Biswanath Patel Gaurav Bubna Amit Gupta Swapnesh Garg Chandra Mohan Meena

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Transcript of Biswanath Patel Gaurav Bubna Amit Gupta Swapnesh Garg Chandra Mohan Meena

  • Biswanath PatelGaurav BubnaAmit GuptaSwapnesh GargChandra Mohan Meena

  • IntroductionDefinition of Intelligence.Turings solution.Machine LearningViews from many disciplines.Controversial Extreme reactions.Cornerstone of AI research.

  • OutlineTurings original 1950 paper Addressed objections.Subsequent discussion over the years.Modifications to the Imitation Game.Present state of research Loebner prize.State-of-the-art CAPTCHA.

  • The Imitation Game The oft-repeated question Can machines think?

    Turings version Can machines play the imitation game?.

    Focus on intellectual capacity

    Does not limit thinking to specific tasks - any topic possible.

  • Initial objections & refutationsThe Theological ObjectionThe Mathematical ObjectionVarious DisabilitiesContinuity of the human nervous systemInformality of Behaviour argumentsExtra-sensory perception intuition, telepathy

  • Later discussions (Chronological)(1) Gunderson (1964)

    Part of what things do is how they do it.

    The classic example Birds vs airplanes.

    In the end, the steam drill outlasted John Henry as a digger of railway tunnels, but that didnt prove the machine had muscles; it proved that muscles were not needed for digging railway tunnels.

  • Other discussions(2) Searles Chinese Room (1980)

    Mind's role in intelligence.

    (3) Michie (1996)

    "How do you pronounce the plurals of the imaginary English words platch, snorp and brell?" (platchez, snorpss and brellz.)

  • Other discussions (contd.) (4) Ted Block (1995)

    All possible sensible conversations stored - The set of strings constituting such conversations that can be carried out in a fixed amount of time are finite and thus can be enumerated.Simple lookup and write-out- just sophisticated information processing.

  • Variants of the Turing TestTotal Turing Test (TTT) Robotic in addition to linguistic capabilities.ChimpanzeeTotally Total Turing Test (TTTT) Neuromolecular IndistinguishabilityKugel Test (KT).Application in addition to learning.Inverted Turing Test (ITT).Truly Total Turing Test (TRTTT).Evolution of machines.Types and tokens

  • Graphics Turing TestSubjects interact with real or computer generated scene.

    Judge determines if real or not.

    If the judge is unable to do so, computer passes the test.

  • Interactive CinemaWhen watching a movie, one wishes it turned out differently.Plug in a laptop, make movie on the fly.Similar to video games.Each frame requires 2 hrs on 2.4 GHz Pentium processor. At 30 fps, 2 hr movie 216,000 computers power required so present computational capability is under equipped.

  • State-of-the-artBy the year 2000 it would be feasible to write a program that would, after five minutes of questioning, have at least a 30% chance of fooling an average conversational partner into believing it was a human being Turing

    Loebner Prize $3000 Best in the year.$25,000 A text-only test.$ 100,000 The final prize

  • ELIZAJoseph Weizenbaum, MIT, 1964-1966.Simulates a psychotherapist. Urges user to continue talking.Simple parsing to recognize keywords.Pattern matching and substitution.

  • ALICERichard Wallace. (1995)3 times winner of Loebner prize.Uses AIML (XML driven open source AI language) Supervised learning.Stateless conversation

  • CAPTCHACompletely Automated Public Turing Test to tell Computer and Humans Apart.

    Poll Results, Email registrations, etc

    Types of CaptchaVisual CaptchaAudio Captcha

  • Break a CaptchaTo Break down a visual captcha we have three steps:Background SubtractionSegmentationRecognition

    Captchas like this have been solved

  • ConclusionHelps advance the state of AI.

    Summary of the Turing Test A new interpretation of intelligence independent of computation.

    Fermats Last Theorem Better late than never. A similar case?

    Moravecs Paradox Chasing after the wrong thing?

    A new paradigm of AI research future direction?

  • References1) A. M. Turing. "Computing machinery and intelligence", MIND - A QUARTERLY REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY AND PHILOSOPHY {p.433} [VOL. LIX. No.236.] [October, 1950]

    2) http://en.wikipedia.org/

    3) "Turing Test: 50 Years Later". AYSE PINAR SAYGIN , ILYAS CICEKLI & VAROL AKMAN. Minds and Machines 10: 463518, 2000. 2001 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

    4) Harnad, S. (1991) "Other bodies, Other minds: A machine incarnation of an old philosophical problem", Minds and Machines 1: 43-54. Copyright 1992 Kluwer Academic Publishers

    5)Gunderson, K. (1964), The Imitation Game, Mind 73 pp. 234245.

    6) Hofstadter, D.R. (1982), The Turing Test: A Coffee-House Conversation, in D. Hofstadter and D. Dennett, eds. The Minds I: Fantasies and Reflections on Self and Soul, London, UK: Penguin Books, pp. 6995.

    7) AIML : http://www.alicebot.org/TR/2001/WD-aiml/

    8) Book : The Anatomy of A.L.I.C.E., Dr. Richard S. Wallace, A.L.I.C.E. Artificial Intelligence Foundation, Inc., 1995.

    9) arXiv:cs/0603132v1 [cs.GR] 31 Mar 2006 Graphics Turing Test. Michael McGuigan Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton NY 11973, mcguigan@bnl.gov

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