Biological Communities Chapter 18. 18-1 How Organisms Interact in Communities Objectives Identify...

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Transcript of Biological Communities Chapter 18. 18-1 How Organisms Interact in Communities Objectives Identify...

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Biological Communities Chapter 18 Slide 2 18-1 How Organisms Interact in Communities Objectives Identify the distinguishing features of symbiotic relationships Identify the distinguishing features of symbiotic relationships SCS: B-6.1 Slide 3 Species Evolve in Response to each other Interactions among species Interactions among species Insects/flowers Insects/flowers Coevolution Coevolution Predator/Prey relationships Predator/Prey relationships Predation is when one organism feeds on another Predation is when one organism feeds on another Slide 4 Symbiosis Symbiosis When two or more species live together in a close, long-term association. When two or more species live together in a close, long-term association. Slide 5 Parasitism when one organism feeds on and usually live on or in another Example: Ticks and dogs Ticks benefit, but dogs do not Slide 6 Mutualism a symbiotic relationship in which both benefit from the relationship Mutualism a symbiotic relationship in which both benefit from the relationship Example: flowers and bees Flowers are pollinated and bees have food Slide 7 Commensalism a relationship in which one organism benefits and the other neither is benefits or is harmed Commensalism a relationship in which one organism benefits and the other neither is benefits or is harmed Example: Spanish moss and trees Trees are not hurt nor benefit, but the moss benefits from additional sunlight Slide 8 18-2 How Competition Shapes Communities Objectives Describe the role of competition in shaping the nature of communities Describe the role of competition in shaping the nature of communities Distinguish between fundamental and realized niches Distinguish between fundamental and realized niches Describe how competition affects an ecosystem Describe how competition affects an ecosystem Summarize the importance of biodiversity Summarize the importance of biodiversity SCS: B-6.1, 6.2 Slide 9 Common Use of Scarce Resources leads to competition Common Use of Scarce Resources leads to competition Organisms compete for food, space, light, minerals, and water Organisms compete for food, space, light, minerals, and water Resources must be in short supply if competition occurs Resources must be in short supply if competition occurs Competition can limit how species use resources Competition can limit how species use resources Competition can lead to extinction or elimination of a species Competition can lead to extinction or elimination of a species Slide 10 Niche the role of a species in a ecosystem Niche the role of a species in a ecosystem How does the organism affect the environment How does the organism affect the environment If niches overlap it may cause competition If niches overlap it may cause competition Niches can vary in size Niches can vary in size Slide 11 Predation can lesson competition Predation can lesson competition Eliminates those species less adaptive Eliminates those species less adaptive Promotes biodiversity Promotes biodiversity Slide 12 18-3 Major Biological Communities Objectives Recognize the role of climate in determining the nature of biological communities Recognize the role of climate in determining the nature of biological communities Describe how elevation and latitude affect the distribution of biomes Describe how elevation and latitude affect the distribution of biomes Summarize the key features of the Earths major biomes Summarize the key features of the Earths major biomes SCS: B-6.1, 6.2 Slide 13 Climate determines where species lives Climate determines where species lives Climate is the prevailing weather conditions of an area Climate is the prevailing weather conditions of an area Temperature and moisture Temperature and moisture Temperature and moisture determine biological communities Temperature and moisture determine biological communities Slide 14 Types of Terrestrial Biomes Tundra Tundra Taiga Taiga Desert Desert Grassland Grassland Temperate Forests Temperate Forests Tropical Rain Forests Tropical Rain Forests Slide 15 Slide 16 Tundra extremely short growing season (6 to 10 weeks) extremely short growing season (6 to 10 weeks) long, cold, dark winters (6 to 10 months with mean monthly temperatures below 32 F or 0 C.) long, cold, dark winters (6 to 10 months with mean monthly temperatures below 32 F or 0 C.) low precipitation (less than five inches/year) low precipitation (less than five inches/year) Animals and animals: Musk ox, artic hare and fox, permafrost (permanently frozen ground) Animals and animals: Musk ox, artic hare and fox, permafrost (permanently frozen ground) Slide 17 Slide 18 Taiga Long, severe winters and short summers (50 to 100 frost-free days) are characteristic, as is a wide range of temperatures between the lows of winter and highs of summer. Long, severe winters and short summers (50 to 100 frost-free days) are characteristic, as is a wide range of temperatures between the lows of winter and highs of summer. Mean annual precipitation is 15 to 20 inches, but low evaporation rates make this a humid climate. Mean annual precipitation is 15 to 20 inches, but low evaporation rates make this a humid climate. Vegetation and Animals: Conifers, beaver, lynx, deer, sparrows.. Vegetation and Animals: Conifers, beaver, lynx, deer, sparrows.. Slide 19 Slide 20 Deserts Temperature: Average of 38C (day), average of - 3.9C (night) Temperature: Average of 38C (day), average of - 3.9C (night) Precipitation: About 250 mm of rain per year Precipitation: About 250 mm of rain per year Vegetation: Cacti, small bushes, short grasses Vegetation: Cacti, small bushes, short grasses Animals in the desert: coyotes, lizards and snakes, insects, and even some birds) are adapted for burrowing to escape the scorching heat of the desert sun Animals in the desert: coyotes, lizards and snakes, insects, and even some birds) are adapted for burrowing to escape the scorching heat of the desert sun Slide 21 Slide 22 Grasslands Temperature: Dependent on latitude, yearly range can be between -20C to 30C Temperature: Dependent on latitude, yearly range can be between -20C to 30C Precipitation: About 500 to 900 mm of rain per year Precipitation: About 500 to 900 mm of rain per year Vegetation: Grasses (prairie clover, salvia, oats, wheat, barley, coneflowers) Vegetation: Grasses (prairie clover, salvia, oats, wheat, barley, coneflowers) Animals: bison and antelope Animals: bison and antelope Slide 23 Slide 24 Temperate Forests Temperature: -30C to 30C, yearly average is 10C, hot summers, cold winters Temperature: -30C to 30C, yearly average is 10C, hot summers, cold winters Precipitation: 750 to 1,500 mm of rain per year Precipitation: 750 to 1,500 mm of rain per year Vegetation: Broadleaf trees (oaks, maples, beeches), shrubs, perennial herbs, and mosses Vegetation: Broadleaf trees (oaks, maples, beeches), shrubs, perennial herbs, and mosses Animals: Deer, raccoons, and salamanders are characteristic inhabitants. Animals: Deer, raccoons, and salamanders are characteristic inhabitants. Slide 25 Slide 26 Tropical Rain Forest Temperature: 20C to 25C, must remain warm and frost-free Temperature: 20C to 25C, must remain warm and frost-free Precipitation: 2,000 to 10,000 millimeters of rain per year Precipitation: 2,000 to 10,000 millimeters of rain per year Vegetation: Vines, palm trees, orchids, ferns Vegetation: Vines, palm trees, orchids, ferns Animals and plants: monkeys, cat like mammals, reptiles, insects, diverse flowers, hard wood trees, and medicinal plants Animals and plants: monkeys, cat like mammals, reptiles, insects, diverse flowers, hard wood trees, and medicinal plants Slide 27