Automatic Bottle Filling and Capping Control System

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Transcript of Automatic Bottle Filling and Capping Control System

Automatic Bottle Filling and Capping Control System

CHAPTER ONEBACKGROUND OF PROJECT1.1 IntroductionControl engineering has evolved overtime. In the past, humans were the main method for controlling a system. More recently, electricity has been used for control and early electrical control was based on relays. These relays allow power to be switched on and off without a mechanical switch. It is common to use relay to make simple logical control decisions. The development of low cost computer has brought the most recent revolution, the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). The advent of the PLC began in the 1970s, and has become the most common choice for manufacturing controls. PLC has been gaining popularity on the factory floor and will probably remain predominant for some time to come. Most of this because of the advantages:

Cost effective for controlling complex systems Flexible and can be reapplied to control other systems quickly and easily Computational abilities allow more sophisticated contro Trouble shooting aids make programming easier and reduce downtime. Reliable components make these likely to operate for years before failure.

Control systems are an integral part of modern society. It consists of subsystems and processes assembled for the purpose of controlling the outputs of the processes. There are many numerous applications that using control system around us. A control system provides an output or response for a given input or stimulus. The reason that control system was built is for power amplification, remote control, convenience of input form; and compensation for disturbances. Today control systems find widespread application in the guidance, navigation, and control of missiles and spacecrafts, as well as planes and ship at sea. The applications also throughout the process control industry, regulating liquid level tanks, chemical concentrations in vats, as well as thickness of fabricated material.

1.1.1 Open loop systemIt starts with sub system called an input transducer, which converts for the input to that used by the controller. Then input sometimes called reference, while the output can be called the controlii

Automatic Bottle Filling and Capping Control System

variable. Other signals, such as disturbances are shown added the controller & process outputs via summing junctions, which yields the algebraic sum of their input signals using associated sign.

The distinction characteristics of an open loop system is that it cannot compensate for any disturbances that added to the controllers driving signals. The output of an open loop system computed not only by the signals that add to the controllers commands but also the disturbances at the output. The system cannot correct for these disturbances & are simply commanded by the input.

1.1.2 Closed loop systemThe disadvantage of open loop system, namely sensitivity to disturbances an inability to correct these disturbances, may be over ten in closed loop systems. The input transducer converts the form of the input to the form used by the controller. An output to the transducer, or sensor, measures the output response & converts it in to the form used by the controller.

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Automatic Bottle Filling and Capping Control System

The first summing junction algebraically adds the signal from the input to the signal from the output which arrives via the feedback path, the returned path from the output to the summing junction. In the figure above, output signal is subtracted from the input signal. The result is generally called the actuating signal. The closed loop system compensated for disturbances by measuring the output response, feeding the measurement back through a feedback path, & comparing that response to the input at the summing junction. If there is any difference between the two responses, the system drives the plant, via the actuating signal to make correction. If there is no difference the system does not drive the plant since the plants response is already the desired response. To compared between open loop system &ii

Automatic Bottle Filling and Capping Control System

closed loop system; closed loop system has the obvious advantage of greater accuracy than open loop system. The system are less sensitive to noise, disterbance,in the change in enviroment. Transient response in steady state eror can be controlled more convinently & with greater flexibility in closed loop system,often by simply adjutments of gain in the loop & sometimes by redesigning the controller. in summery, systems that perform the priviously described measurement & correction are called cosed loop or feedback control system.

1.2 Problem statementControl system implies direct interaction with physical world. Control system includes sensor and actuators, the critical pieces needed to ensure that our actuators system can help us manages our activities and environments in desired ways. The sensor that will be implemented in this project is infrared sensor. Nowadays, infrared sensor is widely used in daily activities such as for security, memory detection and other proposes. Infrared sensor consists of two basic part; emitter and detector. In this project, infrared sensor that is used to detect motion which is the bottle movement on the conveyor belt. When the infrared sensor detected position bottle, the motor of conveyor will be stop automatically. Problem statements in this project are: To design a closed loop system which can control conveyor by griper sensor? To make sure that the bottle does not overflow and conveyor must stop as long as sensor is working. To design conveyor system which limit the liquid flow into the bottles?

1.3 project objectiveThe main objective of this project is to apply plc to design automatic bottle filling and capping control system. The fascination and wide application of plc has motivated to discover more about plc. The main objective of this project is: To develop a griper sensor to detect position of bottle. To build a prototype which are light, low cost, user friendly and with transparent structure?

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Automatic Bottle Filling and Capping Control System

1.4 Implementation of project

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Automatic Bottle Filling and Capping Control System

Fig 1.5 project flow chart Last but not least,this thesis will show the final product that has been in chapter six. In this chapter we will mainly discuss the result analysis, discussions of the result are focussing on the programming of plc. Finally this thesis writing will conclude in chapter seven.this chapter high light the important part of this design and development project during constracting and testing process. 1.5 thesis outlineii

Automatic Bottle Filling and Capping Control System

In this section, seven chapters will briefly discused.in chapter one the introdussing of automatically filling bottle system using plc will mainly discuss about the project objective and scope in order to achieve the desired goal. After that, chapter two ; litrature review will coverd all explanation about the main type of plc available and type of plc has been choosen for this project with the reason of selection. Besides, this chapter wll review other related and background project that have been develop in other countries for the same purpose. Chapter three,methadology will decribe about the over all project that has been testified and successfully operate. Come along with this chapter an explanation about material selection which is including controller, moto and sensor. In order to design a good project, the descission making for each electronic programming are briefly discuss in this chapter. Chaptr four, electrical design, will discuss about electrical compenents used, and the instalations of electrical compenents on the system.this chapter also discuss the concepts of how the input and outputs of plc shuold be understood. After that, programming devlopment will be discussed in chapter five. A systematic aproach of control system design using plc presented. The machine sequence of operation will be discussed next. The assignments of input and output are shown in tables.

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Automatic Bottle Filling and Capping Control System

CHAPTER TWOLITRATURE REVIEW 2.1 History of PLCPLC were first introduced in 1960s. the primary reason for such adevice was eliminating the large cost involved in replacing the complicated relation based machine control system.Bedford associates proposed something called amodular digital controller(MODICON) to major US car manufacture. Other companies at the time proposed computer based schemes.one of which of based up on PDP-S. the MODICON OS4 brought the words first PLC in to commertial production. When aproduction requirements changed so did the control sytem. This becomes very expenssive when the change is frequent, scincerelays are mechanical device that also have alimited life time which required strict adhesion to maintenance schedule. Troubleshooting was also quite tedious when so many relays are involved. These new controllers also had to be easly programmed by maintenance are plant engineers.the life time had to be long and programming changes easly performance. They also had to servive the harsh industrial enviroment.

2.2 What is a PLC?A Programmable Logic Controller, PLC is a digital computer used for automation of industrial processes, such as control of machinery on factory assembly lines. Unlike general-purpose computers, the PLC is designed for multiple inputs and output arrangements, extended temperature ranges, immunity to electrical noise, and resistance to vibration and impact. Programs to control machine operation are typically stored in battery-backed or non-volatile memory. A PLC is an example of a real time system sin