulation are required to maintain life.

THE NERVOUS SYSTEM y It is composed of the brain, spinal cord and nerves. It has two major functions communication and control. y It lets a person aware of and react to the envt. y It coordinates the bodys responses to stimuli and keeps body systems working together.



Cardio = HEART Pulmonary = LUNGS Resuscitate = REVIVE Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)= Reviving the Heart and Lungs

Cardio = HEART y Our heart is a big, strong muscle that expands and contracts more than 60 times a minute without you even thinking about it. It is automatically driven by electrical impulses and runs 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, with no vacation time. That's around 33 million beats a year! y Our heart has a simple, but important job. It pumps oxygen-rich blood from the lungs out to the rest of your body. If your heart stops pumping, oxygen does not reach vital organs and they stop working. That's when you get in trouble.

Pulmonary = LUNGS y We breathe about 12 to 20 times each minute and every breath you take brings oxygen into your lungs and gets rid of carbon dioxide. Your lungs function automatically just like your heart - you don't have to think about breathing, it just happens. Oxygen is important to your body because it gets combined with sugar to burn as fuel. There is very little oxygen stored in your body's tissues so it needs to be replenished often. (There is a big supply of sugar so you can go a long time without eating.)

Pulmonary = LUNGS y If your body stops bringing air with oxygen in it into your lungs or your heart stops circulating the oxygen-rich blood to your organs, then bad things start to have real fast. When the oxygen runs out, the body only has a few minutes in an anaerobic state before cells start to die and brain damage results.

PRECAUTIONS TO PREVENT DISEASE TRANSMISSIONBody Substance Isolation are precautions taken to isolate or prevent the risk of exposure from any other type of bodily substance.

BASIC PRECAUTIONS & PRCATICES1. Personal Hygiene 2. Protective Equipment 3. Equipment Cleaning & Disinfecting

CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASERISK FACTORS for Cardiovascular disease: 1. Non-modifiable heredity, age, gender 2. Modifiable cigarette smoking, lack of exercise, stress, hypertension, obesity, DM, elevated cholesterol and triglycerides levels.

MYOCARDIAL INFARCTIONy It occurs when the oxygen supply to the heart muscle is cut off for a prolonged period of time. y This cut-off results from a reduced blood supply due to severe narrowing or complete blockage of the diseased artery. y The result is death (infarction) of the affected part of the heart.

Warning signalsy Chest discomfort characterized by: uncomfortable pressure, squeezing, fullness or tightness, aching, crushing, constricting, oppressive or heavy. y Sweating y Nausea y Shortness of breathe

First Aid Managementy Recognize the signals of heart attack and take action. y Have pt. stop what he or she is doing and have him/her sit or lie down in a comfortable position. Do not let the pt. move around. y Have someone call the physician or ambulance for help. y If pt. is under medical care, assist him/ her in taking his/ her prescribed meds.

GUIDELINES IN GIVING EMERGENCY CAREGETTING STARTED 1. Planning of Action 2. Gathering of needed materials 3. Remember the initial response as follows: AID 4. Instruction to helper/s


RESPIRATORY ARREST & RESCUE BREATHINGRespiratory Arrest is the condition in which breathing stops or inadequate. Causes: 1. Obstruction 2. Diseases 3. Other causes of respiratory arrest

RESCUE BREATHINGy Is a technique of breathing air into a persons lungs to supply him or her with the oxygen needed to survive.

WAYS TO VENTILATE THE LUNGS1. Mouth-to-mouth 2. Mouth-to-nose 3. Mouth-to-mouth and nose 4. Mouth-to-stoma 5. Mouth-to-face shield 6. Mouth-to-mask 7. Bag mask device


FOREIGN BODY AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION MANAGEMENTCauses of Obstruction: 1. Improper chewing of large pieces of food. 2. Excessive intake of alcohol 3. The presence of loose upper and lower dentures 4. For children running while eating 5. For smaller children of hand-to-mouth stage left unattended.

Two types of Obstruction1. Anatomical Obstruction 2. Mechanical Obstruction

Classification of Obstruction1. Partial obstruction with good air exchange 2. Partial obstruction with poor air exchange 3. Complete or total obstruction

Intervention:CONCIOUS PATIENT: y y y y ask the victim, are you choking? if the victims airway is obstructed partially, a crowing sound is audible; encourage the victim to cough. relieve the obstruction by Heimlich maneuver Heimlich maneuver: y stand behind the victim y place arms around the victims waist y make a fist y place the thumb side of the fist just above the umbilicus and well below the xyphoid process. Perform 5 quick in and up thrusts. y Use chest thrusts for the obese or for the advanced pregnancy victims. continue abdominal thrusts until the object is dislodged or the victim becomes unconscious.


UNCONSCIOUS PATIENT: y assess LOC y call for help y Do chest compression y open airway using jaw thrust technique y finger sweep to remove object y attempt ventilation y reposition the head if unsuccessful; reattempt ventilation y relieve the obstruction by the Heimlich maneuver with five thrust; then finger sweep the mouth y reattempt ventilation y repeat the sequence of jaw thrust, finger sweep, breaths and Heimlich maneuver until successful y be sure to assess the victims pulse and respirations

Choking child or infant: y choking is suspected in infants and children experiencing acute respiratory distress associated with coughing, gagging, or stridor. allow the victim to continue to cough if the cough is forceful if cough is ineffective or if increase respiratory difficulty is still noted, perform CPR

y y


CARDIAC ARREST & CPRCardiac arrest is the condition in which circulation ceases and vital organs are deprived of oxygen. Three Conditions of Cardiac Arrest 1. Cardio Vascular Collapse 2. Ventricular Fibrillation 3. Cardiac Standstill

CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATION (CPR)y CPR this is a combination of chest compressions and rescue breathing. This must be combined for effective resuscitation of the victim of cardiac arrest. y COUGH CPR it is a self-initiated CP