Automotive Electronics Issue-4

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POWER TECHNOLOGIES Battery monitors SHOW REPORT Advanced Automotive Electronics TEST & MEASUREMENT Mixed-signal oscilloscopes TELEMATICS Field service management SAFETY Adaptive cruise control PRODUCTS + NEWS + DIARY ISSUE FOUR 2012

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Transcript of Automotive Electronics Issue-4

Page 1: Automotive Electronics Issue-4

power technologies Battery monitors

show reportAdvanced Automotive electronics

test & meAsurementmixed-signal oscilloscopes

telemAticsField service management

sAFetyAdaptive cruise control



For 30 years the world’s leading automotive electronics companies have trusted Green Hills Software’s secure and reliable high performance software for safety-critical applications.

From chassis and safety to powertrain and interior systems, Green Hills Software has been delivering proven and secure underpinning technology.

To find out how the world’s most secure and reliable operating system and software can take the risk out of your automotive electronics project, visit

Copyright © 2012 Green Hills Software. Green Hills Software and the Green Hills logo are registered trademarks of Green Hills Software. All other product names are trademarks of their respective holders.




Page 2: Automotive Electronics Issue-4


CONTENTS 3 issue four 2012 | automotive electronics

Published by: MT Publications Limited, Prudence Place, Proctor Way, Luton, Bedfordshire LU2 9PE, United Kingdom

Tel: +44 (0)1582 722460 Fax: +44 (0)1582 722470

Email: [email protected]


ISSN: 1749-1819

Editor Steve Rogerson, [email protected]

Editorial Contributors: Clive Davis, Kelvin Hagebeuk, Hafeez Najumudeer, Mark Forrest, Siraj Ahmed Shaikh and Padmanabhan Krishan

Designer Victoria Wren, [email protected]

Advertisement Manager David Williams, [email protected]

Circulation & Subscription Manager Wendy Magee, [email protected]

Accounts & Administration Manager Kim Hughes, [email protected]

Publishing Assistant Ruthanne Hornshaw, [email protected]

Publisher David Williams, [email protected]

Automotive Electronics is available to readers in the United Kingdom not meeting the terms of control at an annual rate of £55. The overseas subscription rate is US$130. Automotive Electronics is published six times a year by MT Publications Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of Automotive Electronics may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording on any information storage system without the written consent of the publisher. The publisher cannot be held responsible for loss or damage to unsolicited press releases and/or photographs. Views of contributors and advertisers do not necessarily reflect the policy of Automotive Electronics or those of the publisher. Printed in the UK by Hastings Printing Company Ltd.

4 News

11 Diary

12 AAE ReportSteve Rogerson reports from November’s Advanced Automotive Electronics conference in Daventry

18 Power TechnologiesSteve Rogerson looks at Linear Technology’s claims to have raised the bar for battery monitoring

22 Test & MeasurementClive Davis, Kelvin Hagebeuk and Hafeez Najumudeen discuss how instruments can evolve to meet the latest automotive challenges

26 TelematicsMark Forrest talks about how investment in today’s field service management technology can help streamline business processes to lead to long-term efficiency, profitability and customer retention

30 SafetySiraj Ahmed Shaikh and Padmanabhan Krishnan describe safety analysis carried out for adaptive cruise control

35 Product News




Page 3: Automotive Electronics Issue-4


automotive electronics | issue four 2012

EU launches e35m driver assist programmeThe european Union’s Ar-temis joint technology initia-tive has launched a three-year project to design and develop a tool platform for embedded ad-vanced driver assistance (adas) systems. Started in September, the Deserve project has the backing of car makers Daimler and Volvo.

There are a total of 26 com-panies across nine countries involved in the project, includ-ing Bosch. Continental, DSpace, Infineon and NXP. Total invest-ment in the project is expected to be around e35m.

The project aims to exploit the benefits of cross-domain soft-ware reuse, standard interfaces and easy and safe integration of heterogeneous modules to cope with the expected increase in function complexity. A modular system is also better placed for keeping costs down.

Partners in the project will be looking to develop reference de-signs and architectures to create tools that can be engineered with little effort. The design methods and tools will support the intro-duction of disruptive hardware and software to allow trade-offs

between properties such as cost and robustness.

Cost is important because one of the goals of Deserve is to make adas affordable in the low-end car market.

“The sharing of software and hardware resources will enable higher levels of complexity to be taken into consideration without a proportional increase in the price of the modules and the vehicle,” said a statement from Deserve. “Fast and signifi-cant market penetration will be promoted through relevant cost reductions and Europe’s posi-

Car thieves caught by mesh networkSince iTS launch in March, Tracker’s mesh network has led to the recovery of more than £4m of stolen vehicles. The net-work uses vehicles fitted with SVR units to identify stolen ve-hicles also fitted with Tracker.

This brings drivers together to create a nationwide network of listening vehicles.

“Our latest figures show the success of the Tracker mesh net-work, with well over £4m of sto-len vehicles recovered using this

new vehicle crime detection sys-tem,” said Stephen Doran, man-aging director of Tracker. “Cru-cially, the Tracker mesh network empowers drivers by allowing their cars to be used as detec-tion devices to help police and Tracker combat vehicle crime.”

When a vehicle fitted with Tracker Locate or Plant passes any Tracker SVR equipped vehi-cle that has been reported stolen, it automatically sends a signal with the location of the stolen

tion as a key player in the adas market will be strengthened.”

Deserve aims to create a Eu-ropean standard including me-ta-models, methods and tools for safety-critical hard real-time adas development. It should pro-vide an environment for design, development, pre-validation and even pre-certification of software and hardware for adas applications.

The project acknowledges that multi-core architectures will have to play a key role to reach the necessary levels of perform-ance and safety.

When two is better than oneThis underground car park has provided a good example of how well Aptina’s image coproc-essors work in automotive camera applications. The image on the right shows the building as captured using the firm’s AP0100AT image coprocessor and AR0132AT megapixel HDR (high dynamic range) sensor. The sensor performance is improved because the heat is lower when using a separate coprocessor chip. “Our automotive OEMs need to deliver multiple camera products quickly and efficiently,” said David Zimpfer, vice president and general manager for Aptina’s automotive business. “Meeting this challenge, Aptina created an advanced, flexible two-chip solution that combines megapixel resolution sensor support, superior image quality including HDR, and optimal heat dissipation.”

The AP0100AT and AP0101AT co-processors provide colour processing, auto-function support, noise reduction and adaptive local tone mapping to enhance HDR images. The AP0101AT is for digital surround view systems and the AP0100AT supports 185˚ fisheye lens distortion correc-tion, perspective correction and multiple view options such as split side view and triptych.

car – even if it is hidden in a ga-rage, container or underground car park. Both drivers are totally unaware that the stolen vehicle has been identified.

“Ninety per cent of stolen cars fitted with Tracker are returned to their owners and 80% of these are recovered within 24 hours,” said Doran. “But with the mesh network’s ever-expanding web, designed to catch car criminals, we hope to recover more vehi-cles faster than ever.”

Cantata 6.2 shines at AAEQa SySTemS chose the Ad-vanced Automotive Electronics (AAE) conference and exhibition (see page 12) for its first show-ing of version 6.2 of its Cantata unit and integration testing tool for C/C++ embedded systems.

Including more than 30 sepa-rate enhancements and over 40 fixes, Cantata 6.2 has been spe-cifically developed to simplify, further automate and speed up the software testing procedure. Cantata 6.2 is now also available as a complete built-on Eclipse development environment or as a set of Eclipse-ready plug-ins supporting the most recent four Eclipse releases.

“Since our acquisition of the Cantata++ product line from IPL in March 2012 and our subse-quent rebranding to Cantata, we have been working hard at developing the product to suit the immediate business needs of software developers,” said Andreas Sczepansky, CEO at QA Systems. “Specific industry sec-tors such as aerospace or trans-port have very precise standards that absolutely must be met for business critical and safety criti-cal systems, making testing a fundamental activity within any software development.”

Graham chooses Masternaut for fleetsmaSTernauT haS been se-lected by Graham Construction, one of Ireland’s largest private-ly-held building and civil engi-neering companies, to modern-ise fleet management processes and deliver increased visibility over vehicle deployment and fuel usage.

The telematics provider will install its driver performance products into the fleet of vehi-cles. Graham anticipates saving at least 5% in fuel costs.

“Working with Masternaut will give us much more detailed reporting, fully automated and configured to our needs,” said Karl Teggarty, business man-ager of Graham Construction. “This will allow us to see where the fuel bill is going – by that I mean which vehicles are using the most fuel, and how driving styles contribute to higher fuel consumption.”

The Greener Fleet product can

access data from the vehicle’s Can bus that generates granu-lar data insights into fuel con-sumption and driver behaviour. Measurements of vehicle depre-ciation and cost per kilometre are now also available.

“Masternaut was selected as part of a competitive pitch proc-ess,” said Teggarty. “We carried out a trial period across a sam-ple set of vehicles and were able to achieve significant savings, so we’re really delighted to be rolling it out across the fleet.”

The real-time web-based system replaces the need for manual time and mileage sheets – providing more sophisticated and reliable reporting.

“Graham is really planning to make the most of the function-ality that the product offers and the ability to customise report-ing to deliver the insights they need from big data,” said Martin Hiscox, CEO of Masternaut. issue four 2012 | automotive electronics

Continental and Freescale team up on 32bitFreeScale aimed to strengthen its position in the automotive mar-ket with a string of announcements at November’s Elec-tronica show in Mu-nich leading with a quad-core 32bit mi-crocontroller that it has jointly developed with Continental.

Aimed at electronic brak-ing systems (EBS) and chas-sis control, the device contains 4.75Mbyte of flash memory, 256kbyte of sram and Conti-nental’s fail-safe technology, which meets the requirements for ISO26262 Asil D and Sil3 according to IEC61508 applica-tions.

“Freescale and Continental have worked together for many years and this is the first device using a fault-tolerant system,” E-OCT12-023-Action:Layout 1 15/10/2012 09:54 Page 1

first device in the family integrates four e200z4 cores based on Power Architecture technol-

ogy. This is claimed to be the indus-try’s first quad-core automotive MCU with two

pairs of cores in redundant lockstep.

“ D e v e l -oping a quad-

core MCU based on Power Architecture technology with this level of integration, redun-dancy and functionality rede-fines innovation,” said Cornyn. “The resulting device has the potential to provide unprec-edented levels of performance and safety for new generations of braking systems.”

Also announced at Electroni-ca were the Qorivva MPC5777M quad-core MCU aimed at engine

fuel saving applications, Xtrinsic pressure sensors for automotive engine control and green vehi-cle applications, and an Xtrinsic radar transmitter for automotive active safety systems.

“The MPC5777M is our most advanced powertrain control-ler,” said Cornyn. “We have just supplied samples to the first tier ones for engine management use.”

said Ray Cornyn, Freescale’s vice president for automotive microcontrollers.

The two firms have collaborat-ed on a custom MCU programme called Quasar (for quad-core microcontroller for automotive safety and reliability) designed to provide the processing intel-ligence for Continental’s next-generation EBS products. The

Ray Cornyn: “Freescale and Continental have worked together for many years.”

Qorivva MPC5777M quad-core MCU

Page 4: Automotive Electronics Issue-4


automotive electronics | issue four 2012

Green Hills and Obigo join forces on web platformGreen hillS Software and Obigo, an HTML5 platform com-pany, are working together on products for automotive info-tainment and digital instrument manufacturers. Obigo products go into automotive, IPTV and mobile software, web applica-tions and services.

The two companies will offer Obigo’s HTML5 web products integrated and optimised for use with the Green Hills Integrity rtos and secure Multivisor virtu-alisation technology.

This will lets automotive info-tainment and digital instrument manufacturers bring scalable, graphics-rich products to mar-ket rapidly and with high levels of security.

With more than 800 million units fielded in the mobile indus-try since 1998 and licensed for use in the commercial automobile market since 2001, Obigo brings the browser market to Green Hills’

customers. The HTML5 platform consists of an HTML5 browser, web runtime, web applications and device API extensions.

“When combining Obigo’s product breadth and experience

with the Green Hills Platform for Digital Instruments, developers are enabled to design the most scalable vehicle HMI solutions while delivering the highest per-formance, security and reliabil-

ity,” said Dan Mender, vice presi-dent of business development for Green Hills Software.

Obigo has extended its web offering to include automotive-centric device APIs that facilitate secure data sharing and control of vehicle diagnostic, sensor data and more over HTTP. The browser and web runtime, when com-bined with Integrity, deliver what is claimed to be the industry’s first automotive-grade secured HTML5 web platform, providing secured device API access. When combined with Multivisor, the platform can be used as an HMI rendering engine that allows use of the same HMI engine in a guest os-agnostic manner.

“Obigo is pleased to be inte-grated with Green Hills’ indus-try-leading product offerings currently in use by the demand-ing automotive marketplace,” said Obigo president David Hwang. “We are excited to see this partnership address the dif-ficult challenges around design-ing for maximum platform scal-ability, security and reliability while delivering next-genera-tion, advanced HMI solutions to the car.”• Green Hills has announced the availability of an Autosar compatible API for the Integrity rtos.

Keeping track around the worldMore than 50,000 people around the world logged on to monitor the progress of Mike Perham, the youngest person to circumnavigate the world alone by land. From July to October, the 20-year-old travelled more than 37,000km across 20 countries to raise money for disaster relief charity Shelterbox.

Leeds-based vehicle tracking company Remote Asset Management (Ram) provided the tracking kit for this feat, allowing thousands to log on and use real-time monitoring to keep up to date with Perham’s progress minute by minute.

During one moment on his trip, he was stuck in Alaska at -20˚C, at which point both his watch and mobile failed and his car battery froze solid. The vehicle tracking device remained working, ensuring family and friends knew he was still moving and safe.

“It has been an absolute pleasure to support Mike as he embarked on this world’s first,” said James Taylor (standing) from Ram. “Being part of something like this is brilliant and knowing we were playing an active part in not only Mike’s safety, but also the joy of others tracking his progress was fantastic.”

Green Hills and Obigo are working together on web applications for the car

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Page 5: Automotive Electronics Issue-4


automotive electronics | issue four 2012

Eris targets automotive for diodes expansionTaiwaneSe company Eris Technology has made its first tentative steps into the automo-tive market for its diode prod-ucts following the company re-ceiving ISO/TS16949 certifica-tion last year.

Currently, only 1% of its out-put goes into automotive but it is targeting tier one companies in south-east Asia for its prod-ucts, which, according to execu-tive vice president Vincent Chi-ang, are a good fit for infotain-ment systems.

“We are just at the beginning for automotive,” said Chiang at October’s Taitronics electron-ics exhibition in Taipei. “We are

selling to a Korean company, but we don’t exactly know what it is being used in but probably a car camera and video system.”

He said his company had not set clear targets for how the au-tomotive market would expand during the next two years.

“You need to spend a very long time to get accepted, so it is hard to set targets,” he said. “You can spend one to two years just to get one part number ac-cepted.”

He said expanding in Korea would be the first step followed by Taiwan and China.

“Then Japan will be a few years later because it is so dif-ficult,” he said.

Asked whether it was worth the effort, he replied: “When you get into automotive, it is

Audi and NXP form strategic partnership

of its latest-generation auto-motive infotainment system to Audi. The MMI Navigation Plus platform is a fully integrated infotainment unit to facilitate high-quality playback of diverse music and video files through seamless connectivity via such devices as IPod, hard disk drive, smart phones and USB devices. The system will premiere aboard the 2013 Audi A3.

audi and NXP Semiconductors have signed a strategic partner-ship focussing on automotive electronics application segments ranging from in-vehicle net-working and car entertainment, to emerging technologies for the connected car. This includes car-to-X communications, telemat-ics, near field communications and high-voltage controls for electrical vehicles.

“The partnership is another milestone in our progressive semiconductor programme (PSCP) and underscores the mu-tual trust that both corporations have built over many years,” said Ricky Hudi, chief execu-tive engineer for electrics and electronics at Audi. “In addi-tion, NXP’s strategy to provide the electronic interfaces for the connected car is smart and gives clear indications for Audi’s fu-ture plans.”

The PSCP is a semiconductor strategy aimed at intensifying the role of semiconductor com-panies in the processes of the German car manufacturer.

“It’s a real honour to serve as a strategic innovation partner to Audi in the premium car market, and is a testament to the indus-try recognising NXP’s excellent

customer support, commitment to deliver top quality solutions and above all our innovation power,” said Kurt Sievers, gen-eral manager for NXP’s auto-motive business. “Our strong collaboration with Audi rein-forces that NXP’s focus on tech-nologies for the connected car is spot on with where the industry is going.”• Harman has started deliveries

Vincent Chiang: “You need to spend a very long time to get accepted.”

Ricky Hudi (left) and Kurt Sievers

Power battle fo trucksenocean iS hoping its en-ergy harvesting technology will win the day over solar pow-er for a wireless warning sys-tem being de-veloped in the UK for trucks. The system will alert the driver of faulty bulbs anywhere on the truck, but the company developing the tech-nology hasn’t decided which technology to use to power the system.

“As the truck bumps along, you get vibrations to give enough power to give a signal,” said John Corbett, Enocean’s sales director, at the recent Elec-tronica exhibition in Munich. “This is still in development and they may go for solar power. It may go one way or another.”

He said it would be about nine months before the system would be on the market and thus couldn’t name the company car-rying out the development.

He also said a company was looking at the technology for on-off switches in non-com-mercial domestic vehicles.

John Corbett: “It may go one way or another.”

not easy to be displaced, so it becomes very stable. Also, the profit is much higher than in the consumer market. A diode is a very small part of a car so they don’t mind spending a small amount more for quality.”

Two of the company’s prod-ucts launched at the show were aimed specifically at the auto-motive market. The DO-221AC is for automotive and LED light-ing while the TO-220SG is pri-marily for power supply appli-cations but can also be used in automotive.

The firm was established in 1995 and has factories in Tai-wan and Shanghai.

TT helps Mercedes develop kers for S ClassThe mercedeS S Class will be one of the first vehicles to use a derivative of the kers energy re-covery technology used in For-mula One cars. The German car maker is working with TT Elec-tronics to develop a version that is viable for commercial cars.

“We need to make it lighter and smaller, and we have to condense it without using the expensive technologies of a For-mula One vehicle,” said David Winter, TT’s vice president of global sales, at the Electronica exhibition in Munich. “We have built up the knowledge to work on this.”

He said the company had been working on Formula One vehi-cles and he said it could use that experience of working in such a quickly developing market.

“We worked on Formula One and we have to look at how to commercialise that product go-ing forward,” he said. “We are

in discussions with companies about that.”

The company is also launch-ing a range of resistors for automotive ap-plications to offer protection against surges if the battery is disconnected.

“The challenges in the hybrid vehicle market can be summed up with the word ‘power’,” he said. “We have resistors in these vehicles and we are looking at how we can put our power mod-ules in there. This is about reli-ability and high temperature op-eration. You don’t want to have to repair things. It is a challeng-ing environment.”

He said it would probably be about 18 months before the company had power modules ready for these applications. issue four 2012 | automotive electronics

Influx cuts data logger pricesinFlux TechnoloGieS is hoping that the price of its Rebel LT data logger will make it pop-ular with large fleets despite its reduced functionality. The com-pany is selling it at around the £1000 mark, which it says is at least 50% cheaper than many high-end models. These include products from the likes of Etas and Vector.

But it has achieved this by re-ducing the number of features compared with its existing Rebel XT product.

“The idea is that it will be more affordable for those with large fleets,” said Lance Keen, Influx director, at the Advanced Engi-neering show in Birmingham in November. “These are tradition-ally a lot more expensive.”

The reduced cost has been achieved by lowering the IP rating and making the product

less robust.“There is also no on-de-

vice display,” said Keen. “It is also slower than our high-end model.”

But he said the two data log-gers used the same software and set-up techniques.

“But if you want more data and higher speeds, then use the high-end data logger,” he said.

Lance Keen with the Rebel LT

David Winter: “We have to look at how to commercialise that product.”

Page 6: Automotive Electronics Issue-4


automotive electronics | issue four 2012

Micrel continues attack on Most

McLaren lands Formula E contract

micrel conTinued its attack on the Most connectivity stand-ard during the Electronica show in Munich in November. The company has recently joined forces with Marvell to push Eth-ernet as the best network for in-car communications (AE, issue three, 2012), but it knows first it has to break the hold of Most.

“Most is an open stand-ard with a single source,” said Micrel’s senior product manager Mike Jones at the show. “Price, bandwidth and power savings have not been delivered. With-out competition, the rate of change is slower.”

mclaren elecTronic Sys-tems is to provide the electric en-gine, transmission and electron-ics for cars that will participate in the FIA’s new Formula E series.

McLaren will be a partner of Spark Racing Technology, which is led by Frédéric Vasseur and is dedicated to the creation and as-sembly of the electric cars par-ticipating in Formula E.

McLaren and Spark will work together to design and assemble the electric cars, which will soon be racing around cities across the globe.

“I’m a passionate believer in the role that motorsport can play

The company makes power management and network-ing products, which it says go well together in the likes of IP cameras. Key to this is its ripple

in showcasing and spearheading the development of future tech-nologies, and regard the Formu-la E concept as an exciting in-novation for global motorsport,” said Martin Whitmarsh, CEO of the McLaren Group. “McLaren has worked with Frédéric Vas-seur for many years, and our association has been very suc-cessful.”

The Formula E Championship will be launched in 2014. It will only use electric powered cars, will run exclusively in major international cities and has the assets needed to reach a world-wide audience. As well as being

blocker technology that can be used to block noise.

“The sensor guys get excited about our ripple blocker because it reduces the noise,” said Jones. “The main area is automotive; that is a key market for us.”

He said that going forward cars were going to be covered with cameras, not just for rear view but for detecting road markings, signs, people, objects and so on.

“When you start networking these, Ethernet is the de facto for networking,” he said. “You need bandwidth. You don’t want compression.”

an urban race series, it will fa-cilitate the development of elec-tric car technology that could one day be used in mainstream road cars.

“I am proud and happy to give birth to this project that is inno-vative and extremely rewarding for a company both technically and philosophically,” said Vas-seur. “Personally, I can write a new chapter, regardless of my other ventures in motorsport. Confidence and commitment from our partner McLaren is a guarantee of quality and relia-bility without which this project would not have been possible.”

mouSer elecTronicS has added four block diagrams to its automotive applications web site. These should help design engineers find the latest auto-motive advancements.

They can source product in-formation via block diagram navigation, and pinpoint the technical resources. The site also has some of the latest prod-ucts from manufacturers such as Texas Instruments, Murata, Molex, ST Microelectronics and Infineon.

The four application diagrams cover braking systems (ABS), electric power steering, central body control and seat control. This is in addition to its focus of covering the instrument cluster, rear vision systems, keyless en-try, plus other industry news and technical resources.

The block diagram naviga-tion and streamlined graphical interface is designed to speed navigation. Combined with the featured products section, en-gineers can quickly steer them-selves to products and informa-tion based on defined param-eters and engineering standards – all centred on automotive-specific design needs. Engineers can review application notes, white papers and videos, as well as automotive-ready products.

To learn more, visit

Blocks aid application search

Mike Jones: “Without competition, the rate of change is slower.”

What the Formula E cars will look like

Central body control application block diagram

Toshiba plans security updateToShiba elecTronicS has designed a security module for automotive microcontrollers, which is said to meet standards aimed at protecting vehicle elec-tronics against hacking, tamper-ing and software IP theft.

The TSM module was devel-oped at the company’s Eldec European automotive LSI devel-opment centre n Düsseldorf, and will be built into future genera-tions of the company’s automo-tive microcontrollers, with the first expected to be sampling as early as spring next year.

The module’s firmware is, as a first release step, compliant with the Secure Hardware Ex-tension (She) version 1.1 speci-fication of the Herstellerinitia-tive Software (HIS), a technical collaboration between five Ger-

man car manufacturers.The hardware security module

has its own sub-CPU core that manages a symmetric AES-128 cryptographic engine along with other security elements. As a result, it provides security and tamper resistance without consuming host microcontroller CPU resources.

“Our TSM will help the auto-motive industry prevent intellec-tual property theft or manipula-tion, which is a significant threat as an increasing proportion of innovations in new car models are now software based,” said Klaus Neuenhueskes of Toshiba Electronics. “Moreover, the strong security afforded by our She-compliant TSM will protect car owners against abuses such as tampering with odometer set-

tings, or sub-standard servicing by unqualified agents.”

The company plans to imple-ment it in future variants of its automotive microcontrollers based on the Arm Cortex proces-sor architecture, and will release software libraries to support the devices. Future updates compli-ant with upcoming standards (for example, in accordance with Evita Medium requirements) in-cluding TSM firmware updates are planned.

The related software librar-ies for the main microcontroller CPU will enable developers to design in accordance with the latest version of the automotive industry’s common software in-frastructure promoting modu-larity, scalability, transferability and re-usability. issue four 2012 | automotive electronics





will send an email alert to the main system,” he said. “It will stay there until it has been dealt with. It can also be pushed direct to the workshop.”

Penny Lyon, managing director of Cumfybus, said: “The compre-hensive workshop system manages our scheduling and maintenance compliance, and we have intro-duced the driver’s walk around check to manage the driver’s first use inspection. As a management team, we can instantly see the checks as they are completed and can rectify defects efficiently, sav-ing downtime.”

AFTER SIX years of successful operation on trucks, Magic In-ternet Technologies is moving its internet based fleet management system over to the bus market. And after trials with Cumfybus in Merseyside and Airporter in Derry, the company officially launched the system – called Busfile – at the Eurobus show in Birmingham in November.

The previous Truckfile prod-uct was introduced in 2006, has 11,000 users and has been installed on around 110,000 commercial ve-hicles.

“We have now moved into the bus market,” said Paul Whitting-ham, marketing manager. “We have done one in Northern Ireland and one in Liverpool and we are talking with a lot more.”

The system lets fleet operators scan in legal documents such as MoTs and safety certificates and produces a document timeline so the user can see all relevant docu-ments for a particular vehicle on a particular date.

“The history is kept for the life of the vehicle,” said Whittingham. “If you have internal workshops, you can set up workshop schedules

Fleet manager moves to buses

and email alerts.”A compliance management fea-

ture can be used to prove all the maintenance has been done at a set time. An option is an electronic check system for drivers.

“Some drivers just sit in their cabins and tick boxes,” said Whit-tingham. “This system means they have to get up and walk round the vehicle.”

The driver has to scan in QR codes situated around the vehicle and then answer on a handheld device various safety questions re-lated to that location.

“If the driver finds a defect, that

Paul Whittingham demonstrates how Busfile works

Consumer Electronics Show8th-11th January 2013Las Vegas,

Autosport International10th-13th January 2013Birmingham,

North American International Auto Show16th-27th January 2013Detroit,

Automotive World16th-18th January 2013Tokyo,

V2X for Auto Safety & Mobility20th-21st February 2013Frankfurt,

Advanced Battery Development26th-27th February 2013Aachen,

Embedded World26th-28th February 2013Nuremberg,

Geneva International Motor Show7th-17th March

Commercial Vehicle Show9th-11th April 2013Birmingham,

Autotronics10th-13th April 2013Taipei,

Most Forum23 April 2013Stuttgart,

Global Automotive Components & Suppliers4th-6th June 2013Stuttgart, Germanywww.globalautomotivecomponentsand

Page 7: Automotive Electronics Issue-4


automotive electronics | issue four 2012

Steve Rogerson reports from November’s

Advanced Automotive Electronics

conference in Daventry

AAE 2012 was held at

the Daventry Court Hotel

13 issue four 2012 | automotive electronics

Market showing steady growth despite problems in EuropeDespite a somewhat gloomy picture in Europe, the market for automotive electronics is continuing with an overall steady growth, according to Ian Riches, director of global automotive practice at Strategy Analytics.

“There has been quite steady growth in automotive electronics, and that will continue,” he told delegates.

One of the key drivers, however, is the number of cars being produced, and here the outlook has been worsening over the past year, with the situation in Europe particularly bad. This is being countered by the growth in the amount of electronics per vehicle.

“But the content per car average could be flattening off,” he said. “This is because of production transferring to India and China where the content of electronics tends to be lower. This is dragging down the global average.”

At the moment, he said, the market for automotive electronics was growing at about 10 to 20% per year worldwide.

to get into with huge investment from a relatively small number of players.”

Connectivity requirements are growing with people wanting to connect their smart phone with the car, but navigation systems, once a fast growth area, have stalled.

“The days of £2000 navigation systems have gone,” said Riches. “People now either expect navigation as a standard fit, or use their phones, or buy a £100 Tomtom system.”

The news from the USA of some states allowing a degree of autonomous driving, albeit always with a human in overall control, has led to speculation as to whether this will take off in a big way.

“Fully autonomous vehicles will take many years to mature,” said Riches. “But humans are becoming more willing to hand over parts of the control to the car. Cruise control has become accepted and it will grow as more autonomous features become available. The first autonomous system was parking and that is becoming more sophisticated.

In Europe, this growth was only 5%, with the UK bucking the trend slightly with a growth of 10%.

“Automotive electronics is a growing market, but Europe is a back water,” he said. “It is the weakest region. But the emerging markets are more fragmented.”

As to car types, he the said the fastest growth in electronics was in the smaller vehicles. This was particularly noticeable in India where production of small cars was increasing rapidly.

Other fast growth areas, unsurprisingly, are hybrid and electric vehicles, plus the trend towards advanced driver assistance systems (adas).

The problem with the HEV and EV market though is the lack of a large number of players. Toyota, for example, is responsible for 70% of the market, and even though that is shrinking as more car makers take the plunge, Riches predicted that even by 2019 it would still have 25%.

“There is very big market potential in HEV and EV,” he said, “but it is a tricky market

We are seeing more steps in this direction but it won’t be an overnight thing.”

The Euro NCap rating could start to play a major role in this, he said, as the indications are that within a few years cars will have to have some form autonomous braking system if they are to get the full five stars.

These types of driver assist-ance were one of the fastest growth areas, he said, and features such as cruise control were moving from premium brands into more cheaper cars. Here, though, some are levelling off the cost of making the car by making structural savings.

“If a car never crashes,” said Riches, “it can be made out of paper. The structural aspects become less important.”

However, conference chair Elias Stipidis, director of the vetronics research centre at Brighton University, asked whether extra safety systems could have the opposite effect to what was intended.

“These increase safety to a certain extent,” he said. “But

Elias Stipidis: “These increase safety to a certain extent,”

Ian Riches: “If a car never crashes, it can be made out of paper.”

Philip Clarke: “Your brain still has to process a lot of information.”

Chris Hills: “Will you have to have different driving tests?”

Mark Fowkes: “We might have to see what accidents are caused before we can regulate.”

if these sensors bombard the driver with all this information, does the driver spend more time looking at this information and thus damage the safety?”

Philip Clarke, business manager for DSpace, said it was a matter of how this information was presented to the driver.

“Is it giving the driver raw data or making it more intuitive?” he said. “The driver is processing enough raw data from looking out of the window. It is possible to misinterpret a complex image. It is a question of how the ECU interprets the information and presents it to the driver.”

An alternative problem is that if there is too much autonomous control, the driver may lose concentration because he or she starts to think the car can handle any situation. This is a problem that airlines have already come across.

“On long-distance airlines, they are finding that the pilots are going to sleep because all the senor information is being handled automatically,” said Chris Hills, CTO of Phaedrus Systems. “Could this happen with car drivers? Will the driver start fading out the information?”

Head-up displays are one way to help in that the driver can see the information from the car while still being focussed on the road.

“But your brain still has to process a lot of information,” said Clarke.

This raises the question of how to design a system that can suit all drivers with such a vast difference in skills and

concentration levels.“It is important to understand

the impact of new technology on drivers,” said Mark Fowkes, senior engineer at Mira. “People have a range of driving skills from the naïve to the more experienced. If you allow the driver to tune the system, is it being done correctly? If someone else is tuning it, how do they know the driver?”

Hills also raised the question of how these systems will affect

the driving test.“Will you have to have

different driving tests?” he said. “You have to have them for geared and automatic cars. Maybe there will be tests for with and without a head-up display.”

But Fowkes said it was hard to regulate for these systems until we knew how drivers would use them.

“We might have to see what accidents are caused before we

can regulate,” he said.There is also the Volvo factor,

which happened in the 1980s when the Volvo cars were so solidly built that their drivers believed they couldn’t be hurt and some drove accordingly giving the car the reputation of being the worse driven car in Britain.

“If people are aware they have safety systems, they tend to drive in a more reckless way,” said Clarke.

Feeling the futureDelegates were treated to a rare chance of experiencing a rather unusual DeLorean car with this full-scale replica of the vehicle made famous in the iconic Back to the Future films. Built by a former Nasa electrical engineer who used to work at Universal Studios, the car is not only screen accurate but can also perform some of the special effects. And they can all be activated wirelessly along with audio clips from the film. Sadly, though, the time travel function was disabled and all the delegates were still in 2012 at the end of the show. The car was provided by Fusion Time Travel.

Page 8: Automotive Electronics Issue-4


automotive electronics | issue four 2012

Controlling ECUs to save powerHaving all the ECUs in a car running at full power all the time is wasteful and electric vehicles will struggle to maintain that. Even petrol engines are using more fuel to handle the power requirements and ways need to be found to control the use of the ECUs just to what is necessary.

For every 100W of energy in a car, that uses an extra 0.1 litre of fuel per 100km, which equates to 2.5g of CO2 per kilogram, according to Alistair Robertson, a systems engineer with Freescale Semiconductor. Passenger cars worldwide account for about 5.5% of CO2 emissions and in Europe that rises to 12%.

“Fuel costs are doubling every ten years,” said Robertson. “Any

impact, however slight, on fuel efficiency is welcome.”

He is looking at ways banks of ECUs can be switched off when not used to save power as well as considering standard techniques such as sleep and standby modes.

“The goal is to spend as much time as possible outside the full run mode,” he said. “Another technique is to only clock what is required. Controlling the clock is a major contributor to the power. You can stop the clock and only wake it up when it needs to do something.”

Multi-core, which is becoming more popular in automotive, he said, also gave more performance per milliwatt. He also encouraged designers to find way of doing

things without using the CPU.“The CPU is the most power

hungry module in the core,” he said, “so if you can disable that and let something less powerful do the job then you can save a lot.”

Another technique is to use partial networking where individual or groups of ECUs can be started up and shut down as needed, and this includes the communications with the ECUs. The alternative is pretended networks where ECUs are switched to a low power mode while keeping up bus connections.

“This is a local approach,” said Robertson. “It doesn’t need something else telling it to shut down; it does it itself. You

Alistair Robertson: “The CPU is the most power hungry module in the core.”

15 issue four 2012 | automotive electronics

Autosar falls short on diagnostic interfaceOne Of the problems with Autosar is the diagnostic event manager, basically an API that forms the bridge between the diagnostic software and the interface seen by the engineers and service personnel. However, this interface is too much geared towards software engineers, according to David Price, chief technical officer at Pi Innovo.

“The API is very much written for software engineers,” he said, “which means you need another layer to translate for the systems guys. This probably leads to errors when you cross the boundary. The fewer APIs the better as there is less scope for confusion.”

He proposed a single API that

sat on the boundary between the infrastructure and the monitors. And he described the infrastructure as like an iceberg with the bulk of it unseen by those who do diagnostic work.

“It is a complex area,” he said. “There are over 3000 pages of specifications that you have to follow. But the service guys just need to know what is wrong with the car and how it can be fixed.”

While similar, the regulations are slightly different for each country. And the systems have to handle the problems of different vehicles.

“So, you can be more abstract or more flexible with the API,” said Price. “You have to decide

how much flexibility you want or how much you want it to do what the regulations say. You have to be aware of the 3000 pages of regulations but have enough flexibility to work round the wrinkles depending on which vehicle you are working with.”

He said the API choice therefore depended on the target audience.

“What do the guys who are designing the monitors want to think about?” he asked. “They are generally working with high-level tools such as Simulink, so you want the interface to work in the language with Simulink blocks.”

The idea he said was to configure it so the user sees the simple stuff and the complex stuff

is underneath.“It is the simple high-level

interface that is the important thing,” he said. “You have to build up all the blocks underneath that manage the data. And then you have to put it all together with all the faults. There is a lot. There can be 500 to 1000 faults. The target audience are system engineers and not software experts, so you need to hide all the software.”

Can one DC-DC converter handle all the voltage levels?if eurOpean Union CO2 and tailgate emission targets for 2020 are going to be met, then electric and hybrid electric vehicles will be necessary, but to get the most out of these a more efficient way must be found for converting battery voltages into other voltages needed round the car.

Peter Tibbles, research mana-ger for Prodrive, reported on the work from two consortia looking at producing an all-in-one DC-DC converter that can handle the temperature difficulties encountered in vehicles.

The EU has set targets for both 2015 and 2020, but Tibbles said the targets for 2015 could be met by improving existing technology.

“The industry is slightly ahead of the curve with more fuel efficient vehicles and more diesels,” he said. “To hit the 2015 target, that will be done by making existing technology more efficient. But to get to the 2020 target, a lot more work needs to be done, and that is where they are looking to HEVs

and EVs. It is forcing the market to do things differently, and one way is to electrify part of the drive train.”

If an electric vehicle has a 200 to 250V battery, a DC-DC converter is needed to bring that down to 12V for the legacy systems in a car. But if another DC-DC converter increases that to 500 to 600V for the motor, the current and the losses can be reduced.

“You can have smaller battery packs and use DC-DC conversion to boost the voltage for the motor,” he said. “This is the way it has gone on the Prius range.”

He said though there was no clear winner on finding a

technology that suits all drive cycles for electric vehicles.

“There are a lot of technologies being touted as the next big thing for automotive,” he said.

Prodrive was part of a consortium set up in 2010 to look at DC-DC converters. Other partners included Manchester University, Raytheon and Tata.

The key part of the work they are doing is using silicon carbide (SiC) for the semiconductor material.

“This has significant advantages over silicon,” said Tibbles. “It will operate at higher voltages and temperatures. It can switch at much higher frequencies, and this means you can reduce the size of the capacitors and inductors. You can also reduce the size of the cooling pack and ultimately delete the cooling pack.”

However, the main problem with SiC is that it is relatively new and hence more expensive that silicon. The goal though of the consortium is to reduce the cost of the entire system and have it in a much smaller package.

Peter Tibbles: “Our goal is to have a single box.”

don’t need dedicated hardware to support this. But the power savings are not as great as with partial networks.”

He said though there was a limit to what could be done within the microcontroller and that system-wide techniques had to be applied.

Another problem concerns high temperature operation. SiC can work at up to 500˚C but the other parts in the package need to do the same, including the box in which it all sits. Thus another consortium was set up in July this year to look at all the temperature issues. This will run for two years and, as well as Prodrive, its members include TT Electronics, GE, Ricardo and Warwick University.

“Our goal is to have a single box that can handle multiple ins and outs and work both ways,” said Tibbles. “It will reduce complexity. We also want some sort of plug-and-play capability.”

This means all the different voltage levels in the vehicle can be handled from a single device. Because that becomes a hub for the vehicle’s power management requirements, there is the potential to add other functionalities using software.

The next stage of the project will be looking at the safety aspects and the effects of ISO 26262. That will start in the new year.

Different approaches to consolidating ECUstHe number of ECUs in a car is increasing with each generation, with some models having up to 150 units and some 1.5km of cable connecting them.

One answer appears to be ECU consolidation. But this must be done in a way that maintains safety and security – non-critical systems must not interfere with crucial functions.

Yet consolidation must take place when more electronics is being called for in cars, such as adaptive cruise control and other advanced driver assistance systems (adas), as well as c o m m u n i c a t i o n s with other vehicles and information infrastructures (V2V and V2I).

Two approaches were put, one by Franz Walkembach, senior project manager at Wind River, and one by Rolland Dudemaine, technical manager at Green Hills Software.

“The car is becoming a node to the cloud,” said Walkembach. “There are lots of devices in the car that are communicating with each other.”

Dudemaine added: “One way to reduce power is to reduce the number of chips, and thus the number of boards and the amount of cable in the system. You also want to reduce the software complexity, but software complexity is going up not down.”

One of the first tasks when considering consolidation is to look at how ECUs can be grouped together into areas such as powertrain, chassis, body, safety, adas, and V2V and V2I communications.

“The number of ECUs is going down in the older groups but growing in areas

such as adas, V2V and V2I,” said Walkembach. “And the number of sensors in the car is growing by about 50% per year. The question is how to consolidate.”

The obvious answer is to put more functionality on the chips, which not only reduces the number of chips but also the communications needed. However, Dudemaine warned that this came with dangers.

“If a failure crashes the whole system,” he said, “there is no easy way to see where the failure occurred. If you integrate more functions, you have stability problems.”

Walkembach said there were three main options, the first being letting the software run on a main ECU with one operating system. Alternatively, have virtual management of devices or virtual ECUs taking advantage of multi-core technology.

Considering virtualisation, there were three options: a hypervisor or virtual machine monitor; Linux containers; or Linux kernel-based virtual machines (KVMs).

“It all depends on the use,” said Walkembach, “or how many software partitions, graphics, user interfaces and real-time requirements that influence what operating system to use.”

In the virtualisation and partitioning approach, there would be a single or multi-core processor on top of which sits the hypervisor and on top of that the virtual machines each with a guest operating system.

“Virtualisation lets you partition a system and that gives

Franz Walkembach: “The question is how to consolidate.”

Rolland Dudemaine: “A separation kernel brings freedom from interference.”

you fast boot options,” said Walkembach. “When one p a r t i t i o n crashes you can define the hype rv i so r such that other par–titions don’t see it at all.”

Each partition can have the data assigned in different ways, from no trust to full trust, and they can have definitions specifying how the data are transmitted.

Dubemaine believes the answer to these problems is to use a separation kernel.

“This means the amount of code with access to all the systems is the minimum possible,” he said. “The application code has no way to access memory from outside its own application.”

He said the operating system could guarantee there were no unintended communications as the user could define all the paths that were allowed.

“A separation kernel brings freedom from interference when integrating multiple ECUs on one chip,” he said.

David Price: “You need to hide all the software.”

Page 9: Automotive Electronics Issue-4


automotive electronics | issue four 2012

How to keep Formula One cars on tracktHe prOblems of keeping the electronics working on a Formula One car can be nightmarish but it could all become even worse as new control units and powertrains are brought in for all teams over the next two years.

Peter van Manen, managing director of McLaren Electronic Systems, explained to delegates in his keynote speech how, with so little testing, the development of a Formula One car continues throughout the racing season.

“There are three to eight large engineering upgrades in the two weeks between races,” he said. “Teams are making thousands of components each year. And it is a very violent environment in which they have to operate.”

And with in-season testing banned these upgrades are only really put to the test on the

each car sending about 1.5Gbyte per race. The people at the team’s headquarters are also receiving the same real-time data so they can provide inputs as well.

“In the one hundred minutes of a race, everything has to be reliable,” he said, raising a few smiles given McLaren’s problems this season.

McLaren provides the electronic control unit for all the cars, and van Manen explained the difficulties in keeping it cool. Though it might seem logical to use the airflow from the fast moving vehicle to provide the cooling, this is a bad idea as it can compromise the finely tuned aerodynamics.

The team’s current challenge though is building the new control unit for the 2013 season ready for the new powertrains due to be introduced in 2014.

Delegates browse the exhibits at the Advance Automotive Electronics show

“It is quite an exciting stage,” he said.

One big difference will be that the processor will be partitioned in a way that will allow all the teams to write some of their own software.

“We will create a single version of the software that everyone uses but there will be elements that the teams can use,” he said. “It will be standard electronics with the flexibility the engineers will need when they build the new powertrains.”

race weekend, which is why telemetry plays such a crucial role in grand prix racing. A race car, for example, will have around 120 sensors.

“These are very highly strung machines,” said van Manen, “so we monitor the health to see very quickly if something goes wrong. Also, with no testing during the season, it is important to monitor the cars to get the optimal set-up.”

He said that teams build the car, spend the season trying to make it better and then throw it away and start again.

“So we need to understand what we have very quickly,” he said.

During a race, he said, up to 500 parameters were being logged at about 1kHz. Around 2.4Mbit/s of data are being sent from the car to the garage, with

Peter van Manen: “Teams are making thousands of components each year.”

Page 10: Automotive Electronics Issue-4

18 Power Technologies

automotive electronics | issue four 2012

Lithium-ion batteries require considerable care if they are expected to operate reliably over a long period. They cannot

be operated to the extreme end of their state-of-charge (SoC). The capacity of Li-ion cells diminish and diverge over time and usage, so every cell in a system must be managed to keep it within a constrained SoC.

To provide sufficient power for a vehicle, tens or hundreds of battery cells are required. These cells must be configured in a long series; as much as 1kV and higher. The battery electronics must operate in this very high-voltage environment and reject common mode voltage effects, while differentially measuring and controlling each cell in these strings. The electronics must be able to translate information from the battery stack to a central point for processing.

On top of these requirements, operating a high-voltage battery stack in a vehicle or other high-power applications imposes tough conditions, such as operation with significant electrical noise and wide operating temperatures. The battery management electronics are expected to increase operating range, lifetime, safety and reliability, while reducing cost, size and weight.

Battery managementThe electronic system that measures and manages the battery stack (also known as the BMS, or battery management system) has three key requirements.

First, the BMS must know the health of each battery cell in the stack. Primarily, this is accomplished by estimating the SoC of each cell in the battery system. The current SoC can be combined with historical

information for determining the status of each cell.

Secondly, the BMS must control the SoC for each cell in a system. This is done by controlling the charge, discharge and balancing of each cell in a system.

The third requirement concerns safety. The BMS must know the electronics are properly working such that the battery information is valid. The golden rule is that no over voltage cell can appear as an OK voltage cell. To do this, the BMS has to communicate the status of all cells and the BMS electronics to the rest of the system.

The key element in the battery management electronics is the battery monitor IC. The battery monitor performs the difficult task of accurately measuring the voltage, current and temperature of each cell and passing the data to a control

Power Technologies 19 issue four 2012 | automotive electronics

circuit. A controller then uses the cell data to compute the state of charge and state of health of the pack. The controller may command the battery monitor to charge or discharge certain cells to maintain a balanced state of charge within the pack.

Battery monitorLinear Technology has completely redesigned its high-voltage battery monitor chip in a move that it claims will raise the bar for stacked battery monitoring in hybrid and electric vehicles. The LTC6804 chip has had all aspects of the design changed from its predecessors – the LTC6802 and LTC6803.

“This is the state of the art in terms of a stacked battery monitor,” said Erik Soule, vice president and general manager of signal conditioning products. “This comes from a lot of different things all working together. We have dealt with every issue we have been asked to improve.”

The chip will monitor a bank of 12 cells at voltages up to 4.2V with

16bit resolution and better than 0.04% accuracy. This is claimed to be four times more accurate than the predecessors.

A key upgrade is the use of two 16bit ADCs rather than one 12bit circuit in the LTC6803.

“This means it will run at ten times the speed,” said Soule. “And it lets us better synchronise voltage and current measurements. You get closer time alignment between voltage and current and that is important for calculating an accurate state of charge.”

One difficulty the company had designing the chip was trying to make it work with a standard SPI interface. In the end, the designers opted for the proprietary IsoSPI interface, which means the device has to be used with the companion LTC6820 chip to translate signals to and from this environment.

“We tried to find a standard bus but failed,” said Soule, “so we designed our own IsoSPI. This is new.”

The voltage reference technology is completely different from the

older chips to improve measurement accuracy and long-term stability. And there are more built-in self test circuits than the predecessors.

Also important is that it has been engineered with ISO26262 in mind.

“There are features to help the system designer comply with the specification,” said Soule.

The use of burned Zener technology is said to improve time and temperature stability giving it references similar to that used in precision instruments.

“Nobody else is using this or even thinking of using it,” said Soule.

The company also plans to introduce the LTC3300 bidirectional active balancing device early next year, and this will be controllable by the LTC6804, which itself will be in full production during the first quarter of 2013.

“We have been sampling it with out customers and had tremendous interest,” said Soule. “The feedback has been unbelievable. We are going to change the industry with this. It is a whole bunch of little tricks all working together.” l

Erik Soule: “We are going to change the industry with this.”

Steve Rogerson reports on Linear Technology’s claims to have raised the bar for battery monitoring

BalancingactLTC6804 battery monitoring devices

Page 11: Automotive Electronics Issue-4

Advertorial Advertorial

Test Drive: The ¸ESR, a Hybrid Instrument for the Modern Age

Display of a broadband distur-

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Andy Coombes, EMC Product Manager for Rohde & Schwarz UK, discusses why the company’s latest EMI Test Receiver ideally suits automotive EMC testing.

From an EMC perspective, benign the average car is not. With its combustion engine, alternator, wiper motors and other electro-mechanical components introducing broadband noise throughout the platform, automotive EMC testing has always been challenging.

But the task is getting harder as more electrical/electronic sub-components, sensors and modules for control, communications and entertainment are added to the system. Linked by high speed data, these systems fall victim to the inherent interference, before consideration of a vehicle’s compliance to EMC regula-tions is taken into account.

Nowhere are these challenges more apparent than in Hybrid Electric Vehicles. Insulated-gate bipolar transis-tors (IGBTs), the power inverters used to drive 3-phase AC motors from high voltage DC batteries, can create high levels of broadband noise. This phenomenon can readily knock out readings from the vehicle’s many sensors, necessitating immensely thorough diagnostic, as well as compliance EMC testing. Raymond Whinray, Integration Engineer for Hybrid & Electrification at Jaguar Land Rover:“With the ESR as part of our toolset we make another step to avoid unexpected behaviour, rather than being reactive to these issues later in a development program. Within electric propul-sion systems we have to analyse behaviour with a wide range of variables. We use test data early within our projects to correlate the CAE simula-tion data with real behaviour. We have used the ESR function for real-time display of frequency spectrum when analysing system-wide EMC effects. From this we can observe and replay the transient effects during mode changes that would be very easily missed using traditional spectrum analysers or digital oscilloscopes with FFT capa-bility. The real-time aspect has proven very useful to match the RF behaviour with the system opera-tion and mode transition events.”

Rohde & Schwarz has introduced a new EMI receiver designed with the above-mentioned challenges in mind. By combining a traditional EMC receiver and spectrum analyser with a time-domain scanning receiver and real-time spectrum analyser, the ESR EMI Test Receiver provides the means to perform high speed compliance tests, as well as advanced diagnostic measurements, all in one box.

Insight and SpeedThe ESR has several features that ideally suit it to automotive EMC testing. First is the unrivalled insight provided by the optional real-time analyser. The spec-trogram function allows for seamless spectrum display in the time domain, enabling all discrete interferers to be viewed even in the presence of broadband distur-bances, such as wiper motors or hybrid drivetrains. A persistence diagram lets users see all of the signals, all of the time, whilst the spectogram mode (spectral histogram) – which identifies pulsed and continuous disturbances – has frequency mask triggering that will detect the most sporadic of spectral events.

MIRA, a world class independent engineering and test consultancy, already has a suite of Rohde & Schwarz ESU test receivers and recently trialled the ESR. According to Mark Emery, EMC technical specialist: “The ESR further enhanced our speed of testing, whilst features such as the ‘spectrogram’ and ‘real time analysis, persistence mode’ assisted our EMC engineers in discovering intermittent and masked emission content in a unique and intuitive way.”

The ESR also offers a Time-Domain Scan option with unparalleled speed. This Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) based technology provides up to 30MHz bandwidth for FFT calculations and enables measurements up to 6000 times faster than conventional stepped frequency receivers. This makes the ¸ESR EMI Test Receiver the fastest EMI measuring receiver on the market by some margin and ideally suits automotive component suppliers or EMC test houses, where time-consuming manufacturer-specific testing is the norm.

One such customer is leading manufacturer of automotive climate, electronic, infotainment and lighting products, Visteon. Attesting to the ESR’s impact on test times, Philip Page, Technical Fellow, EMC at Visteon’s European Test Opera-tions says: “Used correctly, the FFT capability has the potential to cut our test times for certain cus-tomers by 50 to 80%, and results in much faster development and troubleshooting time for our engineers. Hence, we are excited to have engaged with R&S with such a leading-edge product.”

Whilst outright speed of test and clinical levels of insight are important, ease of use is a key consideration for any test equipment that is used every day. Featuring an intuitive touchscreen interface that allows users to configure automated tests directly on the screen, the ESR offers standard consumer HMI features such as an onscreen keyboard, undo/redo keys and a built-in help function, to name but a few. A 21 cm screen enables up to six different traces to be simultaneously displayed. Meanwhile, a combined numeric and analog bargraph displays results for up to four detectors, allowing users to rapidly recognize the effect of changes made to the device under test.

The ESR EMI test receiver has been designed to measure conducted and radiated disturbances in the 10 Hz to 7 GHz frequency range. It complies with CISPR 16-1-1 (Ed3 Amd1), as well as emissions to all OEM-specific EMC standards thanks to the availability of 6 dB resolution bandwidths in decade steps from 10 Hz to1 MHz. Having many of these features as options allows users to acquire them as and when needed, rather than pay for features that they won’t necessarily use. And for those that use the ESR during the product development phase, the cost benefit is considerable from a combined test receiver and real-time spectrum analyzer in one.

Disturbance spectrum for the

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Page 12: Automotive Electronics Issue-4

22 TesT & MeasureMenT

automotive electronics | issue four 2012

The increased use of advanced electronic technologies in modern cars poses considerable challenges to the test and

measurement engineer, both at the design debugging stage and for general-purpose performance and maintenance purposes. The modern motor vehicle may contain sophisticated embedded systems linked with the engine control unit as well as serial buses for communications information and control signals throughout the vehicle.

In addition, measurements also need to be made on physical parameters from mechanical elements such as motors and actuators and their interaction with multiple control signals, which can include analogue, digital and high-power content.

Recent developments have led to modern test and measurement instruments aiding engineers in automotive electronic developments. First, the debugging and test of the embedded electronics in engine control units is greatly facilitated by

Clive Davis, Kelvin Hagebeuk and Hafeez Najumudeen discuss how instruments can evolve to meet the latest automotive challenges

the use of mixed-signal oscilloscopes with increased channel count; and, secondly, recent developments in the kers (kinetic energy recovery system) technology used in modern racing cars has led to the need for high-accuracy power measurements.

ECUsTraditionally, the general-purpose test instrument of choice has been the oscilloscope, which has evolved from the early analogue instruments to high-speed digital oscilloscopes with built-in storage and processing capabilities. In recent years, the emergence of mixed-signal oscilloscopes (MSOs) has enabled users to look at analogue and digital signals together on the same display, allowing the interaction between the different types of signal to be examined in depth as an aid to determining the cause-and-effect sequence when problems occur.

However, the first generation of MSOs suffered from a limitation in some applications in that they only

had four measurement channels, which is proving insufficient to address the challenges presented by today’s automotive electronic systems. An increasing number of oscilloscope users are finding that the traditional four channels that have been the norm for decades are no longer sufficient. True, there are instruments available that provide eight or more channels, but these are normally oscillographic recorders which do not offer sufficiently high bandwidth and sampling rate.

Some users have created eight-channel set-ups by combining two four-channel oscilloscopes, but this approach requires the instruments to be synchronised: something that is only normally possible in tightly controlled laboratory conditions.

In the words of one automotive electronics engineer involved in developing ECUs: “We need to observe the waveform details of more than four channels of engine control unit signals, along with sensor signals giving us parameters such as rotational speed, fuel injector pulse times and crank angles, to name just a few.”

Not only are more IO signals used as the control system becomes more sophisticated and complicated, there is also a need for faster sampling and higher bandwidth because of the noise




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Page 13: Automotive Electronics Issue-4

24 TesT & MeasureMenT

automotive electronics | issue four 2012

from the inverters or power supplies within the system.

Eight channelsTo address these challenges, the latest eight-channel oscilloscopes (Fig. 1) provide comprehensive measurement capabilities for embedded, automotive, power and mechatronics applications.

The channels can be allocated as eight analogue channels or seven analogue channels plus one 8bit digital input. There are plans for such machines to have 16 more channels of logic to allow seven channels of analogue plus a 24bit digital input.

Not only do such oscilloscopes provide enough channels for analogue applications such as three-phase voltage and current measurements, they also enable users to view the actual waveform shape of digital signals. This helps the digital debug process as glitches are often caused by such things as noise and crosstalk which are invisible when viewing just 1s and 0s.

Some of these instruments have long memory (up to 62.5M points per channel and 125M points in interleave mode), allowing both long recordings and multiple waveforms to be acquired. A history memory function, which does not reduce the oscilloscope’s waveform acquisition rate, can allow up to 20,000 previously captured waveforms to be saved in the acquisition memory, with any one or all of them displayed on screen for cursor measurements to be carried out. Waveforms can be displayed one at a time, in order, or automatically played back, paused,

fast-forwarded or rewound. The history memory in combination

with the advanced waveform search feature enables users to capture and see the details of anomalies on individual waveforms when their characteristics are still unknown (Fig. 2).

Advanced measurement and analysis features can include histogram and trending functions, digital filtering, zoom windows, user-defined mathematics, and serial bus analysis.

The combination of an eight-channel analogue input at 500MHz bandwidth with a 16bit logic input makes it possible to carry out comprehensive and efficient measurements on many captured waveforms without changing the probe connection. Moreover, by capturing logic and bus signals in the analogue domain, users can evaluate signal-quality effects such as surge and noise, which often have a damaging effect on overall system reliability. As an added benefit, the analogue channel is psychologically more friendly than a logic display for many oscilloscope users.

Serial bus testingAn eight-channel MSO can allow data from up to two serial buses (which can be Can, Lin, Flexray, I2C, SPI, uart or RS232) to be decoded and displayed in real time. A serial bus auto setup function can reduce the configuration work dramatically. Long memory enables long time measurements even at a fast sampling rate. This means that slow phenomena from mechanical equipment and fast electronic signals from the controller can be measured at the same time (Fig. 3).

For longer-term measurement or measurements with various physical signals along with Can bus data where the eight-channel requirement is exceeded, it is possible to use an additional instrument such as a scope-corder (a unit that combines the benefits of an oscilloscope with those of an oscillographic recorder) in combination with the MSO.

Formula OneFormula One is a sport that has transformed over the years into a billion dollar business. The sport has become so popular and with a wide global audience base it has become an attraction for hundreds of multinational companies. Grand prix racing has a long-standing history of providing technological developments, which are applicable not only to fast racing cars but also to the general automotive industry. One of these developments is the kinetic energy recovery system (kers), also known as regenerative braking, which is becoming one of the most widely discussed subjects in technical universities and automobile companies.

A Formula One car has kinetic energy when it runs, and when the brake is applied this kinetic energy is converted into a huge amount of heat energy, which would normally be wasted. This is not the case in a kers equipped car.

With the kers system (Fig. 4), when the driver brakes, this kinetic energy is converted to electrical energy. Formula One cars have an electric motor and batteries setup that is used to convert and store this energy in the car. The electric motor is mounted at one end of the engine crankshaft. When the brakes are applied, this electric motor captures a portion of the rotational

TesT & MeasureMenT 25 issue four 2012 | automotive electronics

force and converts the kinetic energy into electrical energy, which is stored in the battery bank. When the driver presses the kers or the boost button, the stored energy is converted back to kinetic energy, which gives the car additional power for a limited duration.

The kers system was first introduced in 2009 and only a few F1 teams used the technology. In 2010, kers was banned, but it was reintroduced in 2011. It is now being used by most of the F1 teams. Even though the kers system adds an extra 35kg weight which gives a challenge to the balance of the car, it does provide the driver approximately 60kW extra for up to 6.7s per lap. This extra capacity can be released in one go or at different points, which gives the driver an added advantage during overtaking or defending positions. The kers system is not only intended to help in overtaking and defending to create additional excitement in the race, but also it is a step towards bringing the sport close to greenness.

Testing kers The F1 industry uses high-precision power analysers for the development and testing of kers system at both the R&D and production of stages. These power analysers (Fig. 5) are particularly suited to the measurement of electrical output, efficiency and losses in electric motors.

The ability to connect six power inputs to a single analyser helps the users to evaluate the motor input and output efficiency. In addition, a motor evaluation function makes it possible to carry out simultaneous measurements of voltage, current and power as well as the rotation speed and torque changes. The input for torque and speed sensors helps in understanding the shaft power in electric motors, along with the direction of rotation. The six inputs of the analyser also help users to understand the battery characteristics by following the battery charge and discharge cycle and evaluating the inverter efficiency between the input and output.

ConclusionThese are just two areas in which advances in automotive systems have

posed new challenges for the test and measurement sector, but most of these challenges are being addressed by the latest generation of test instruments.

As the automotive industry develops still further into the realms of electric and hybrid vehicles, electrical power trains and green initiatives to optimise performance and efficiency, so the test industry will respond by continuing to provide the appropriate measurement tools. l

All three authors work for Yokogawa in Europe and Africa: Clive Davis is manager for test and measurement marketing; Kelvin Hagebeuk is product marketing manager for scope-corders and portable test instruments; and Hafeez Najumudeen is product marketing manager for power meters and analysers

Fig. 5: Precision power analysers are ideally suited to the testing of kers and related systems in modern racing cars

Fig.4: Schematic of the kers system as used in Formula One racing cars

Fig. 3: Analogue IO and digital serial bus controller signals can be tested together

Fig. 2: Users can find abnormal signals that might otherwise be overlooked

Page 14: Automotive Electronics Issue-4

26 TelemaTics

automotive electronics | issue four 2012

Mark Forrest discusses how investment in today’s field service management technology can help streamline business processes to lead to long-term efficiency, profitability and customer retention

In business today, operations managers face ever-mounting internal and external challenges to achieving business

excellence. Customer expectations are at an all-time high, leading field services to play a major role in customer satisfaction, brand reputation and ultimately customer retention and profitability. Adding to this, unpredictable fuel prices, incoming legislative requirements and environmental concerns make today a challenging time to run a service operation.

Maintaining efficient field-based operations is essential for any business to remain competitive and investment in technology is critical in helping to achieve this.


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Page 15: Automotive Electronics Issue-4

28 TelemaTics

automotive electronics | issue four 2012

A method that boosts productivity while reducing costs ensures a business achieves a genuine return on investment (RoI).

Unfortunately, there is often a lack of understanding of the huge cost savings field service management systems can deliver, alongside improvements in workforce productivity and customer satisfaction.

An independent study among directors and senior managers operating large field-based work forces in the UK found that only 18% possess fully automated scheduling, dispatch and mobility tools. The majority are operating partly manual, partly automated systems, integrating a diverse mix of often incompatible legacy systems. This is preventing many organisations from realising the full potential of technology to increase workforce efficiency, a crucial factor in achieving field service excellence.

Intelligent data Fleet management and telematics have emerged as being powerful management tools and provide new levels of field service and vehicle fleet performance. Today’s products integrate GPS with wireless communications and emerging technologies to enable every aspect of mobile operations to be identified, measured and analysed, delivering greater intelligence to fleet managers. The information provided typically includes the vehicle location, speed and time, but also may include work order information, driver behaviour and vehicle diagnostics data such as kilometres per litre, fuel use or vehicle faults, all determined by the in-vehicle telematics.

As a result of the insight delivered, businesses can start to reduce direct expenses such as fuel costs by optimising route planning,

improving operational efficiencies and driving revenue generation through top quality customer service and flexibility. With the knowledge of where resources are, their status and time on site, businesses can make the real-time decisions required to keep their operations running as smoothly as possible.

According to the independent research, this value is already being recognised with organisations running field-based workforces seeing one of the top priorities for future technology investment and upgrades to be within the area of fleet management. Fleet management and telematics can service all aspects of fleet operations to provide a 360˚ view of their use and performance. Particularly when deployed with other field service management tools for managing the work and the mobile worker, they are key elements to achieving efficiency, productivity and cost saving goals.

Managing the work Operations managers require a clear understanding of what is happening in the field to monitor performance, and work management provides real-time job status of each mobile worker as well as alerts for proactively managing productivity. If a job is in danger of being missed or a customer emergency comes up, modern work management tools mean these are automatically highlighted by the technology and a proposed method put forward as to how to redeploy resources to meet the new requirements. The capabilities and benefits that can be achieved include:

• Optimising and automating mobile work schedules;

• Communicating to laptop or smart phone to view work details, provide current work status and receive work assignments without returning to the office;

• Monitoring arrival times, distances travelled, stops made and overtime usage;

• Comparing planned versus actual work done per day or shift; and

• Adjusting schedules and reassigning work.

The above capabilities evidently lead directly to increased customer satisfaction due to such outcomes as increased on-time service

“With the knowledge of where resources are, their status and time on site, businesses can make the real-time decisions required to keep their operations running as smoothly as possible”

TelemaTics 29 issue four 2012 | automotive electronics

delivery performance and reduced customer complaints for late technicians or missed appointments. Once companies start comparing the information taken from field operations regularly, it is easy to see where improvements can be made or where patterns exist that can be planned for in advance to reduce the impact.

Mitigating risk Health and safety are understandably high priorities for organisations with field-based workers, especially those doing a significant amount of driving out in the field. These individuals not only face greater risks than office-based employees, but can also expose members of the public to danger through aggressive and unsafe driving, with disastrous consequences for the company’s reputation as well as the legal risks involved.

As telematics have evolved, both the amount and type of data gathered have increased significantly. Driver behaviour and vehicle diagnostics information are now available that can identify how a vehicle is being driven and any faults that may affect performance. Taking steps to mitigate poor driving or proactively servicing underperforming vehicles not only significantly reduces on the road risk but cuts vehicle breakdowns or unscheduled downtime.

The research discovered that 51% surveyed agree that the technology they are using to manage safety of their employees is in need of updating, with 44% stating that their risk assessment software is in

need of the most improvement.Driver safety products enable

managers to monitor driving behaviour and complete back office analysis of aggressive manoeuvres, such as hard acceleration, braking, turns and speed.

With this data at hand, recommendations on training can be made for individual drivers, resulting in lower accidents and

liability therefore helping to manage the risks and costs associated with work-related driving. Essentially, telematics can be used to improve the efficiency of, rather than completely replace, health and safety policies, while also helping to increase efficiency, cut costs and help maintain a brand’s reputation of executing a safe driving culture.

Going greenIntroduced and incoming legislation has placed mounting pressure on businesses to improve their sustainability and accelerate the move to meet green targets. For field-based organisations especially, monitoring fuel consumption through telematics is a quickly achievable method of reaching environmentally friendly targets.

Fuel prices have seen a consistent increase over the years and business owners have become

very conscious of managing these costs. Reducing fuel usage through data interpretation can result in significant cost savings and will additionally lead to a reduction in CO2 emissions.

Lack of budget and cost are major barriers to rolling out new technology but the increased sustainability credentials derived from the financial and

environmental advantages are key benefits that influence business decisions. The recent research shows that nearly two thirds of respondents believe that sustainability plays a key role in their business plan and a further 64% feel sustainability will have a significant effect on their business moving forwards.

The desire to become more sustainable is also largely driven by perception and company image, as being green, and being seen to be green in the public eye, is becoming increasingly important. Forward-thinking businesses are moving towards sustainability as a way of promoting their organisation and ultimately to attract and retain new customers. l

Mark Forrest is general manager of field service management for Trimble


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Page 16: Automotive Electronics Issue-4

30 safety

automotive electronics | issue four 2012

Siraj Ahmed Shaikh and Padmanabhan Krishnan report on

safety analysis carried out for adaptive

cruise control

Human failure is often a cause of accidents. However, while useful in many cases, increasing the level of

automation in vehicles does not necessarily reduce the number of human failure related accidents. In the automotive world, the past decade has seen a rise in advanced driver assistance systems (adas) from rain-sensing wipers to lane departure warning to adaptive cruise control (ACC).

For adas to be successful and safe, the human user must be aware of the automation and react to it appropriately. While promising driver and road safety, functional safety standards such as ISO26262 do not explicitly describe the role of the human user. ISO26262 focuses only

on the reliability of the electronics and the human user is often ignored. Simply having reliable electronics is not sufficient to guarantee safety.

This brings with it a variety of challenges. A common problem is mode error where the driver cannot recall what state the system is in. This gives rise to more complex challenges including:

• handover between manual and automated control during a task, which is critical as the driver needs to be able to judge when to reclaim control;

• inadequate feedback from the vehicle to the driver, with the consequence that the system fails on drivers’ expectations during a task and ultimately maximum


The human factor needs to be

considered when designing safety


safety 31 issue four 2012 | automotive electronics

benefit of the technology is not derived; and

• a fundamental change of task for the driver as it changes from monitoring the situation to monitoring the situation and automation.

Our recent work has developed a modelling and analysis framework to model human behaviour and analyse the interaction to determine if any safety conditions are violated. A generic ACC system was modelled where the driver was part of the control system. Human factors were incorporated in the controllability analysis of the system. The focus was on the interaction between the user and the system; reliability of the system was not the focus here.

The system model aimed to represent the features and behaviours of the vehicle system, incorporated within which is adas.

A behaviour model was then used to demonstrate user actions driven by cognitive and emotional stimuli. The behaviour modelled was an abstraction of the user’s mental model and associated actions relevant to the interaction with the system. Traditionally, such models have been derived from cognitive science. However, it is increasingly feasible to

look to human physiology to sense for driver perception and stress, given advances in sensors.

An environment model aimed to account for operational factors external to the system and the user, and which remained unaffected by any interaction that resulted. This provided for a clear separation to study the potential impact on the driver and the system as they interacted with the environment.

The various factors influencing each of the models were represented as a set of parameters. Assuming there were no circular dependencies, based on the inputs and the current state of the system, the outputs and the new state of the system was computed. A schematic description of this approach is given in Fig. 1 and the behaviour of the entire system was expressed using the standard control loop approach from discrete event simulation.

All the models were developed in C with the safety properties written as assertions. CBMC (bounded model checker for C programmes) was used to validate the safety properties.

This approach allowed the exploration of various scenarios where safe interaction between the driver and vehicle was critical. Given behaviour, vehicle and environment models, overall system states that led

to safety violations was explored. Specific scenarios can be generated if the functions that represent the calculation of the model values return a unique value. The CBMC feature also allowed a function to return non-deterministic values, which effectively enabled the analysis of a class of behaviours.

Putting this into practice, the system model had the key aspects of the ACC, mainly the control system, to maintain the speed of the vehicle, the separation from the vehicle in front and a notion of safe stopping distance to prevent accidents. The environment model had the terrain and hazards that were non-deterministically generated. The behaviour model considered was that of fatigue, which was calculated from the duration the driver had been in the vehicle and the complexity of the terrain. The driver’s cognitive ability is influenced by fatigue and hazard perception. This, when combined with the mode to issue the commands, determined the reaction time. The current speed of the vehicle and the reaction time of the driver determined the safe stopping distance.

Studies have demonstrated that ACC has the potential of causing delayed driver reaction, awkward handover and mode confusion with up to a third

Force is with CoventryOne of the men who created the R2D2 robot in the Star Wars movies is responsible for another automotive high-technology spin-off from work at Coventry University. John Jostins, professor of sustainable transport design at Coventry University, is also managing director of Microcab, which has developed a hydrogen fuel cell vehicle.

The zero emission machine, the H2EV, is powered by a 3kW fuel cell which gives the car a 160km range. Hydrogen from a filling station is combined with oxygen from the air to create electricity (which drives the car’s electric motors) and water (the car’s only emission) in a reaction known as reverse electrolysis.

This is part of the university’s Low Carbon Vehicles Grand Challenge Initiative – an applied research programme through which the university works with businesses to explore the development of green automotive technologies.

Page 17: Automotive Electronics Issue-4

32 safety

automotive electronics | issue four 2012

of drivers having forgotten at some stage whether ACC was engaged. This has serious road safety risks and raises a question whether the design of such mechanisms would ultimately serve to be detrimental to the intended goal. In addition to the time on task effects, road conditions and terrain also significantly affect driver experience, and contribute to fatigue.

Here are some examples that the research explored using this approach:

1. Lowered speed and increased fatigueOne scenario dealt with an unexpected side effect of the ACC operation whereby the ability to adapt vehicle speed resulted in an increase in journey time, and hence fatigue.

The system was configured such that the level of driver fatigue was derived by the system output. One aim was to check whether there was a route where the driver fatigue went past a threshold. The control mode remained enabled for ACC, and the safe stopping and desired separation distances also remained fixed. The speed of the vehicle was adjusted as

per the operation of the ACC.The analysis revealed that the

scenario failed to satisfy the desired property. To maintain the desired separation distance, the vehicle speed was reduced. This increased the duration of driving and led to increased driver fatigue. At the next point on the route, the safe separation may need to be increased owing to increased fatigue. This in turn further reduces the speed. After a few iterations, the vehicle speed was slowed to such a level that fatigue due to time on the road became unacceptable.

2. Manual override and variable speedAn alternative scenario was where the driver’s ability to override ACC at any stage of the journey was acknowledged. This was essentially to model for cases where driver actions may have undesired consequences. A fixed route was considered; the safe stopping and desired separation distances also remained fixed. The control mode was allowed to be non-deterministic and have no control

over the choice operated. Driver fatigue was then a calculation based on various inputs from the behaviour and system models. Speed was also dependent on the choice of control mode and ultimately the driver, and so were the rest of the variables.

The analysis revealed that the safe distance requirement can be violated. For instance, the driver was able to override ACC manually and increase vehicle speed, which resulted in an unsafe distance from the vehicle in front. A different possibility was where the driver switched over to manual mode and ultimately reached an unsafe state (due to fatigue for example).

3. The ideal scenarioIn the final experiment, the parameters were controlled for a best-case scenario: the route and control mode (ACC) were both fixed. Driver fatigue was calculated as influenced by a combination of system, behaviour and environmental models. All other parameters were calculated from the relevant model respectively. The safety properties were satisfied.

safety 33 issue four 2012 | automotive electronics

The fixed length of route meant that journey time was ultimately limited, even if speed was adapted (slowed) in response to driver fatigue. The fixed control mode helped to avoid any driver-led errors.

ConclusionThe main contribution of this work is an approach to modelling and design of human-in-the-loop systems. The approach takes into account real systems as well as cognitive models that are supported by empirical studies. By expressing the models in the C programming language, all empirical models were encoded without compromising on numerical accuracy.

Informal discussions have taken place with practising engineers from the automotive domain and the general feedback is that the approach is accessible and intuitive. Their models are expressed as code fragments that can be translated quite easily to C; an advantage that this approach has for practising engineers in not using specific modelling languages.

This approach supports automatic verification of safety properties as well as systematic scenario exploration. The non-deterministic choices of the various functions in the behaviour sub-models document the assumptions that were made on the interaction between different aspects. These interactions are not supported

by empirical studies but occur in real systems. l

Siraj Ahmed Shaikh is senior lecturer at the engineering and computing faculty at Coventry University and Padmanabhan Krishnan is a professor of the Centre for Software Assurance at Bond University, Australia.

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Page 18: Automotive Electronics Issue-4

tight tolerances in the steering shaft thereby reducing shaft ma-chining costs. The packaging and lightweight construction mean space and weight are saved in the overall steering system. Sup-ply current is less than 21mA.

Operational from -40 to +85˚C, the sensor is resistant to shock and vibration.


Transient voltage suppressor

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Rectifiers fit tight spacesAEC-Q101-QuAlifiEd, ESd-protected 600V standard recti-fiers are available from Vishay intertechnology for space-constrained applications. The SE20AfJ and SE30AfJ provide high current density with for-ward currents of 2 and 3A in the surface-mount slim SMA dO-221AC package with a 0.95mm profile.

With forward voltage drops down to 0.86V typical at 2A, they suit general-purpose power line polarity protection in con-

sumer and automotive applica-tions.

With their ESd capability, the devices can provide class H3B (less than 8kV) performance based on the AEC-Q101-001 human body model (contact mode).

The rectifiers have an oxide planar chip junction, maximum operation junction temperature of +175˚C, and an MSl moisture sensitivity level of one, per J020, lf maximum peak of +260˚C.

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PRODUCTS 35 issue four 2012 | automotive electronics

PROTEk dEViCES has intro-duced 19 transient voltage sup-pressors (TVSs) for ESd and electrical fast transient protec-tion in automotive electronic systems, such as infotainment, body, chassis and power net-work systems. The components meet AEC-Q101 standards.

for infotainment networks, there are eight TVS arrays. The Pam-01SC7905C is for the electronic control unit. The 02Sd2312 is for uSB2.0 as is an alternative TVS array, the 12SO824. The 03Sd2303Ci pro-vides protection for Bluetooth. The 04ST430502 and alternative 18df2l0521 cover automotive lCds. The 05SC700504f and alternative 19df2l0521P are for car audio. The 06SC7905S and alternative 21SC790501H arrays guard automotive an-

A nOn-COnTACT power steering torque sensor that is said to use less current and is smaller and lighter than existing products is available from TT Electronics. The device could help make elec-

tennas. The 08Sd23xxC and alternative 24df1605 are for automotive control buttons. The 22lOPR2268 is a dual high-bandwidth, fast single-pole dou-ble throw cmos switch. it can be used as an analogue switch or as a low-delay bus switch.

for body networks, the 02Sd2312 TVS array is for light-ing sensor control units. The 08Sd23xxC and 07df23k24 protect reverse sensor control units. The 09Sd2305HP is for air bag sensors. The 15ST4305 steering diode and TVS array is for wiper sensors.

for chassis network sys-tems, the 08Sd23xxC TVS arrays cover fuel injec-tion interfaces. The 09Sd2305HP is for the ignition. The 16Al30A is for voltage protection

tronic power steering systems more compact, reliable and ef-ficient.

designed to sense small differ-ential angles, the SX-4428 Mag-netorque ii sensor is based on Hall Effect technology. The free-floating torque rotor within the device provides long rotational life. The lack of torque rotor fric-tion means it does not wear out.

The user can programme out-put levels and reduce the use of

of electronic braking systems. The 10ST23xxC TVS arrays shield electronic steering con-trol systems.

for power network systems, the 08Sd23xxC and10ST23xxC are for protecting power distri-bution (12, 24 and 36V). And the 16Al30A and 07df23k24 components provide voltage protection for the car battery.


IC combines car radio and audio

A COMBinEd car radio and au-dio system on an iC has been in-troduced by nXP. The SAf775x is the third generation of the company’s car radio and audio dSP family and is claimed to be the first single-chip multi-tuner Rf cmos iC with embedded AM, fM and dab tuners.

The iC includes an open Ten-silica Hifi 2 audio dSP for users to programme features, or to run those of third-party software vendors. This gives car radio makers the flexibility to differ-entiate infotainment without re-sorting to external iCs.


AT ElECTROniCA, Micron Tech-nology announced E-MMC em-bedded multimedia cards for the automotive segment. Earlier this year, the company expanded its E-MMC portfolio for industrial applications and other key em-bedded markets.

They support navigation and infotainment applications, such as detailed maps with full 3d and building information, traf-fic monitoring, meteorological information, car radio and mul-timedia, satellite radio, e-call, and voice recognition.

They are designed to replace the complex management of a stand-alone nand with an MMC.

Embedded multimedia

Page 19: Automotive Electronics Issue-4

lQfP-176 package. The cryptographic module

complies with v1.1, rev 439 of the She functional specification. it includes secure boot using a cipher-based message authenti-cation code, plus the Miyaguchi-Preneel compression function inside the She block.

The MCu contains a random number generator, a separate storage area acting as a secure repository for non-volatile keys and ram keys (therefore also providing secure key manage-ment and update), plus dedi-cated logic for the encryption of data using the AES standard with a 128bit key length.

Additional device security in-cludes secure handling of the Trace and JTag ports, plus flash memory security.


are available.Operating range is -60 to



THE lATEST member of fujitsu Semiconductor’s fCR4 fam-ily, the MB9df125, nicknamed Atlas-l, is based on the Arm Cortex-R4 core and includes a She secure hardware extension module that is fully hardware-implemented to ensure high lev-els of security.

The MCu will enable driver information systems with larger feature sets that can run more sophisticated software while supporting Autosar. it can oper-ate as a single chip for tradition-al instrument clusters without graphics or as a companion chip alongside the company’s Emer-ald SoCs for hybrid or freely-programmable (virtual) automo-tive instrument clusters.

Operating at up to 128MHz, the core has processing power of more than 200dMips, with 1Mbyte of flash memory and 128kbyte of ram. it comes in an

fOR gEnERAl rectification, voltage blocking and clamp-ing, power supplies, reliability-critical, automotive, aeronautics and aerospace, and down-hole applications, the XTR1n0415 and XTR1n0450 diodes from X-Rel have a reverse voltage above 55V while the XTR1n0815 and XTR1n0850 have a reverse volt-age above 90V.

Each part is composed of four electrically independent, well-matched diodes in a single piece of silicon; the diodes can be used individually.

All come with several packag-ing configurations and samples

Module delivers LTETHE lE920 lTE module is for European and north American OEM and aftermarket segments. Available from Telit Wireless, the unit measures 34 by 40 by 2.8mm on a 198-pad lgA auto-motive-grade package.

The product delivers 100Mbit/s -down and 50Mbit/s-up data rates on lTE networks and is fallback compatible with dC-HSPA+ delivering up to 42Mbit/s -down and 5.76Mbit/s-up.

Quad-band gSM, gPRS and Edge performance ensure the module connects even in remote areas devoid of 3g or 4g cov-erage. Equipped with a multi-constellation gPS plus glonass receiver, the module provides

navigation coverage in harsh environments and urban can-yons, making it suitable for full-featured integrated naviga-tion systems and location based services delivered through the car’s infotainment system.


MCU supports Autosar

Four-in-one diodes

Chipset monitors Li-ionA li-iOn battery monitor chipset for automotive applications will start sampling in february 2013 with mass production scheduled for April 2014.

designed for hybrid elec-tric vehicles (HEVs) and elec-tric vehicles (EVs), the Toshiba chipset comprises the TB9141fg monitoring iC and the TMPM-358fdTfg microcontroller.

The chipset detects remaining battery level, equalises battery levels (cell balancing) and can detect abnormal battery status.

The iC uses a 96V process and

monitors up to 16 cells, which can lead to component count re-duction in a battery monitoring system. it can also communicate in a noisy environment by dif-ferential signals using daisy chain communications with neighbouring iCs.

The 32bit risc microcontroller is built around an Arm Cortex-M32 core and complies with functional safety levels. A soft-ware library is being prepared to be compliant with the iEC61508 and iSO26262 functional safety standards and reference models


automotive electronics | issue four 2012

are planned. The iC realises typical ±2mV

cell voltage measurement accu-racy, improving the accuracy of battery state of charge detection

and contributing to more effec-tive battery usage.

draw on gate drives for driving power devices such as mosfets and igBTs. They need isolation amplifiers to sense high-voltage bus levels and digital isolation to feedback status from the high-voltage side of the opto-coupler to the microprocessor on the low-voltage side.

They are rated for continuous working voltages of 1140V or higher. They meet ul1577, CSA and iEC 60747-5-5 standards and are qualified to TS 16949 and AEC Q100.


SynECT TEST Management, dSpace’s latest test manage-ment software, is for managing and controlling tests and test data that are produced by the electronic control unit (ECu) de-velopment process.

Model-in-the-loop, software-in-the-loop, processor-in-the-loop and hardware-in-the-loop tests, plus their associated re-quirements, can all be managed systematically. They can be combined to produce execution

Control for ECU development

Tailored connectors

Optocouplers provide HEV isolation

PROVERTHA CAn produce us-er-specific connectors, battery leads and sensor cables for the automotive industry.

This can include the produc-tion of a compact tuner assem-bly or the realisation of sensor connections and interfaces for control units in cars. The con-nectors combine SMT and THR contacts.

A major criterion for the safe and reliable use of the connec-tors is the co-planarity of the SMT connections with a toler-ance of ±0.05mm maximum across all the contacts in the connection area. A correspond-ing automatic pick-and-place system has been developed and produced for single and multi-row board-to-board connectors.

for battery connecting leads with cable cross-sections of 10 to 50mm2, an automatic system based on a cable assembly ma-chine has been extended into a fully automated production line through the use of various processing modules.

Provertha Automotive

Wireless combination module

THE lBEl6Z2TXC wireless com-bination module from Murata is aimed at automotive appli-cations and uses an AEC-Q100 compliant chipset. Providing support for wireless lan, Blue-tooth and Bluetooth low Energy in addition to providing an fM

radio receiver and gPS receiver, the module measures 24.6 by 18.0 by 3.0mm.

The wlan feature is iEEE 802.11 b, g and n compliant and also supports Wifi direct.

Bluetooth 4.0 class two compliant support and H4 pro-

tocol are standard. Combining the five wire-

less functions into one pack-age allows designers to simplify their end-designs, save board space and ease the burden of procurement. The modules are pre-qualified removing some of the need for design testing and evaluation.

Module interfaces include a uart, PCM, SdiO, i2S and audio. Power requirements are +3.3 and +1.8V dC. The module can operate from -40 to +85˚C.

Typical applications include car infotainment, parking as-sistance, telematics, driver assist and internet-in-car.

PRODUCTS 37 issue four 2012 | automotive electronics

THREE iSOlATiOn optocou-plers have been added to Avago Technologies’ R2Couplers fam-ily. They provide safe isolation for electric and hybrid-electric vehicle applications such as onboard charging systems and

plans and then used directly for test execution, for example, with the firm’s Automation desk.

Analyses of tests, test cov-erage and test progress can be generated from the test results stored centrally and presented in an organised form for further test planning.

The associated Synect Variant Management module provides support for handling variants. for example, users can specify which tests are applicable to

powertrain inverters.The ACPl-34JT is an isolated

gate drive with smart functions and features to improve integra-tion. The ACPl-C87AT/C87BT isolation amplifier provides instrumentation amplifier per-formance with integrated isola-tion. And the ACPl-k7xT pro-vides single and dual channels to improve configurability and manage space savings.

These devices integrate func-tions in modules, isolated smart gate drives, analogue sensing and digital communications. Powertrain inverters, onboard chargers and dC-dC converters

which variants, and create execu-tion plans accord-ingly.

Together, the modules form part of the firm’s data management and collaboration soft-ware with support for model-based development and ECu testing.

it is suitable for small, local development teams and large,

global departments.

Page 20: Automotive Electronics Issue-4

THE AT110 and AT240 vehicle tracking modules from Astra Telematics combine the Sirfstar iV gPS module with an Arm Cortex-M3 processor and the Telit gE865 gSM and gPRS modem. Power management enables the modules to remain awake continuously without imposing excessive drain on the vehicle battery.

The AT240 is self contained with an integrated antenna and

Vehicle trackers make use of Arm

Lin chips combine functions in one pack

Connectors aid pedestrian safety

current capability and an ad-justable window watchdog, are also included.

A lin 2.2 and SAEJ2602-2-compliant transceiver, based on the company’s third-generation lin transceiver iP with EMC im-munity as well a low-drop 5V voltage regulator with 80mA

of the bonnet allows a softer im-pact zone to be created, reduc-ing the risk of serious injury.

The company has also created the scoop-proof Ak-2 standard, and a squib connector with an integrated grounding element, the Ak-2+ electrostatic dis-charge (ESd) squib. Besides im-proving reliability and cutting assembly costs, the Ak-2+ ESd squib eliminates potential mis-firing caused by ESd with inte-grated grounding, thus allowing safe traceability of grounding.


automotive electronics | issue four 2012


a moulded iP67-sealed enclo-sure for mounting in automo-tive applications. The AT110 is a miniaturised module for use with external gSM and gPS an-tennas, housed in an aluminium enclosure and for use as part of a larger in-vehicle system.

External interfaces include Can 2.0B plus digital and ana-logue iOs for connecting devic-es such as temperature sensors. The Can bus interface supports

ClAiMEd TO be the industry’s first lin RgB lEd slave to be incorporated onto a single semi-conductor die, the MlX81106 from Melexis is a freely pro-grammable iC that can drive di-rectly up to four lEds for auto-motive ambient lighting thanks to its integrated constant cur-rent sources.

Every output can be pro-grammed to a maximum current of 35mA through the built-in flash memory.

All necessary components – such as physical layer lin trans-ceiver, lin controller, voltage regulator and 16bit risc-based microcontroller, as well as sup-porting functions such as AdC, 16bit PWM generation, constant current high-voltage capable outputs and lEd threshold mon-itoring capability – are on chip.

ClAiMEd TO be the first com-mercially available range of sealed squib connectors for use in environments such as pedes-trian safety and battery cut-off systems within engine compart-ments, delphi’s connectors suit a range of pedestrian safety systems currently being devel-oped and implemented by major OEMs.

These include bonnet lift ap-plications, for vehicles where hard structures such as the en-gine block are located close to the bonnet. in the event of pe-destrian collision, the use of py-rotechnic devices on both sides

fMS2.0 which provides data such as fuel consumption and OBd2, which is mainly for ve-hicle service and diagnostics in-formation.

An embedded mems accel-erometer allows monitoring of driver behaviour (acceleration, braking and cornering), collision detection, tow alarm and wake

on motion power management. users can also optimise settings such as SMS limits, gSM roam-ing and reporting intervals, and set device-based geo-fencing for applications such as track-ing high-value goods.


Slave IC for Lin-based RGB LED control

lin dEViCES for automotive switch scan applications and in-vehicle ambient lighting control have been launched by Atmel. The ATA664151 and ATA664251 include on-chip functionalities that are normally only available by combining multiple devices.

They come in packages meas-uring 5 by 5mm and 7 by 7mm.

Switch scan applications used in automotive doors, roof mod-ules and centre stacks benefit from the low sleep mode power consumption. The current sourc-es are controlled by three inde-pendent PWM signals, which are suitable for ambient lighting when controlling RgB lEds.

Every advertisement is part of the long-term investment in the personality of the brand David Ogilvy

To start investing in your brand, contact: +44 (0)1582 722 [email protected] | [email protected] February/March 09




Enquiry No: 13



www.mtemag.comJune 2009

WIRELESSMaking networks secureMerchant navy mobileSimulcast architectures

MICRO TCARuggedised deployment

beyond telecoms


WIRELESSMaking networks secureMerchant navy mobileSimulcast architectures

MICRO TCARuggedised deployment

beyond telecoms


Enquiry No: 21

Page 21: Automotive Electronics Issue-4

power technologies Battery monitors

show reportAdvanced Automotive electronics

test & meAsurementmixed-signal oscilloscopes

telemAticsField service management

sAFetyAdaptive cruise control



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