Aung San Hodah That (Booklet)

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Adapted from SHELBY T UCKERS A HEROS DEATH in his book BURMA: THE CURSE OF INDEPENDENCE Who Really Killed Bogyoke Aung San? by SALAI C. ALEXANDER Aung San H odah A That?
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Transcript of Aung San Hodah That (Booklet)

Who Really Killed

Aung San

Hodah A That?

by SALAI C. ALEXANDER

Bogyoke Aung San?

Adapted from

SHELBY TUCKERS A HEROS DEATH in his book

BURMA: THE CURSE OF INDEPENDENCE

Biahmai`hi

1 33 4 9 12 16 20 24

A CHUNG BIA PAWL

Dal KhatnakAung San Lunglennak Aung San le A Huatu Kawl Phun`anh Pawl Kawl Phun`anh Pawl an Thawhkeh Ning Aung San Chan Lio Rak Uarmi Cauk le Ruahnak U Saw Kong Tlawmpal Aung San Lainawnnak & A Ralkap Pawl Mi Bocal Aung San

Dal HnihnakA Thattu Kong Mipi Theihtermi 27

Dal ThumnakAho Cu Dah A That Hnga? 36 58

Annotated Bibliography

Biahmai`hi olh aa dang dihmi miphunpi phun riat khuasak`inak ding ram, Kawlram ah rawnmi le tlangcungmi hna sinah hnatlaknak le rualremnak a rak ser hmasa biktu, Kawlram Federal Union caah pa bik Aung San cu July 19, 1947 ni ah Mirang hmancop Galon U Saw nih a thah tiah Kawlram mi zapi nih hngalh a si. Siang ngakchia nih siangca ah cawn a si i, cauk in siseh Kawlram cachuak mi paoh nih Mirang nih an almi U Saw nih a thah tiah an `ial dih. U Saw kong bia an rak ceih lio caan ah, Palik ngiahlaitu lei in a bawi bik Tun Hla Oung fapa Kin Oung [Australia pemmi] nih Who Killed Aung San tiin cauk a chuah. U Saw nih a thah bak ko ti a langhter nain, U Saw lawng asi lo, Mirang an i tel, cun Ne Win le [U Nu zong aa tel kho men] adangdang zong an i tel kho tihi a pomning asi. Sihmanhsehlaw, hipa bia hi Shelby Tucker nihcun, a pom thlu kho dih lo. Hipa nakin felfai deuh in a kherhlai...tikah! Zei a va si pekah, `ha tein von ruah cio set ahcun, Mirang al rak siseh law, U Saw nihcun a hei thah khawh fawn cang ko `ung i zeicahdah Kawlram cu Mirang nihcun an lak `han kun lo? Kawl nih Mirang a rak tei khawhnak ding cu sullam zong a ngei lo i, uk chap rih an duh tham ah Aung San va thah theng cu an hau hnga maw? Mirang nih Kawlram cu luatnak [zalennak] pek dingin a hnatlakmi a si cang ko caah acu Aung San va thah theng cu an caah santlaihnak a ngei hnga maw? Aung San chuahkehnak hrihhram kherhlai tikah Asho-Chin a si ko tiah Dr. Htun Than nih cun a chim [Chinland Guardian ah hmuh khawh asi]. Hi a chuahkehnak hrihhram le a nupi Daw Khin Kyi cu Karen miphun a sinak hoihna hi a thihnak he pehtlaihnak a ngei hnga maw? Aung San te chan lio ahhin, Kawl upa le an cathiam hna lakah a luar tukin mah phun lawng a `anhmi fanatic nationalist an tam lingcing te a si. An phungki hrim nih rak cawnpiak hna kaw, Kawl phun, Kawl ca, Kawl Biaknak lawng tiin ruahnak bi lam a zulmi an rak tam tuk. Dr. Maung Maung zong nih hi lio

1

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caan i Kawl phun`anh pawl an luar deuhnak kong hi To A Soldier Son timi a cauk chung zongah a langhter. Cucaah, Aung San te nupa chuahkehnak hrihhram hun zoh tikah le Kawl taktak an si fawn `ung lomi hi cu ruah awk ngai pakhat cu a si ve hnga. A ruat setmi nih U Saw thah bak cun an pom cio lo. Zapi hngalh awkin `ialnak nawl an rak pekmi pa cu Dr. Maung Maung a rak si. Vawlei minthang Yale, England tehna, Netherlands tehna ah mnak sang a cawngmi pa `ialmi cu a dik bik hnga lo maw ti awkin a um. Asinain, Dr. Maung Maung hi Ne Win nih a hmanmi pa a si ti le, Kawlram ah Unitary System [Burmanization caah a `ha bikmi phung] a hmunh khawhnak dingin ai zuammi pa a si ti hi philh lo awk a si. Kawlram kong `ialtu a si vemi journalist Stan Sesser nihcun, Dr. Maung Maung cu zumhtlak minung a si lo. Ahohmanh zong nih an zum kho ve ti lo1 tiah a ti. Kin Oung tu nihcun, Dr. Maung Maung tham cu a cawnmi mnak vialte mi `halo kuttang ah uitlak bantuk in a burh dih ngamhmi pa pei asi ko cu,2 tiah a `huat ve. Asinain, tehte evident tlamtling khitkhet taktak in hmuh khawh ding cu Kawlram acozah nih a `ih i a khenkham tikah, Kawlram kongah ho mithmai hmanh zoh loin a dikning in a hlathlaitu Shelby Tucker nihhin Aung San thihnak he aa naih bikmi minung, cun a hmuh khawh tawk tehte a kawl cikcek hnu ah [Kin Oung lila zong bia hal in], U Saw a si lo tihi a langhter. Hi pa `ialmi Burma: The Curse of Independence timi cauk chungin Chapter 6-nak: A Heros Death (page 131-159) chung ta aa tlakning in cahrampi ah la in areltu lungan deuhnak dingah Bertil Lintner `ialmi Burma in Revolt: Opium and Insurgency Since 1948 le U Thant tupa Thant Myint-U `ialmi The River of Lost Footsteps: Histories of Burma le adangdang zohchih in a herhnak ah ka telh chih.

2

Alexander, Salai C.1. Stan Sesser, 1994: 211.

(October 2007, A Place of Nowhere) 2. Kin Oung, 1996: 75

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THEIH HERHMI KAWLRAM KONG

Dal KhatnakAung San LunglennakAung San a thattu hi amah hawile chung lila in an si hnga maw tiah mi lung a hrinhter ngaimi thil pakhat a um. Cucu, a thih hlanah Kawlram a rak uktu Mirang bawi sin i a biachim ah a lang. Dorman Smiths Papers ningah cun, Aung San nih an thah telainak kong hi i chimchung sehlaw cuko: A lunglennak kong chim hram a von thawk. Lungli leng in ka um peng ko e tiah a ti. Hawikom ngeih ka duh ngai, nain hawikom `ha taktak ka hmu kho hna lo a ti. Mi zapi nih uarmi le zohchunmi si ko ah, zeitindah hawikom cu na ngeih hnga lo i? tiah Dorman Smith nih a hal. Aung San nihcun, Zapi uarmi si hi kai tinhmi a si lo, ati i, ka ram luatter ding lawng ka duhmi a si. Zeitluk lungli leng rian ko dah a rak si e, ka rak ruat bal hrim lo mu, tiah a chim pah in a `ap thluahmah. Dorman Smith nih a hnemh len. Nain Aung San cu a lung a zuur tuk, ai hnem kho hrim lo. Ram caah hruaitu paral`ha pawl hi caan sau an nguh kho hnga maw? tiah

Adapted from Shelby Tuckers A Heros Death, in his book Burma: The Curse of Independence

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lungfaak ngai in a hraam. Hi ram ahhin cun sau an nguh hrim lai lo e; ral tamtuk kan ngei. Kum thum hi a sau bik ka nguh khawh a si ko lai. Kum khat le cheu chung hmanh ka nung ti lai kaa zum lo, tiah Aung San cu a `ap thluahmah.3

3. Collis, 1956:270.

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Aung San chimchung bia nihhin ahodah lainawn tiangin a ngamh dingmi a ral cu an si ti a anh lo. Asinain, a ang ngaimi cu anmah Kawlmi a hawile chung lila in asi lai ti khawh asi. Hi bia a chim hnu kum khat le cheu (thla 18) a tlin deuh hlanah an thah cu a hung si taktak. Aung San ral pawl cu ahote ko dah an si hnga? Ram pumpi nih hruaitu pakhat ah an cohlanmi lawng si loin, Kawl ralkap a dirhtu, Kawl ralkap lak i a lu bik pa thah ngam ding tiangin i timh ngam cu mi sawhsawh an si hnga lo. Cun, mi pakhathnih lawng nih khua an khaang ngam lai lo dah! Mithah lainawn ding tiangin an ngamh hi cu, ruahnak aa hrawmmi phu asiloah khuakhang`i bu cu an rak um hrim ko lai dah.

Aung San le A Huatu Kawl Phun`anh PawlPhun`anh timi nationalist pawl ahhin kaupi khua a ruatmi permissive pawl, tck., Gandhi, Aung San tehna bantuk an um bantuk in kam khatlei ah mah phun telawng bak a timi ruahnak bi pawl chauvinist asiloah xenophobe pawl, tck., Hitler, Saddam Hussein bantuk tehna zong

Adapted from Shelby Tuckers A Heros Death, in his book Burma: The Curse of Independence

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an rak um ve. Kau deuhpi in khuaruat kho pawl hi an nun khua a sau tawn lo; zeicahtiah milu a tam deuhmi miphun nihhin miphunpi ah an i ruat i milu tlawm deuh miphun pawl kha dolh an duh hna. Hi ruangah kau deuh ruahnak `ha ngei pawl cu luartuk phun`anh fanatic nationlist pawl nih kan miphun caah tiin an thah tawn hna. Vawlei pumpi ti awk tiang dengin laar hram a hun

THEIH HERHMI KAWLRAM KONG

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i thawk hnik cangmi Aung San hi a chan lio i Kawlram politics ah ram hruaitu le uktu si a duh vemi communists pawl (Aung San nupi he an nupi le unau a simi Thakhin Than Tun phu), cun upa deuh ah U Saw, Ba Maw le Tun Oke tbk. pawl nih an rem lai lo ti cu a ang ngaimi asi. Zeicahtiah, Aung San cu a no zong a no rih, politics zong a thiam lo tiah an ruah caah asi. Cun, Aung San nih a hruaimi AFPFL4 pawl nihhin, minung pakhat nih vawlei kau tuk an ngeihmi tehna hi remh`han an hau, mirum le sifak kan i dang tuk, tbk. in an aupi tikah hin, mirum lian taktak pawl le vawlei kaupipi a ngeimi capitalists pawl zong nih an rem lai lo ti a ang fawn. Tlangcungmi hna he i daw ngai in Aung San nih a um lawng si loin, an hmailei caah ruahnak kaupi a ngeihmi hi Kawl nationalist pawl caah cun an hnak a dohtu bik pakhat a rak si. Atlee-Aung San hnatlaknak, Panglong hnatlaknak le FACE5 report tehna hi an rem ziar lo. Ralpi caan lio vial ah Mirang nih hawikom ah an

4. Anti-Facist

Peoples

Freedom League

5. Frontier Areas Commission of Enquiry

Adapted from Shelby Tuckers A Heros Death, in his book Burma: The Curse of Independence

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kan serh i anmah he ral kan tu, atu tu ah cun Atlee nih a kan hlen tiah an ruah. Cun, AFPFL, a bikin, Aung San zong an mawhchiat: Aung San le AFPFL sinah nawlngeihnak pek colh a herh lo anti. Hi lio caan ah, Karen pawl sinah mission rian a rak `uanmi Major Reverend James W. Baldwin nih Karen miphun caah memorandum adang te a timh i Atlee cu a rak kuat. Hi bantuk thil [a bikin Karen nih adang tein independence laak duhnak] a rak ummi le Aung San nih adangdang tlangcungmi hna sin zongah mah duhthimnak nawl a onh tukmi hi an rem lo bikmi cu a si. Hi a rem lotu pawl nihhin Karen anmah bing tein independence lakding cu a duh in an duh lo. Aung San zong nih adang tein umding [lakterding] cun a siang ve hna lo. Ram i `hen nakin mahte uknak nawl tu tling tein ngeihter, federal phun in kalding hi a rak duhpiak hna. Cun Kawlmi nih a hmunkip ah i zarh dih i tlangcungmi miphun dang hna sinah nawlngeitu bik an vung si te ding zong a pommi a si lo. Cucaah, December 8, 1946, i an tuahmi Anglo-Burman Council ah hitin piang tein a chim: Miphun asiloah biaknak thleidannak pakhat hmanh um loin mi vialte nih anmah le an `hatnak ding

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cio caah a tlam a tlin khawh ding ka rian a si.6 Cu a pomning cu May 23, 1947 kum AFPFL civuipi i a biachim ah piang deuh in a hrilhah hna: Miphun, biaknak, nu le pa sinak asiloah sifak le mirum sining i dan ruangah thleidannak pakhat

6. Aung San, 1946: 189; reproduce in Silverstein (ed.), 1993: 148.

Adapted from Shelby Tuckers A Heros Death, in his book Burma: The Curse of Independence

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hmanh um loin mi vialte caah `hatnak taktak an

THEIH HERHMI KAWLRAM KONG

hmuh khawhnak ding, mi pakhat cio nih anmah le an si khawhning cio in an covo aa ruang tein an tinco khawh cio dingah cun, a dikmi democracy lawng nih rian a `uan khawh lai. Zei bantuk miphun a si i, zei bantuk biaknak a biami a si asiloah nu a si zong pa a si zong ah rammi vialte nih an co hngami an tinco khawh cio nakhnga Phunghrampi [Constitution] in kan kilhkamh lai. Mizei hmanh nih Karentbk. pawl hi mitlawm miphun national minority tiah nautatnak an tuah kho hna lai lo Atu, ram thar... kan Kawlram thar kan ser tikah, mah lungtho tein aa komhmi Union [federation] in maw kan ser hnga, hranhram hnekchih in komhmi [cunglei ukmi] Unitary State in dah? Kei ka hmuhning ah cun, Unitary State serding hi cu a si kho lai lo. Mah lungtho tein aa komhmi Union kan ser lai i mi tlawm deuh miphun pawl covo a hnursuang lo dingmi phung `ha tein kan ser lai, cun an covo zong `ha tein kan kilhkamh lai. I komhnak ah a dir khomi kan si i i komh `ung i a tlumi kan si lo ding kan i ralring lai.7 Cu hnu zongah, Aung San nihcun a thih hlan deuh thla khat aa duh, June 17, 1947 ni i, phunghram suaitu pawl he i tonnak constituent assembly zongah Kawlram cu Mah tein aa ukmi Ramchungtel [Autonomous States] zong an i tel awk a si i cun hi mitlawm deuh miphun pawl caah an covo `ha tein kilvenpiak hrimhrim ding8

7. Ibid.: 153-4,158

8. Letter, H.A. Stonor to Martin Smith, September 1997.

Adapted from Shelby Tuckers A Heros Death, in his book Burma: The Curse of Independence

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tihi a chim `han. Cu a biachimnak ah cun, tlangcungmi

THEIH HERHMI KAWLRAM KONG

hna he rualrem tein khua sak`i khawhnak dingah a biapimi points pasarih a chim. A chimmi chungah a biapimi cu: Rampi komh Union chungah hin mahte aa ukmi zong an um lai i, cu hna cu phunghram hrimhrim in kilhkamh an si lai Phunghram nihcun Rampi Union chungah a ummi mi vialte caah dinnak, aa ruang dih in biaceihnak a um lai i, khuasak tintuknak, chawlehthalnak le ramrian kongah aa tlukceo dih in dirhmun le covo an ngei lai, cun phung hmai ah cun khuaruah khawhnak, mah pomning langhter khawhnak, zumhnak le biaknak kongah zalennak kan ser lai i, mitlawm deuh miphun hna caah an covo an sungh sual nakhnga lo phung in kan kilhkamh hna lai.9 A thih hnu thla ruk hmanh tlin hlanah, Aung San ai a hun rolhtu pa nihcun, Aung San lungput le a chimmi he ralkah taktak in, Karen, Mon, Rakhine tbk. pawl ca i Mahte aa ukmi Ramchungtel (Autonomous States) serding cu zakhat ah zakhat in ka pom lo,10 tiah ati. Karen pawl nihhin Kawl miphun lakah cun Aung San pakhat lawng he an caah cohlan awktlak le lungtling te biaruah khawhnak kan ngei kho lai tihi an hngalhciami a rak si. Aung San zaka ah U Nu nih AFPFL hruaitu ah a hun chaan tikah hin, an caah sunghzatlaknak ding lawng a taang ko cang tihi Karen pawl nihcun, an rak i

9. Silverstein (ed.), 1993: 72-3.

10. Anonymous, Who really killed Aung San?; letter, H.A. Stonor to Martin Smith, September 1997.

Adapted from Shelby Tuckers A Heros Death, in his book Burma: The Curse of Independence

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ang ngaingai cang.

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Kawl Phun`anh Pawl An Thawhkeh NingMaung Htin Aung le Michael A. Aung Thwin nih Britannica 2007 chung an `ialning ah cun, Kawl pawl nih an phun `anhnak hram an i thawk hi Mirang chan lio i sianginn ah Mirang holh lawngin cacawn a si tikah; Kawl pawl caah ca a rak har, Kala (Indian) pawl lawng nih Engineering le siilei cawnnak sang ah an rak lut kho, rian an luh tikah Kawl pawl cu rian niam deuh lawng ah an lut kho; cu hmanh ah cun Kala he i zuam a hauh rihmi tehna an ruah tikah an lung a faak i, cucun a hrihhram an thawk tiah an ti. Kawl cheukhat nih England ah Law an vung cawng i, an hung kir `han tikah cu hna pawl cu, Kawlmi nih bawi le mim bik zoh in an zoh hna. Cun, hi hna pawl hrihhawhnak in 1906 kum ah YMBA (Young Mens Buddhist Association) an dirh tiah an ti. 1917 an hung phanh tikah, GCBA (General Council of Burmese Associations) an dirh `han. Hi nihhin Kawl phun`anh rian biatak tein `uan hram aa thawk i, an mim, an sihni vialte le an misikho deuh vialte nih tha an pek pinah an tadinca vialte zong a pumh khawh dih hna. GCBA member a simi, phungki chuak U Yar Kyaw timi pa nih Tharrawaddy pengah Galon Athin timi a thlithup bu a rak ser. Cu Yar Kyaw timi pa cu a hnu ah Saya San tiah Kawlram phun`anh pawl hrihhram bantuk ah a min a hung thangmi pa a si. Saya San nihhin amah le amah

Adapted from Shelby Tuckers A Heros Death, in his book Burma: The Curse of Independence

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siangpahrang ka si aa ti i, Thupannaka Galuna Raja timi min (buaih) aa sak. A ralkap pawl cu thir tipeeng le sehbing tube `uk`ak in mahte ser chommi meithal, lilithal le cantiang le feizum in a thuamh hna i, chanthar meithal he thuamhmi Mirang ralkap pawl cu ka doh hna lai ati.11 American professor Lucien W. Pye nih a hmuh hna ningah cun: Saya San nih 1931 i Mirang a rak dohmi nihhin Kawlram ah siangpahrang phun in uk duhnak thlaici zungzal a hmunhtertu a si. Bedinsaya nih lam a hruai hna i, mit-hleh thiammi, seminkyawng suai thiammi pawl nih an bawmh hna. Ya`ra- chi-nak sii, kutken, tbk. an i bochan i Saya San cu hlan an siangpahrang bantukin nithawng raangpi tangah an `hutter. Cuticun, chanthar meithal nih a kan teih lai lo tiah an i ruah. An cawlcanghnak hi sullam ngei lo deuh a si i, khuaruahhar thlarau nih a kan bawmh lai ti sawh men in rampi caah luatnak kan hmu lai tiah an i ruah.12 1932 kum i, Mirang ralkap nih Saya San dohnak cu an hun den ciammam hna taktak tikah, minung 10,000 renglo an thah hna, 9,000 an tlaih hna i thong an thlak hna, cun 128amah Saya San lila le a bawmtu hawikom `ha bik pahnih Saya Nyan le Bandaka timi tel

11. Linter, 1999: 35.

12. Pye, 1962: 259.

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inhri-awk thih dan an tat hna. Cu lio ah cun, Mirang lei in hma a pumi 50 hmanh an tling lo. Aung San Suu Kyi nih, Hiti Mirang nih an tuahto hna ruangah hin,

Adapted from Shelby Tuckers A Heros Death, in his book Burma: The Curse of Independence

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Kawlmi lungthin chungah phun`anhnak a `hawnter

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chinchin i an miphun a ingtuarmi hna cungah zaangfahnak a karhter,13 tiah a ti. Mirang nih Saya San dohnak an rak den hna lio ahhin an hmanmi ralkap pawl cu Karen lawngte ngawt an rak si. Vawlei Ralpi Pahnihnak a thawh hlan deuh ah Mirang ralkap ahhin Kawl 1,893 lawng (an milu rup in) an rak laak hna lioah, Karen cu 2,797, Kala 2,578, Lai (Chin) 1,258, le Kachin 852 an rak laak hna. 1938 kum i Mandalay ah ram luatnak caah duhlonak an rak langhter lio zongah Mirang nihcun Kachin ralkap an hrawhter hna. Hi lio caan ah tlangcungmi pawl nih Kawl cu mi-hrokhrol phun tiin ral zoh in an zoh hna i zumhtlak lo miphun ah an chiah hna. Hitin thil a rak um tikah, Kawl ca`ail thiam pawl nih Mirang nih tlangcungmi he an kan thleidan i an kan uk divide-andrule an rak kan tuah tiah an `ial behnak a si.14 Cuticun, YMBA le GCBA upa hlun pawl nih ram kongah biatak deuh in rian a `uan kho dingah tiin, cun aa `hekdarh dih cangmi an bu pahnih hrim funtom `han dingah tiin Dohbama Asiayone cu rak dirh a si. Hi bu nih a aupimi cu Kawlram cu Kawl miphun caah, Kawl miphun cu bawi phun kan si, ti tehna an si. A motto ah: Kawlram (Burma) kan ram Kawlca kan ca Kawlholh kan holh

13. Suu Kyi, 1991: 143144.

14. Linter, 1999: 47.

Adapted from Shelby Tuckers A Heros Death, in his book Burma: The Curse of Independence

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Kan ram daw u

THEIH HERHMI KAWLRAM KONG

Kan ca sunhlawih u Kan holh thlircawi u Kawl miphun nih phun`anhnak lei i an hun i hliphlau bik caan cu Saya San le a hnuzul [phungki tampi an i tel] pawl nih Mirang an doh i, an minung tamtuk an thih bak khan a `hawng chin lengmang i, Dohbama Asiayone an hun dirh ahhin cun hmailei Kawlram i hruainak ding kong tiang hmanh khua an khaang cang. Kawlram hi Burma kan ti lai maw asiloah kanmah Kawl siangpahrang chan lio kan min Myanma dah kan hman lai tbk. tehna an i ruah chung cang. Cu lawng si lo, nihin Kawlram Hla kan timi zong hi Dohbama Asiayone hla a rak si.

DAL KHATNAK

Aung San Chan Lio Rak Uarmi Cauk le RuahnakSaya San `ialmi cauk an zuarnak in a miak an hmuhmi phaisa in library pakhat an rak dirh i, Communist cauk le ruahnak pawl hi India le England ram in tampi an rak luhter. Cu cauk pawl cu England i college a kaimi pawl nih an hun phurh tawn hna. Limkeng Sen Nagani timi book club Rangoon le hmun dangdang zongah an ser i, communist ruahnak cauk lawngte an luhpimi a si caah Dohbama pawl le adang Kawl politic phu pawl, cun an chan lio minthang Rangoon University Students Union [RUSU] tehna tiangin kehlei ruahnak [leftist thinking] nih a rak runh ngaingai hna.

Adapted from Shelby Tuckers A Heros Death, in his book Burma: The Curse of Independence

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Hi lio caan ah, sianghleirun siangngachia bu ah

minthang deuh pawl cu Thakhin Nu, Thakhin Aung San, Thakhin Kyaw Nyein, Thakhin Thein Pe, le Kala Muslim pa M.A. Raschid tehna an rak si. Communist bu taktak cun an rak dirh rih lo nain, Thakhin Thein Pe cu India in a hung tlung i, August 15, 1939 ni ah Barr Lam, Rangoon innkhan hmete pakhat ah Kawl mim no deuh pawl he i tonnak an ngei i, Communist Party of Burma [CPB] an rak dirh. A dirhtu hna lakah cun Dohbama chungin siangngakchia hruaitu: Thakhin Aung San, Thakhin Thein Pe, Thakhin Ba Hein, le a hnu ah Bo Let Ya tiah hngalhmi Thakhin Hla Pe tehna an i tel. Hi communist party ah Aung San cu general secretary ah an thim. Kum sawmthum hmanh a tling rih lomi Aung San hi Dohbama ah general secretary a rak `uan lawng si loin, Dr. Ba Maw nih president a `uannak Freedom Bloc zongah a dirhtu ah aa telmi a rak si `hiamFreedom Bloc cu Nichuahlei [communist lei] ah bawmhnak hal loin Nitlaklei [Democracy lei] tu ah bawmhnak hal ding aa timmi phu an si. Tuanbia `ial thiam [historian] pawl nih an `ialning ahcun, Dohbama nih a kalpimi cu phun`anh a si bik ko nain, kehlei ruahning (leftist) le orhlei ruahning (rightist) pawl tiin an um caah an i `hennak bik a si tiah an puh. Asinain, hi ruahnak an pahnih ning tein an pom ko tiah an ti tawn. Thakhin Lay Maung nih 1920 kum siang ngakchia duhlonak langhternak a voi 16-nak philhlonak an tuah i, hruaitu president dirhmun in a biachim ah

Adapted from Shelby Tuckers A Heros Death, in his book Burma: The Curse of Independence

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mi zaran sawhsawh in hruaitu dirhmun ah aa chuahmi Alaungpaya, Hitler le Mussolini bianabia pawl a chimh hna, cun ramdang capitalist pawl chuahter dih i, Russia bantuk daan (policy) ser dingin15 a forh hna. Dohbama `hen hnih ah a rak i cheunak chan hi, a taktak ti ahcun, hruaitu kong i an buai zungzalmi ruangah a si bik ko tiah an ti. March 1938 kum ah Dohbama nihcun, Pyi khua ah civuipi a tuah. Cu ah cun, an president thong a tlak lio a si caah, aa tel kho lo i, a zaka ah midang thimding an timhmi nih an thin a phawh hna. Voihnih tiang bakin president thimnak cu an tuah. Thla thum a rauh hnu ah, an president thar Thein Maung nih a ka zuamcawh kho ding tiah a ruahmi Ba Sein te phu kha a phuah hna. Cu tikah, Kodaw Hmaing nih E.C pawl a kawh hna i, i rem `hannak ding ser aa tim. Thein Maung nihcun, Kodaw Hmaing tham cu E.C chungtel zong a si lo a ti hna i, a chuahtaak hna. Cun, keimah Hitler-Uktu Bawi tiah aa thanh i, Ba Sein le a bawmtu phu pawl cu Dohbama headquarters in a `hawl hna. Ba Sein te nih cun, anmah

15.

THEIH HERHMI KAWLRAM KONGFrom and (Los

an

essay

Should We Participate in Bourgeois Parliments?, M. reprinted in G.D.F. Overstreet Winmiller, UniCommunism in India Angeles:

versity of California Press, 1959), pp. 4668. Redacted, Khin Yi, 1988:49.

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tein headquarters an i ser ve i, Dohbama pawl cu an i `hen thai. Adonghnak ah cun, Kodaw Hmaing zong cu miremtu a si khawh hlei ti lo caah, mi tam deuh an i funnak Thein Maung te sinah aa fon. Cu hnu thawkin, Kodaw Hmaing phu le mi tlawm deuh Ba Sein-Tun Oke phu tiah kan hun hngalhmi hna ah an i cang. Aung San hi Kodaw Hmaing lei ah a nupi lei in

Adapted from Shelby Tuckers A Heros Death, in his book Burma: The Curse of Independence

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15

a unaupa Than Tun he 1938 kum ah an lut`i. A rauh

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hlanah, an general secretary ah an thim. U Nu cu an ngunkeng [phaisa umlo ngun keng tiah U Nu nih a ti16], cun Let Ya, Than Tun le Soe nih adang biapi rian an tlaih.17 Hi lio caan ah a kum a no rihmi Aung San ruahnak ahhin cawhbur nawn in a um rih kho ngaimi a si. Marxism nih a runh ngai hna ti cu a ang fawn. Shanghai kal aa thawh i, Amoy khua a va phanh tan ahhin, aa tinh taktakmi cu, Mao Zedong hruaimi Tuluk communist pawl ton dingah a si. Asinain, communist he i tong loin Japan facist pawl tu he an i tong. Cu lawng si loin, Dohbama pawl hrim nihhin Marxism aw-aan, le motto rumro an rak hmang. Dr. Maung Maung tu nih cun aa dawhnak in, Dohbama pawl nih an i tinhmi cu Marxism [communist ruahnak] pom ding nakin Mirang doh lawng a si deuh,18 tiah a al ve.Ruah awk: Dr. Maung Maung cu tuanbia a dikning taktak `ial nakin a milhtlorh deuhtu lawng a si caah, a bia zumh awk a tlak lo. Dohbama chung i buainak hi leftwing e, rightwing e, ruangah e an ti lenmi nakin miphun dang pawl an kuttang chiah khawh zungzal ding kong tu ah ruahnak i khah lo dawh deuh an si. Zeicahtiah Kawl phun`anhnak lungput cu miphun dang huatnak le nahchuahnak in aa thawkmi a si. Socialism asiloah Marxism asiloah communist ruahnak [cawnnak taktak an rak ngei lo i, aa khat ah an rak ruah ko] ni-

16. Tinker, 1959: 7. 17. U Maung Maung, 1989: 21.

18. Dr. Maung Maung, 1969: 55.

Adapted from Shelby Tuckers A Heros Death, in his book Burma: The Curse of Independence

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hhin miphun hme (ram khat chung ummi mitlawm deuh phun) caah zawnruahnak timi a um lo. Aung San hi communist ruahnak nih a cawnpiak vemi a si pinah Kawlram communist party dirh hmasatu ah aa telmi bak a si ko nain, a hnu a thih lai hrawng a hung m deuh, a ruahnak a hun kauh deuh tikah, tlangcungmi caah (mitlawm miphun hna caah) a `ang bik le an hawikom `ha bik a hung si tikah, hlan a hawile cungah leirawitu thit-sa-phoh a si hnga lo maw? Cucaah, Aung San nihhin i ralrin khawh dingmi lenglei ral nakin `ih a nung deuhmi, zeitik ahdah an ka thluk telai ti hngalh khawh lomi chunglei ral a rak ngei cang ti khawh a si.

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U Saw Kong TlawmpalAung San thattu kong hlaithlai ah cun, U Saw kong cu telh lo awk `ha lo a si. U Saw hi ahodah a si hnga? U Saw cu Dr. Maung Maung `ial ningah cun mnak tlamtling ngeih setsai `ung lo i, power lawng a duhmi, minister sawhsawh in aa lung si lo i, prime minister (ram lu bik) tiang si a duhmi pa a si tiah a ti. U Saw cu orhlei ruahnak (rightist) a pommi a si i, Aung San he hlan tein aa rem lomi pa a si. Chim duhmi cu Aung San i hmuh khawhmi lenglei ral a si.Kaw lram Poli

tics a U Sa h a rak w. zaa vem i

Adapted from Shelby Tuckers A Heros Death, in his book Burma: The Curse of Independence

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17

U Saw cu 1900 kum ah Tharrawaddy ah a chuak

i, sihni (pleader) a cawng, Saya San a upat ngaimi pa a si. 1928 kum thawkin MP a `uan tawn. 1931 kum i Saya San an tlaih tikah Kawl sihni tam ngaite nih a lakin sihni kan leih-piak lai tiah an rak i pe cio. Nain, a tam deuh cu, cathiam huaha lo khuatefa deuh lawngte an si; cu hna lakah mino cathiam bik pawl ah a hung langmi cu U Saw a si. U Saw nih Saya San luatnak caah cun sihni cu a leih-piak i, England ummi Mirang bawi pawl sin zongah Saya San luatnak dingah nawlnak ca a rak kuat hna tikah cun laar hram a hun i thawk colh ko cang. Saya San nih Mirang a rak doh liote in U Saw nihhin U Ba Pe dirhmi Thuriya (the Sun) tadinca hmangin Mirang ralkap nih Saya San ralkap pawl an tuahto ning hna hmanthlak tehna a cuanter i Mirang bawi pawl sinah a rak kuat tawn cang. Saya San a thih tikah, Saya San nih Mirang a dohnak pehzulh dingah tiin, a min ah Galon aa bunhnak chan a si [Saya San nih Galon Athin a rak dirh]. May 1935 ah Japan ah a vung tlawng i, a rung tlun tikah Nga-Bwint-Saing Party aiawh in thimnak i cuh dingah an thim. 1938 kum ah, Thuriya (the Sun) tadinca a cawk (Japan pawl phaisa bawmhmi in a cawk tiah zapi nih an ruah19). Dr. Maung Maung `ialning ah cun, Thuriya tadinca nihcun, Hitler nih ram le miphun kong he pehtlai in Judah miphun huatnak le German lawng miphun sang an sinak kong a `ialmi a cauk Kaa Zuamnak timi Mein Kempf kha a serial in chuah hram a thawk colh tiah a ti. A tadinca hmangin mirum lian

19. It serialized a translation of Mein Kampf. Dr. Maung Maung, 1969: 63.

Adapted from Shelby Tuckers A Heros Death, in his book Burma: The Curse of Independence

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18

pipi le vawlei kau pipi ngeimi hna nih a lei `ang dingin

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a lemsoi hna i20, Myochit Party a dirh, cun amah private ralkap Galon ~at aa ser. U Saw cu Ba Maw21 cozah ah vuanci (minister) a `uan. Asinain, cozah doh ruangah tiin, Ba Maw nih thong a thlak. Thong in a hun chuah hnu, May 30, 1939 ah U Pu cozah ah forest le agriculture vuanci ah an thim. Dr. Maung Maung `ialning ah; a Myochit Party hmangin U Pu chambaunak a kawl i, U Pu cozah cu challenge a tuah. Cuticun, September 1940 in January 1942 tiang Chief Minister a `uan.22 Kawl lakah a bawi bik a hun si le cangka in, politician cheukhat thong ah a thlak hna: ruahnak lei ah a saya `hing U Ba Pe, Mandalay mi U Ba U le U Ba Thi an si. U Saw nihhin min ah Ba aa telmi cu a rem hna lo tiah capo in an siahnak.23 October 1941 lio i, ramdang a tlawn lai cu baisakup aa zaih-mi ko a lo: Private vanlawng bakincungah cun a zuang. cun Shwedagon pura a hun heel i, vancung cun upatnak a von pek. Mi nih thil `ha lo tuah ah an rel. Midang nih Buddha milem hmai ah cun, an bok i, upatnak an pekmi kha U Saw nihcun, aa laak zau i, a bingtalet bakin, a cunglei in a biak.24 Zeiti Dr. Maung Maung nih a va `ial zongah, U Saw hi February 12, 1947 kum ah Panglong hnatlaknak an rak tuah lioah a rak i tel ve. U Saw nihcun tlangcungmi pawl cu; nan miphun `hanchonak ding le nan ram i kilvennak dingah Kawlram he rak i fonh ve ko u, nanmah

20. U Maung Maung, 1989: 8.

21. Khrihfa a si, Armenian thi aa cawh tiah an zumh. Cambridge ah B.A, University of Bordeaux ah PhD a ngahmi pa a si.

22. Dr. Maung Maung, 1962.

23. U Maung Maung, 1989: 68.

24. Ibid.: 90.

Adapted from Shelby Tuckers A Heros Death, in his book Burma: The Curse of Independence

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19

le nan ram cio ah nanmah tein uknak nawl cu nan i ngeih ko lai tiah a rak sawm ve hna. Hi U Saw bia hi tlangcungmi nih an rak cohlan ngaimi a si. Nain, kam khatlei ah, U Nu nih Mirang nih tlangcungmi he thleidannak a rak kan tuah ruangah Kawl le tlangcungmi karah huatnak a chuahter timi bia tu cu, tlangcungmi nih an rak pom duh bak lo.25 Nain, U Saw hi mi khuaruahhar ngai cu a si. Aungutna Atlee Minth Aung Sana zulh lio.

w nih k ah U Sa

25. Lintner, 1999: 77-78.

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San le British prime minister Atlee nih January 27, 1947 ni ah London khua i Kawlram luatnak (zalennak) pekding in hnatlaknak an ngeih tikah, U Saw le Ba Sein nih opposition aiawh in an rak zulh i min an thu duh lo.26 Aung San-Atlee hnatlaknak nihhin tlangcungmi nih Kawl he fonh an duh ko ahcun, Kawl uknak tang ah um ding a anter cang i, asiloah tlangcungmi hna caah a bing tein luatnak pekding timi cu a rawk cang ti awk a si ko caah dah U Saw nihhin tlangcungmi hna zawnruat in a rak thut duh hnga lo? Asiloah Aung San nih hmailei ah Kawlram a hruai telai ti a hmuh caah dah a thut hnga lo? A ruahnak hi hngalh khawh a har ko.

26. Ibid.: 80.

Adapted from Shelby Tuckers A Heros Death, in his book Burma: The Curse of Independence

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20

Aung San Lainawnnak le A Ralkap Pawl

THEIH HERHMI KAWLRAM KONGTinker

Ni khat cu, Thaton peng Thebyugone khuate in DormanSmith sinah, 1942 kum lio ah, Aung San nih lai a nawn caah thih dantatnak pek awk a si timi report a hung phan. A kong an hun hlat tikah tuksapur a si ko: Aung San ralkap BIA pawl nih khuate khuabawi Muslim pa kha cawleng cungah vok he ni riat chung rawl lo zei loin Thaton khua tiang an phurh`i hna hnu ah, an khua cerhmun kawltung ah cu pa cu fek tein an hren i, minung thong tampi hmai ah, thih dantatnak an pek. Aung San, kam hnih in BIA ralkap pawl nih an kulh, nihcun an tlaihmi pa a namte lila in mipa cu thilak in a sawh.27

27. Petition of Ma Ahma, wife of the late Abdul Raschid, 8 April 1946 (BLOIOC: M/5/102; 1984, (ed.),

vol.1, item 452: 728. Tun Ok, who stated that he was an eyewitness to the mur-

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Hi kong hi palik zong nih Mountbatten sin

ah report an hei kuat. Mountbatten nihcun, BIA/PBF ralkap pawl kha Mirang ralkap caah hman a duh caah a kong rak ceih rih hlah u, tiah a thanh hna. Aung San tlaihnak nawl a ngei lomi Paw Tun (Sir Paw Tun) nih Aung San hi Kawlram politics ah i tel ti hlah seh ti a duh caah, Governor Dorman-Smith cu tlaih dingin a lemsoi. 1946 kum thawkka hrawngah (a kum vui 1947 ah thimnak tuahding a si tikah), hi Aung San nih 1942 ral lio i a lainawnnak kong kha Kawl upa pawl nihcun, biatak tein an i buaipi. Dorman-Smith cozah ah minister a `uan liomi Tun Oke28 nih aa thawh i, Aung San lainawnnak kong hi biatak in kan ruah awk a si. Keimah nih tehte ka `uan lai. A thah lio ah ka um ve. Aung San nih amah vainam bakin a thahmi a si. Aung

der, maintained that Aung San used his own sword instead of the victims bayonet. Telegram, Sir Reginald Dorman-Smith to Secretary of State to Burma, 25 February 1946 (BL OIOC: M/5/102): Tinker (ed.), 1984, vol. 1, item 406: 661.

28. Tun Oke hi Hawikom Sawmthum mi a si. Thirty Comrades ah aa tel-

Adapted from Shelby Tuckers A Heros Death, in his book Burma: The Curse of Independence

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21

San hi tlaih awk a si ko, mi nih an uarnak zong a zor tuk ko cang i zei a poi lai lo tiah Dorman-Smith cozah E. C pawl hmai ah a chim. Dorman-Smith cu umtu awk thei loin an tuah. Aung San huatu pawl le a thimi Muslim pa nupi kut in luatter a duhmi Aung San dawtu pawl nihcun Aung San biaceih ding a ni an thawn tikah an i lawm ngai. Nain, bia a um cang tikah, Aung San nih sual an phawtnak cu biatak in ka doh a hau ti a ruah caah, 12 April 1946 chuakmi Thadinsone Journal (Kawlholh) le Hanthawaddy (Mirang Holh) in a sining kong cu a dikning tein tadinca pahnih ah a `ial: Kai cinkenmi cu

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khuabawipa hi mi hrokhrol `halo a si i, a khuami hna duh paoh in a serhsat hnaKa sin report an rak pekmi pawl ningah thihnak nak niam deuh in dantat awktlak a si lo ati. Aung San lainawnnak kongah Dorman-Smith he Kawl bawi pawl he an dihlak in tlaih an duh ngai ko nain, Aung San an tlaih ahcun ram a buai lai ti Mirang nih an ruah caah Ralpi lio thil cu sualphawt awk a si lo an ti i an tlai duh lo. Mirang nihcun, Burma Army asiloah Burifs (Burma Ries: Mirang ta an si) caah Aung San ralkap PBF (hlan BIA) chungin ofcers 200, adang reng 5200 kan laak lai i anmah le an battalion cio an i ser lai tiah an ti hna tikah 4763 nih Burifs ah cun an lutcu cun, 3rd, 4th le 5th Burma Ries an hun i ser [Ne Win cu 4th Burif hotu a si]. Asinain, 3561 nih an i tel duh lo i Pyithu

Adapted from Shelby Tuckers A Heros Death, in his book Burma: The Curse of Independence

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22

Yebaw Ahphwe asiloah Mirang in Peoples Volunteer Organization (PVO) cu 1 December 1945 ah an dirh. A taktak ti ahcun, hi PVO hi private ralkap an si ko, peng le khua kip ah an ser hna i, an headquarters cu Aung San nih a hruai hna.29 May 1946 ah cun, PVO hi cozah

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hmete bantuk ah an hung cang i, Burifs ah aa `hialmi hlan BNA/PBF nih kam khatlei in Mirang sinah training an ngah chap tikah, Kawl ralkap dirhmun hi hlanah Kawl nih an rak `ih ngaimi, Mirang sinah zumhtlak in aa pemi tlangcungmi ralkap battalion 7 (Chin Ries, tbk. pawl) he i dirh-onh ngamh kho ding phun dirhmun ah a hun phanhter hna. Aung San cu a laar chin lengmang i, cabinet thar nih hngalhpinak an hun tuah tikah, luatnak (zalennak) pekding in faak deuh chinchin in a hal cang hna. Cu tikah mipi nih an `anh tuk cang. Cozah minung pawl an laar ti lo i, khuate lei hoihna ah cun, PVO lawng nawlngeitu ah an hung cang. Peng kipah PVO headquarters an ser; cozah tangka le thilri, hriamnam, meithal tiangin damiah-`aih phun in anmah nawl in an laak cang. 1947 tikah cun, thimnak dingah tiin, an thazaang an karhter chin lengmang. Rangoon khuachung sang kip le khua le peng kip ah headquarters an karhter chinchin. Anmah a dohtu ding party pawl cu an `hihphaih hna, an doh hna, zuamnak ah i tel ngam lo dingin an tuah hna. Cu tikah, aa cuh ve ding candidate mi tampi cu an i zukphiak ziar. April 1, 1947 ah thimnak cu an hun tuah. PVO pawl nih mee thlaknak booth an cawngh. AFPFL caah 100%

29. Tinker, 1959: 17.

Adapted from Shelby Tuckers A Heros Death, in his book Burma: The Curse of Independence

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zuamcawhtu ngei lo thimnak ah aa chuah.

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May-June 1947 karlak. Buainak thlam leen hram aa thawk cang. AFPFL cheu hnih ah aa cheu. National Socialists le Communists pawl nih langhlang ngai in Aung San an soisel cang. Ram remh`hannak le rian i peknak kongah Aung San cu an phomh ko cang. Mipi nih an uarnak zong a zor deuh. Kyaw Nyein hruaimi National Socialist pawl nih Communist pawl min hmangin Delta Area le Central Burma ah damiah an `aih lengmang cang. Aung San nih Mirang tihraamnak i a rak hmanmi tactic bakin amah dohtu lila nih an hun ti hnawh ve tikah fakpi in a mawhchiat hna. Aung San nihcun, City Hall i bia a chim tikah, U Ba Pe, U Tin Tut le Kyaw Nyein cu an din lonak ruangah faak piin a mawhchiat hna i U Ba Pe cu cabinet in a phuah. Cu lioah cun, Tin Tut le Kyaw Nyein cu Europe ah an tlawn kar a si. Aung San nih Kyaw Nyein ziaza a h in a hnak le a rak tlun bakin a rian in a phuah lainak kong a chim. AFPFL chung ummi socialist hnuzul pawl nih hi a bia cu an rem lo ngai caah, an hruaitu Kyaw Nyein cu khamh dingin an lung an i thlek. Cu ruangah, mipi nihcun, Kyaw Nyein nih Aung San thahnak ding khua a khaan tiah a hnu ah an hun zumhnak a si. U Saw cu satarhnak (scapegoat) sawhsawh ah an hman. A va si pek si lo pekah, hihi mipi nih an zumhning a rak si i, micheu nihcun thilri tehte (material evidence)

Adapted from Shelby Tuckers A Heros Death, in his book Burma: The Curse of Independence

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hmanh kan chuahpi khawh lai tiah an ti.30

30. J. W. Baldwin, mem-

THEIH HERHMI KAWLRAM KONG

orandum, Latest Development Political Situation in Burma to 6th November 1947,

Mi Bocal Aung SanEngland cozah i, India le Kawlram caah `uanvo ngeitu Secretary of State for India and Burma nih a cunglei i kan `ial cangmi Baldwin hlathlai-ca memorandum cu kam-khatlei lawng a hoih tuk a ti i, Foreign Ofce le ah a mter ziar hna.31 Asinain, Kawlram ah cozah rian a rak `uanmi M. A. Maybury cakuat 1949 kum ah the New Statesman nih an hun chuah tikah, PVO nih thimnak ah mi `hihphaihnak a tuah ko tiah Baldwin nih a `ialmi a dik ko tihi a fehter: Kawlram hruaitu dingah Aung San kan hngalhpinak ruangah Kawlram ah zalong tein khuaruah khawhnak le biachim khawhnak a hrawh. Zeicahtiah, a private ralkap [PVO] hmangin a zuamcawh kho dingmi a `hihphaih hna. April 1947 thimnak ah mi tampi nih mee an pek timi le, Kawl le Mitlawm miphun pawl karlak ah a lengphaw lungrualnak bantuk a ser timi hi, Hitler le Stalin nih an hmanmi daan methods he aa lo.32 Cu bantuk `hiam`hiam cun H. A. Stonor nih: The Welch Regiment 2nd Battalion in ofcer pawl he Kalaw ah an i thimnak cu zeidah a lawh tiah kan hung zoh hna. Palik thuam bantuk aa thuammi pawl nih sobul le fa-ah zuk aa suaimi AFPFL aalan

attached to note, Lord Pethick-Lawrence to Sir Gilbert Laithwaite, 19 December 1947 (BL OIOC: M/4/2736), altered by minor orthographical corrections. Note, Sir Gilbert Lord

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31.

Laithwaite

Pethick-Lawrence, 19 December 1947 (BL

OIOC: M/4/2736).

32. 30 April 1949.

Adapted from Shelby Tuckers A Heros Death, in his book Burma: The Curse of Independence

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an i thlir lulh hna i, lamkam keh he orh he mee pek a kalding pawl cu an orh hna. Anmah karlak lawngin mee-petu ding nih cun kal khawh dingin an tuah. Kan khuaruah a kan harter i, ningzak ngai zong a simi pakhat belte cu Mirang ralbawi Capt. Jimmy Battle cu mi lakah a dir tertur ve ko nain, zeihmanh a ti hna lo.33

33. Note appended to correspondence with H.A. Stonor, 17 June 2000.

THEIH HERHMI KAWLRAM KONG

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Cun Kin Oung, 1947 lioah Burma Navy ah ofcer in a rak `uanmi pa zong nih: AFPFL nih thimnak ah a dik loning in thil an tuah hi ka hngalhmi a um ve caah, Baldwin ca`ialmi a dik ko tiah ka fehter khawh ve men lai. Navy chungah hin AFPFL socialist a bawmtu ofcer tampi an rak um i, a tak tiah cun, hi hna pawl nih dahkaw mee thlaknak booth lei ah a kalmi communist pawl cu lam in an rak bawh hna i an rak thah hna cu.34 City Hall ah, Aung San nih Ba Pe, Tin Tut le Kyaw Nyein sual a phawtmi hna zong hi mi chimchinbia sawhsawh men in a theihmi an si i, a chim hlanah a hawile zong ruahnak a hal ta hna lo. Ba Pe hi Kawlmi phun`anh cawlcanghnak le politics ah kan pa35 tiah mi tampi nih an cohlanmi pa a si. The Sun tadinca a rak dirhtu a si pinah GCBA hruaitu zong a rak si i, legislature zongah 1923 kum thawkin member a rak si. Cubu ah cun, Aung San nih cozah EC le AFPFL a lu bik EC in zeihmanh defend tuahnak nawl pe loin a phuah.36 Cu pinah, Aung San nih, Kyaw Nyein cu a rak kir [Europe in Kawlram

34. Email, Kin Oung to Author, 23 January 2000.

35. U Maung Maung, 1989: 295.

36. Ibid.

Adapted from Shelby Tuckers A Heros Death, in his book Burma: The Curse of Independence

Aung San Hodah A That?

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DAL 1-NAK

26

a hung phak] bakin a rian phuah dingin a thanh cia fawn.37 Hiti a bocal tuk tikah, hi lio caan politician pawl nih le an dihlak ngawt in a corrupt-mi lawngte an si caah,38 `ihphaannak thlitu an lakah faakpi in hraan hram aa thawk lai ti cu a ang. Ba Pe le Kyaw Nyein hi Socialist Party hruaitu veve an si; AFPFL chungah Aung San a zuamcawh tawntu an si pinah, Aung San nih amah private ralkap PVO aa sermi cung zongah a dohtu an si. Aung San nih hi bantuk a ral pahnih a hrawh khawh cang hna a si ahcun, adang hodah hrawh ding a taang rih hnga? Kyaw Nyein he ruahnak aa khatmi le a bawmtu, Ne Win a si hnga maw? Kyaw Nyein i a private ralkap pawl le Ne Win te nihhin Delta Area tehna ah damiah an rak `aih lengmang cang va si kaw. A rauh hlanah a tlu hnga dingmi an Bogyoke cu na bocal tuk deuh hen cu, naa uah tuk deuh e, tiah an biathli he an37. Baldwin, memoran-

38. U Maung Maung, 1989: 295.

THEIH HERHMI KAWLRAM KONG

dum, p.2.

DAL KHATNAK

lungthli lawmhnak zapei benghnak i cuh pahin corridor cungah ral ngei ti lo, duh tawk an i chawh khawhnak ding khua lawng an khaang cang ko lai dah.

Adapted from Shelby Tuckers A Heros Death, in his book Burma: The Curse of Independence

27

DAL 2-NAK Aung San Hodah A That?

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MIPI AN RAK THEIHTERMI KONG

DAL HNIHNAK

Dal HnihnakA Thattu Kong Mipi TheihtermiNihin Yangon YMCA zung pin deuh kam khatlei zawn ahkhin wunkyi-myar yone tiah kan hngalhmi khi a hlan Mirang chan lioah secretariat building (ahdwin-wun yone) ti a rak si. Nirukni, July 19, 1947 (Zinglei 10: 30 am hrawnghrang). Hi zung innpi nitlaklei kam bik

Ni nin ni Secretariat Building.

zungkhaan pakhat ah cabuai buai thum Greek cafang suaisam in a kil an tonh hna i meeting a tuahmi an um. Aung San nih Kawl Cozah Interim Burmese Government E. C meeting a kawhmi hna an si; Aung San cu suaisam apar (alu) zawn ah a `hu. A kam cabuai an tonhmi pawl ah cun, U Ba Win (Aung San u pa, commerce and supplies chungtel), Thakhin Mya (nance chungtel), Deedok39 U Ba Choe (information), Abdul Razak (education and national planning), Mahn Ba Khiang (industry and Labour), U Ba Gyan (public

39. Editor a `uannak Deedok magazine min in an kawhmi a si.

Adapted from Shelby Tuckers A Heros Death, in his book Burma: The Curse of Independence

28

DAL 2-NAK Aung San Hodah A That?

Salai C. Alexander

works), U Aung Zan Wai (social works), Pyawbwe U

MIPI AN RAK THEIHTERMI KONG

Mya (agriculture and acting home member) le Mng Pawn saohpa Sao Sam Htun (frontier areas) ti pawl nih a keh he orh he aa changchang in an kulh i an `hu. Cu lio ah cun, an EC pahnih an bau: Kyaw Nyein (home affairs) cu Yugoslavia a tlawn lio a si;40 Tin Tut cu (nance kong ca-le Thankhin Mya sinah a pek ta i) London ah a tlawn lio a si ve.41 Aung San hnulei, innka an onnak lei corridor ah hriamnam zeihmanh aa ken lomi al-lek peon Thaung Sein42 a dir. Hi lio ah Kutka dang cu a chunglei in aa hrenh dih. Culio ahcun, chiandeih `azeik aa benhmi a hring rong ralkap (12th Army) uniform ai hruk i, ralkap lukhuh aa khuhmi minung pali: Maung Soe, Maung Sein, Thet Hnin, le Yan Gyi Aung ruah lopi in an hung chuak. Minung pathum nih tommy-guns an i ken, pakhat nih Sten gun aa ken i, Thaung Sein cu zeirel loin an hun nam pah khin meeting a tuahmi hna khaan chungah cun an lut. An meithal kuan cu an hun thlah thluahmah colh ko, cun corridor in, zungpi in hnulei ah an i khirh `han. Kutka hram ah, an maw`aw mawngtu Thukha nih maw`aw engine that loin a rak hngah hna. Lainawng minung pali maw`aw cung an cuan khawh le cangka Inya Lake kam, 4 Ady Lam, U Saw inn lei ah an jeep hringte cun phirhphahlik loin an i chaih colh. Aung San, Ba Win, Thakhin Mya, Abdul Razak le Mahn Bah Khiang cu an thi colh ko. Bachoe le Sao Sam Htun belte a thaizing ah an thi.

DAL HNIHNAKand 1962: 19. guard door.

40. The other absent councilor is Saw San Po Thin (transport communica-

tions), who is on tour. See U Maung Maung, 1989: 339, note 123, citing Hanthawaddy, 20 July 1947, pp.1-2.

41. Dr. Maung Maung,

42. Telegram, R.W.D. Fowler to Sir Gilbert Laithwaite, 19 July 1947 (BL OIOC: M/4/2714); Tinker (ed.), 1984, vol. II, item 452: 673, refers to an armed PVO outside the

Adapted from Shelby Tuckers A Heros Death, in his book Burma: The Curse of Independence

29

DAL 2-NAK Aung San Hodah A That?

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Mi kaptu minung pali le an driver pinah, adang

MIPI AN RAK THEIHTERMI KONG

minung panga zong lainawnnak a bawmtu ah an i tel ve tiin biaceih an si. Cu hna lakah Ba Nyunt timi pa nih aphuangtu ah aa cang i, tehte biapi bik ah aa thleng. Ba Nyunt nihcun, hi lainawnnak khuakhaangtu bik le a timlamtu bik cu U Saw a si a ti caah, biaceihtu nih Ba Nyunt cu lainawnnak tehte biapi bik ah an hman.43 Ba Nyunt nih, U Saw cu Minhla khua ah Myochit Party hruaitu in a rat lio a biachimnak ah kan i tong, U Saw sawmnak in Ady Lam cung ummi U Saw inn ka phan i Myochit Party ah cun ka lut tiah tehte a khan. Cun, sualphawtmi adang panga hna hi U Saw inn ah a rak umciami an si: cu lio ah cun, meithal le zenthong an rak i zalh cang tiah a ti. U Saw nih Aung San thahnak ding kong cu 15 July ah avoikhatnak a ka chimh hmasa a si. Cun 18 July ni ah U Saw nihcun, mikaptu adang pathum le Thukha he a kan pumh i, lainawnnak ding kong cu timhcia tein a kan cawnpiak. Anih Ba Nyunt rian cu midang nih an meithal an hman dih hnu ah, Thakhin Nu sinah vung kawl i, va thah ding a si tiah a chim.44 Lai an nawn ni zing suimilam 8: 30 hrawngah, U Saw nih (sualphawt a si vemi adang pathum) Khin Maung Yin, Maung Ni le Hmon Gyi kha Thakhin Nu thahnak ding kong biathli a ruah hna ka theih i, secretariat building lei ah cun, hi hna he Fordson truck in kan kal. Maw`aw cu Dalhousie Street le 41st Street aa tonnak zawn ah an dirter i, Khin Maung Yin le Hmon Gyi cu Parks

Adapted from Shelby Tuckers A Heros Death, in his book Burma: The Curse of Independence

DAL HNIHNAK1962: 76.

43. Dr. Maung Maung,

44. Thakhin Nu was not a member of the Executive Council. He was, however, a close ally of Aung San and the speaker of the constituent assembly.

30

DAL 2-NAK Aung San Hodah A That?

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Street leikam in zungpi chungin lenglei chuahnak kutka in

MIPI AN RAK THEIHTERMI KONG

an lut i an liam. Cu lio ahcun, (amah) Ba Nyunt cu U Nu zungkhan a umnak constituent assembly building lei ah a vung kal ve. A hmuhmi pa cu U Nu a si lo ti a theih tikah, Ba Nyunt cu an maw`aw dirternak lei ah a kir `han. Maw`aw chungah Khin Maung Yin a rak kir cang i, Maung Ni nih zeipaoh a tlam a tling ko tiah U Saw sinah phone a vung chawnh lio a si tiah Ba Nyunt cu a chimh. Cun Ba Nyunt nih Parks Street lei kam zungpi chunglei luhnak kutka in jeep a luh a hmuh. Jeep cu zungpi i nitlaklei kam (Aung San te meeting tuahnak) in pe 20 in 30 kar hrawng aa hlatnak ah an dirter, cu tlawmpal ah zungpi chungin meithal kahnak a um ti hun theih a si i, jeep cu zungpi chuahnak kutka in Parks Street lei ah a chuah a hmuh. Jeep cu a ran khawh chungin an hmai ah a tlik thluahmah kha Ba Nyunt nih a hmuh. Cun, Ba Nyunt, Khin Maung Yin le Maung Ni zong Hmon Gyi tel loin U Saw innkulh chunglei ah an hung kir ve. Jeep cu U Saw innka hmai disathlap tang ah a rak dir ko kha an hmuh. Cun, mikaptu minung pali le Thukha nih Aung-byi [kan tei cang]! Aung-byi tiah au pah in an rak don hna i, Ba Nyunt nih Tuanbia Thar, tiah Kawlram politics tuanbia a thar in kan `ial cang lai ti phun in a au ve. Ba Nyunt nih tehte phyaunt-chet-petu aa can hnu cun, Maung Sein, Yan Gyi Aung, Thu Kha, Khin Maung Yin le Maung Ni zong nih Ba Nyunt tehte khanmi a dik ko tiah an sualnak kong cu a hlei a hluat in an hun chap len ve.

Adapted from Shelby Tuckers A Heros Death, in his book Burma: The Curse of Independence

DAL HNIHNAK

31

DAL 2-NAK Aung San Hodah A That?

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Maung Sein nih a chim venak ah cun Maung Soe nih

MIPI AN RAK THEIHTERMI KONG

an liang cung le an lukhuh ca `azeik pawl cu a chuahpiak hnanak kong; 10:00 am hrawngin an jeep in kal nakding nawlpek an sinak kong; an muka-angki leng tangah an uniform an thuhnak kong; Hmon Gyi nih nitlaklei kam haukam in a rak hngah hna i, lut dingin achet a piah hnanak kong; Maung Soe nih meeting khaan innka a on chih i kahnak order a pek hnanak kong; Yan Gyi Aung nih a `hut bu in Sten gun hmangin a rak kah hna lio ah, adang nih tommy in an dir bu in an kah hna hnu ah, Yan Gyi Aung nih corridor cungah a ummi pistol aa kenmi pa a kahnak kong; adwinwun zung an hun chuahtaak ka ah Maung Ni an hmuhnak kong; U Saw nih a inn an phanh tikah a rak kuh hna, a hnamh hnanak kong; Fordson truck in Ba Nyunt, Khin Maung Yin le Maung Ni an hung phanh tikah angki dang an i thleng hna i U Saw he bia an ruah hnanak kong, tehna a chim ve. Yang Gyi Aung nih `uang ah ka `hu i, cabuai tang in upa pawl cu ka kah hna tiah an chimmi bia cu a fehter.45 Cun U Saw rawlpetu Sein Maung nih U Saw inn kan phanh tikah kan meithal cu a m hna i, a thuh hna tiah ati. Thu Kha nih jeep cungah tommy-gun pakhat a hlei in kan i ken chih i, cucu Ba Nyunt nih U Nu thahnak dingah a hman dingmi a si tiah a chim ve. Maung Ni nih lai an nawn ni zing ah Maung Soe

Adapted from Shelby Tuckers A Heros Death, in his book Burma: The Curse of Independence

DAL HNIHNAK

45. Aung Zan Wai and Ba Gyan. See Kin Oung, 1996: 13.

32

DAL 2-NAK Aung San Hodah A That?

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46. Saw was widely reputed to have blamed Aung San for this attempt on his life. 47. Interim report on Situation in Burma, 20 August 1947, paragraph 11 (PRO: WO 208/4941). 48. Major C. Henry Young occupied a house across Inya lake from Saw, four miles by road but half an hour by row-boat. He was the commander of the Indian Army Electrical and Machanical Workshop Company in Rangoon and in charge of a military transport camp situated on property owned by Saw. Kin Oung, 1996: 53, 56. 49. Major Peter Ernest Lancelot Daine was a grade 2 staff ofcer in X Branch, which was the signals branch of HQ Burma Command. Conversation with John McEnery (then on the staff of Burma Command), 5 November 1998; telegram, General Sir Neil Ritchie to Sir Henry MacGeagh, 29 August 1947 (BL OIOC: M/4/2/2715); Tinker (ed.), 1984, vol. II, item 504: 737. See also Statement by J.A. Moore in telegram, Sir Hubert Rance to the Earl of Listowel, 28 July 1947 (BL OIOC: M/4/2715; Tinker (ed.), 1984, vol. II, item 470: 698. The biographical note on Daine in Tinker (ed.), 1984, vol. II: 903, erred in assigning him to the intelligence branch of Burma Command. Conversation with John McEnery, 28 September 2000.

nih pistol a pek i, zeitindah a kah ning a si ti a cawnpiaknak kong; mikaptu

nih adwin-wun zung i lai an nawn dih hnu ah, Parks Street leikam a chuahnak kutka cu jeep chuahnak dingah aa ong peng maw ong peng lo zoh dingin Khin Maung Yin nih a alnak kong; Thukha a phanh in jeep cu an mongh ti le meithal kah thawng zong a theih i, Hmon Gyi cu hau chung in a hung tlik thluahmahnak kong; cun Hmon Gyi cu jeep chungah luh aa tim nain, an rak khirh caah truck umnak lei ah a hung kir `han i, Khin Maung Yin le Ba Nyunt he U Saw inn lei ah an kir hnanak kong, tehna a chim ve. Khin Maung Yin nih U Saw a si ko ti fehternak dingah a chim ve. A nikum ah Aung San nih U Saw thah a timhnak kong;46 cun, cu ruangah, U Saw nih lehrulh dingin, Aung San tepawl bawi pakhat inn ah zanriah dum`inak an rak tuah lio ah Khin Maung Yin cu thah a al i, a duh lonak kong a chim.47 Khin Maung Yin nih a chim chapmi ah, U Saw nih tommy-gun pahnih le adang hriamnam pawl Major Young sinah a cawknak kong48 le adang hriamnam pawl zong Major Lance sinah a cawknak kong;49 U Saw nih

Adapted from Shelby Tuckers A Heros Death, in his book Burma: The Curse of Independence

33

DAL 2-NAK Aung San Hodah A That?

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50. Major J. A. Moore, Indian Army Ordnance Corp, was the ofcer commanding, Base Ammunition Depot (Burma). Telegram, Sir Hubert Rance to the Earl of Listowel, 28 July 1947(BL OIOC: M/4/2715; Tinker (ed.), 1984, vol. II, item 469: 696; ibid.: 909. 51. Captain David Vivian was arms Adviser to the Burma Police. Letter, governors secretary to J.P. Gibson, 24 July 1947 (BL OIOC: M/4/2715; Tinker (ed.), 1984, vol. II, item 501: 732, note; ibid.: 917. 52. The judgment of the Special Crimes Tribunal (reproduced in Dr. Maung Maung, 1962: 71-117) describes Tin Shwe as a follower of U Saw living in his place. He is referred to several times in the judgment but was not called as a witness. 53. Kin Oungs father. His name is spelled Tun Hla Aung in the Special Crimes Tribunals judgment.

baan (bank) `aih a rak i tim bal nain nikhua chiat ruangah aa let `hannak kong; Major Moore50 le Captian Vivian51 bawmhnak in U Saw nih ralkap hriamnam chiahnak ruk-inn chung ta Bren gun le zenthong tehna a ngah i, Inya Lake (a inn pawng)

kam ah a thuhnak kong; 17 July ni ah U Saw nih lainawnnak ding kong cu a chimh i, 19th ni ah E.C pawl cu meeting an `hut taktak lai le lai lo hlat a alnak kong; 18th ni ah lainawnnak ah hman hngami maw`aw pahnih ready in timhlamh ding a alnak kong; Fordson ah nambat phel adeu a bunh hna i, jeep ah a si lomi nambat a khenhnak kong; cu hnu ah E.C pawl meeting kong cu a va hlat i, an i timh bang meeting tuah an let lonak kong kha U Saw sinah the Sun tadinca chuahnak zung telephone hmangin U Saw cu thawng a hei thanhnak le telephone an i chawnh ah biahleng (code) an hmannak kong; cun, U Saw inn ah a hung kir `han i, maw`aw nambat phel pakhat kha Tin Shwe52 a pek, cun jeep nambat kha sii thar a thuhnak kong, tehna pawl a chim. Sihni pawl nihcun bia an ceihmi hna pawl an phuanmi fehternak dingah tehte dangdang an chuahpi hna. Palik ngiahlaitu zung (Criminal Investigation Department) in a lubik changtu Tun Hla Oung53 nih U Saw inn pawng ahhin an cawlcangh ning zoh dingah mingiatu ka rak chiahcia cang hna tiah ati. Ralkap hriamnam

Adapted from Shelby Tuckers A Heros Death, in his book Burma: The Curse of Independence

34

DAL 2-NAK Aung San Hodah A That?

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chiahnak ruuk-inn chung ummi hriamnam cheukhat

MIPI AN RAK THEIHTERMI KONG

an tlau ti report a um hnu in, U Saw inn pawngah mingiatu pahnih ka chiah hna ati. Zing 8:30 hrawng i, U Saw inn in Fordson maw`aw a chuah zong an hmuh i, a nambat zong `ha tein an i chingchiah tiah ati. Thamadi Daily tadinca ah phaisa cazin tlaitu, Sein Maung zong nih meithal puah thawng pawl le secretariat building in jeep a chuah lio a hmuh ve i, a baan phaisa cazin tunnak cauk cungah a nambat aa `ial ve ti a si.54 Suimilam 11:00 hrawngah a chaih bakin a hun i chaihmi jeep cu U Saw inn-hau chungah a hun i kuai i jeep cung a hung `ummi minung pali nga le U Saw cu ka hmuh hna, tiah U Saw innpa, Mr Khan nih a chim ve. Zenthong lei a thiammi (ballistic experts) pawl nih Aung San te zungkhaan chung an charmi zenthong hawng pawl le, mithimi hna pum chung ummi kuanfang le, U Saw innpawng ah an hmuhmi tommy le Sten gun meithal kuan pawl an zoh`i tikah aa khat bak ti a si. Adang tehte pawl nih U Saw innpawng tidil chungah nambat phel adeu pawl le mithattu nih rak i hruk dawh a simi lukhuh hring pawl, cun U Saw te coka tappi chungah a kaang thlu lomi angki pawl le 12th Army `azeik nehnang pawl kan hmuh tiah an ti. Tun Hla Oung le Mr. Khan nihcun, U Saw hau chung ummi jeep nambat cu sii an thuhka lawng a si caah a ro rih lo tiah an ti. [Adang tehte an cohlan lio ah, Sein Maung nih kaa chingchiah a timi maw`aw nambat kong cu an telh lo]. A kaptu hrilhah hi cu a har lo. Maung Sein nih a sualnak huhphenh aa tim lo. Cun, a thi lomi nih `ha

Adapted from Shelby Tuckers A Heros Death, in his book Burma: The Curse of Independence

DAL HNIHNAK

54. The words were those of the judgment, not necessarily those used by the witness. Kin Oung (1996: 13) states that Sein Maung was a report-

er, but contemporary press reports of his testimony, such as that in The Burman (an English language daily) of 23 October 1947, described him

as an accountant.

35

DAL 2-NAK Aung San Hodah A That?

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tein an hliah ko hna lai cu a ang. U Saw cu hrithlai

MIPI AN RAK THEIHTERMI KONG

dantatnak in thah a si. Maung Soe, Maung Sein, Thet Hnin le Yan Gyi Aung cu mithah lainawn sualnak, cun Hmon Gyi cu sualnak ah a bawmtu tiin hrithlainak an pek ve hna. Thu Kha, Khin Maung Yin le Maung Ni cu mithahnak ah a bawmtu an ti ve hna, nain, 20 thong dantat an si. Cozah tehte ah aa cangmi Ba Nyunt cu ngaihthiam a si.

DAL HNIHNAK

Chingchiah awk: 1. Mitthattu Hmanmi Meithal Tommy-gun zun 3 le Sten-gun zun 1 2. Ba Nyunt Chimmi & Maung Ni Chimmi (Fordson Truck)

Ba Nyunt nih Hmon Gyi tel loin, U Saw inn ahkan kir ati.

Maung Ni nih Hmon Gyi kanmah sinah cuanginU Saw inn ah kan kir ati ve. 2. U Saw nih Meithal a Cawkmi le a Ngah Daan

Khin Maung Yin nih Mirang Ralbawi pahnih sin le an bawmhnak in a ngah ati (Tommy le Bren gun min an chim chih, Sten gun an chim lo).

Tun Hla Oung nih meithal chiahnak ruukinn hriamnam a tlau ati.

Adapted from Shelby Tuckers A Heros Death, in his book Burma: The Curse of Independence

Aung San Hodah A That?

Salai C. Alexander

DAL 3-NAK

36

AHO CU DAH A THATTU TAKTAK

Dal ThumnakAho Cu Dah A That Hnga?Zapi rel awk le hngalh awk dingah an chuahmi Aung San le a bawitlaang cabinet member 6 an thah hnanak kong ofcial version cu a cunglei kan hngalhcia bantuk khan a si ko cang. Nain, hi ofcial version an rak `awncop tikah hin chambaunak pakhat hmanh tel loin an rak phuahcop thlu kho ve lo: an rak i harhnak le an rak i palhmi tete a rak um len. An i harh bik ding cu a biapit biknak zawn i zumh awk tlak lo a si lai ding khi a si hnga. Cozah hruaitu an dihlak ngawt in thah aa timmi pa nih a mithattu pawl amah inn lila i, a hun kirter `han hna hnga ding hi cu zanmang lawngah si khawh dawh a si ti khawh asi. A bikin, U Saw nihcun a inn an ngiat-hlai cang ti cu a hei hngalh cang ko hnga cu mu.55 Ruahnak an chuahpimi ah, U Saw nihhin Rance nih Aung San ai ah a ka thim telai tiah aa ruah ti asi. Asinain, 15 June tik i acozah a hung chuakmi ah Bukomh AFPFL an hun si caah, lainawn ding i a altu cu hi AFPFL chungin an si hrim ko tiah ang tukin chim khawh asi. Politics ah experience

55. It is difcult to be-

lieve that U Saw in his position had no suspicion der that house might be unhis

Interim report on 1 August 1947, para-

Situation in Burma, graph 6 (PRO: WO

208/4941).

Adapted from Shelby Tuckers A Heros Death, in his book Burma: The Curse of Independence

DAL THUMNAKobservation.

Aung San Hodah A That?

Salai C. Alexander

DAL 3-NAK

37

a ngei tuk cangmi U Saw nih a Myochit Party cu a sung cang [bawmtu a ngei ti lo] ti cu aa ang tuk lai, cun Rance zong nih U Saw thah timi cu zumh awk a tlak lo ati fawn.56 Cun56. Saw told his followers that it was certain that when the leaders of the AFPFL were removed HE [the governor] would send for Saw and ask him to form a Government. This seems incredible and all I can suggest if the information is true is that Saw anticipated that suspicion for the crime would fall on one or other of the Communist parties. Telegram, Sir Hubert Rance to Earl of Listowel, 2 August 1947 (PRO: WO 208/4941); Tinker (ed.), 1984, vol. II, item 481: 709. 57. See Interim Report on Situation in Burma, 1 August 1947, paragraph 9, suggesting that the possibility of mental disturbance built up on his urgent desire for revenge after the attack on his life in January 1947 [sic]. The attempt on Saws life occurred on 21 September 1946. Telegram, Sir Hubert Rance to Lord Pethick-Lawrence, 21 September 1946 (BL OIOC: M/4/2504); Tinker (ed.), 1984, vol. II, item 36: 55. 58. Keesings Contemporary Archives, 28 February-6 March 1948.

ruahnak an chuahpi rihmi ah, Aung San te nih U Saw thah an rak timh hmasami nih U Saw a thin a phawh,57 anti, nain, U Saw hi mihrut a si lo i, a molhmi zong a si lo ti kan hngalh a hau. Cucaah, U Saw si loin midang nih mithah lainawnnak rian hi an almi asi caah, lai an nawn hnu ah U Saw inn lei ah an kalter hna lai ti cu ruahdamh khawh cia a si. Cun, tehte a cawk in cawk phun in, sualnak a phuangtu paoh ngaihthiamnak an tuahmi hi lungtling lo ngai a si. Hi bantuk hi, Mirang (British) biaceih zung nih an hman ngaimi asi i, tehte kha zik an nawh he aa lo. Ba Nyunt, Thu Kha, Khin Maung Yin le Maung Ni cu an nunnak in an zuah hna. Evidence pawl `ha tein a zoh cikcek dih hnu ah, U Saw sihni, Derek Curtis-Bennet, KC, nih cu evidence an sermi pawl cu `awn chommi58 asi tiah ang tukin a thanh. Hi pa bia hi chimtlak tuk a sinak cu U Saw nih hrithlainak i an kalpi tiangah hin ka sual bak lo ati pengmi nih a anter chih. Cun hi lio caan ah thil sining hngalh awkah a herhmi cu, Mirang zong nih AFPFL zong nih luatnak independence dawnkhaantu a simi

Adapted from Shelby Tuckers A Heros Death, in his book Burma: The Curse of Independence

Aung San Hodah A That?

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38

paohpaoh an rem hna lo tihi asi. [Chim duhmi cu: Mirang

nih Kawlram independence pekding hi an hnatlak cang lawng si loin Kawlram uk hrim aa tim ti lo; cu lakah Kawl propaganda nih Mirang nih uk an kan duh peng timi hi cu lih`awnchop bia asi]. Cun, Mirang nih power a pek cangmi Kawl cozah interim government ah Kyaw Nyein cu palik le biaceihnak zung vialte59 a tlaitu a si tihi kan hngalh awk a herh fawn. U Saw nih hi lio caan thil sining aa an tuk caah Mirang Siangpahrang sinah Special Police Ofcers run ka thlahpiak ulaw, ka Case hi `ha tein ka hlathlaipiak u tiah a `ial: Biaceihnak lutlai Court nih a ceihmi case cungah `anhmi a ngeih lo ding hi a biapi ngaimi a si ko pinah, Palik zung nih an chuahpimi evidence zong biapi cu asi ve ko. Sihmanhsehlaw, Kawlram ahhin hlan kan sining te ah Palik zung zong Court zong nih `awncopmi bia-ceih kan hmang `heo. Siangpahrang hmai ah phuan ka duh taktakmi cu atu Kawl Palik bawi pawl nih an chuahpimi pawl hi, atu lio ah power a ngeimi Party asiloah Party chungtel pawl nih kanmah [Myochit Party] hrawh an kan duh caah an `awncopmi a si tihi a an tuk ko caah asi khawh chungin kan kong kan kherhlaipiak u tiah kan nawl ko hna.60 Rance nih hi ca cu Nawl a Ngeimi Party Chungtel Kyaw Nyein sinah a pek. Kyaw Nyein nihcun, leh a herhmi ca a si lo61 tiah a ca cu a khirh.

59. Interim Report on 1 August 1947, paragraph 12, and Interim Report on SituAugust 1947, para-

60. Letter, Saw to Sir Hubert Rance,

61. U Saw to Sir Hubert Rance, 28 July 1947 (BL OIOC: M/4/2721);

Adapted from Shelby Tuckers A Heros Death, in his book Burma: The Curse of Independence

AHO CU DAH A THATTU TAKTAK

Situation in Burma,

ation in Burma, 20

graph 13.

July 1947 (BL OIOC: M/4/2721); (ed.) 1984, vol. II, item 475: 703-4.

(ed.) 1984, vol. II, item 475: 704, note.

DAL THUMNAK29 Tinker Tinker

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39

Yan Gyi Aung nih bia phuan dingin a duh `han lo.

Zeicahtiah hranhram in an kan hnek i, asi lomi bia chimter an ka duh caah kaa leet ati. U Saw hrithlai in an thah a nikhatnak baak, 8 May 1948 ni ah, zalennak a hmu cangmi Kawlram ah Mirang cozah aiawh ambassador nih Mirang acozah ramdanglei pehtlaihnak zung Foreign Ofce ah `uanvo ngeitu M.E Dening sin i ca a hei kuatmi ningah cun, AFPFL asiloah Kawl palik chungin mi biapi ngaimi pakhat kong hitihin a chim: [Hi pa] nih U Saw hrithlainak dingah a biapi bikmi `uanvo a laak ti hi aa ang tuk, cun an biaceih ning le biakhiah ning hi Queensbury phung ning in an tuah lo, tiah a `ial.62 Foreign Ofce nih [hi pa] a timi min hi an hloh nain, a les i index chung ningah Tun Hla Oung a si hrim ko lai tihi a langhter.63 Tun Hla Oung cu CID lutlai a si i, U Saw kong hlathlaitu ah a dihlak in `uanvo ngeitu a si. Cun Tun Hla Oung nih SOE record i zumh awktlak65 64

52. Letter from Ambassador Bowker to M.E. Dening, 8 May 1948 Italics added.

63. Ambassador Bowkers 8 May 1948 letter was originally led

AHO CU DAH A THATTU TAKTAKpolice. careltu Alettu.

(PRO: FO 371/69472).

as FO F7454/17/79.

The Foreign Ofce p. 389, identies the

le index for 1948, censored party in FO F7454/17/79 as the inspector-general of

DAL THUMNAKcaah zeiset

rian a `uannak

a timi hi biahal ding tampi

a um khawh caah zumh awk a tlak lo. January 1947 lio ahhin, Tun Hla Oung cu district superintendent sawh ceo a rak si i, AFPFL he an rak i rem tuk lem lo caah [Attlee-Aung San Hnatlak hnu chinchin cun, a hmailei caah ruahchannak a ngei lem ti lo], 28 March 1947 ni ah pension la ding in a rak sawk. Asinain, Kyaw Nyein nih Kawlram dihlak Palik i, deputy inspector general rian pek dingin a kamh caah aa phuah duhnak ca cu a laak `han.66 Cun U Saw kong a ceihtu Biaceih Zung kong zoh rih

64. Nawlnak: SOE hi a

tawinak in a `ial caah tiah ka anh kho lo

65. PRO: HS/1/24; BL OIOC M/4/2032.

66. Ibid.

Adapted from Shelby Tuckers A Heros Death, in his book Burma: The Curse of Independence

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usih. U Saw case hi, Biaceihnak Hmun Sangbik

(the High Court of Justice) ah, a sining tak te ah cun, an ceih awk hrimhrim asi. Kawlram cu Mirang kuttang um asi rih caah biaceih nak pawl hi Mirang biaceihnak ansi rih.67 Sihmanhsehlaw, Kawl interim acozah nih hi biaceihtu ding ah special in tuahmi biaceih phu ser an duh. Cucaah, 30 August 1947 ah Special Crimes (Tribunal) Act an ser i, hi thil hi Mirang [British] biaceihnak ah, a hlan zongah atu zong ah Mirang ramchung ah siseh, an ukmi (penmi) colonial ram chungah siseh, a um bal rih lomi thil asi. Biaceihtu ding (judges) pawl an thim hna tik zongah Dr. Ba U nih a hruaimi High Court phu duh ning paohin an thim men. Dr. Ba U nihcun a hnu ah: Biaceihnak he pehtlai in a hruaitu ding thimnak kong ah hnek hau an um lo. Kyaw Myint kha hi `uanvo laa dingin ka al, cun Kyaw Myint zong nih a cohlan colh ko, tiah a `ial. Kyaw Myint cu Aung San nih a um lo kar i [ramdang a tlawn kar] i, ziknawhnak ruangah Ba Pe le Kyaw Nyein he tiin cei lak a rak phomhmi Tin Tut u pa a si i, Tin Tut zong cu ramdang in a hung kir `han tikah amah a rian `hing lila nance member `hiam`hiam ah a `uan kho `han.68 Kyaw Myint hi politic lei ah min ngei asi ve; siang ngakchia pawl a bawm tawntu le thakin pawl a `anhtu asi caah tiin.69

Rakhine pa Tun Hla Oung nih Kyaw Nyein duhning in rian a hun `uan i, a reng a kai thluahmah colh.

67. The case was The King v. U Saw, et al.

68. Keesings Contemporary Archives, 28 February6 March

AHO CU DAH A THATTU TAKTAK

1948. Tin Tut returned to his former position as nance

member after the assassination. Telegram, Sir Hubert Rance to

Earl of Listowel, 2 AuM/4/2714);

gust 1947 (BL OIOC:

(ed.), 1984, vol. II, item 481: 709.

DAL THUMNAKTinker

Sinain, Ba U nih a hun peh rihmi

69. Dr. Maung Maung, 1962: 22.

a bia ah, Biaceihnak dingah [adang] biaceihtu ding pahnih thim ding hi kaa harh ngai. Biaceihtu dingah

Adapted from Shelby Tuckers A Heros Death, in his book Burma: The Curse of Independence

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thim dingmi cu acozah nih a cohlan khawh dingmi an si lai caah70 ati. Cuticun, Special Crimes Tribunal nih sualphawtnak an hun tuah khawh hnu cun, Kyaw Myint cu Kawlram dihlak biaceihnak lei ah a sang bikmi `hutnak ah a reng an kaiter i,71 amah a bawmtu ding i70. Ba U, 1959: 195; quoted in Dr. Maung Maung, 1962: 22. Emphasis added.

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a rak i thimmi Aung Tha Gyaw le Si Bu cu high court ah rian sang an pek ve hna.72

71. Right of appeal to the been abolished.

Sual a kawltu ding sihni

Privy Council having

caah U Myint Thein hruai dingin an rak thim hmasa. Asinain, anih an thim chap ahcun, an biaceihnak zoh a dawh deuh lai lo zeicahtiah amah u pa lila nih biaceihnak hruaitu dirhmun ah a um caah anti.73

72. Dr. Maung Maung, 1962: 22-3.

Cucaah, U Tun

73. Ibid.: 24.

Byu kha sualphawtu ding sihni hruaitu ah an thim. Sihmanhselaw, U Myint Thein nih an biaceihnak thluanchuak in U Tun Byu cu a rian a bawmh.74 Ngiahlaitu intelligence nih 1 August ni i, report an tuahmi ah a zaammi maw`aw cu number khenh lomi jeep 75 asi anti. Asinain, Sein Maung tu nihcun Grindlays bank passbook a hnulei phaw ah maw`aw number ka `ial tiah ati. Sein Maung nihhin tlakrawh an cimh thawng le secretariat zung chungin meithal thawng tehna ka theih i hauchung ah minung an tlikzaammi zong ka hmuh hna ati, cun jeep number zong kaa `ial ziar ati nain, zumh a tlak lonak a um. Mah tluk in a biapimi a mithmuh tehte [vital evidence] cu nihnih nithum a rauh hnu lawngah palik sinah a chuahpibiaceihtu phu nih a hrilhah an i harh ngai dingmi thil asi [hi bantuk thawngpang chia lakah lamcung aa chawkmi midang ve cio bantuk Sein Maung tehna nih

74. Ibid.

75. Interim Report on

Situationn in Burma, 1 August 1947, part I, paragraph 1.

Adapted from Shelby Tuckers A Heros Death, in his book Burma: The Curse of Independence

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thinphan thlalau lio i lungm ngai in jeep number kaa `ial ti hi cu zumh awkah a har ngai76 ]. Sein Maung cu Thamadi Daily i a vung kir tikah, a bawipa U Ba Gale sinah maw`aw number kong cu a chimh. U Ba Gale zong76. Dr. Maung Maung, 1962: 85.

AHO CU DAH A THATTU TAKTAK

nihcun, mah tlukin a biapimi mithmuh tehte pakhat cu palik sinah thawng a pe ve hlei lo, hihi biaceih phu an daithlannak pakhat cu asi rih hnga [Dr. Maung Maung nihcun, Aung San a thihnak thawngpang nih mipi sin ah a tlirh in a tlirh cang hna tikah, U Sein Maung le U Ba Gale zong hi an lung a tur lio a si lai i, an hngalhmi maw`aw number kong tehte chuahpi ding hi a ruah awk an rak hngalh lo a si lai.77 ati]. Ba Gale cu biaceihnak ah a phunphun biahalnak cross-examinations an tuah tikah, U Saw nih a ngeihmi The Sun tadinca ah a rak `uan balmi pa a si i, din lonak ruangah U Saw nih fakpi in a rak volhpamh balmi pa asi ti an hmuh. Asinain, hihi cu Ba Gale chimmi tehte a hmaan lo tinak dingah a tlam a tling lo tiah biaceihtu nih an khiah.78 U Saw an tlaih ni ah, S.D. Jupp le a palik minung pawl nih U Saw inn le a kiangkap tidil hrawnghrang vialte felfai tukin an kawlhawl dih nain, maw`aw number plate an hmu lo. Ni hleikhat a rauh hnu ceo ah, Lieutenant J.S Coulson nih a hruaimi Royal Engineers 7th Field Company nih an kawl `han i maw`aw number plate cu an hmuh. Hi chung caan vialte ahhin, mi zeihmanh nih U Saw inn hauchung ah luh khawh asi lo i, palik lawng (palik nawl lawngin) an lut kho.

DAL THUMNAK

77. Ibid.

78. Ibid.: 84.

Adapted from Shelby Tuckers A Heros Death, in his book Burma: The Curse of Independence

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Lainawngtu pawl nih an hmanmi kuanfang an

char khawh zat kha kuanfanglei zoh a thiammi ballistic expert nih `ha tein check asi tawn. Hi kuanfang zohfeltu dingah Insein i, Detective Training School ah principal a `uan liomi Hla Baw an fial. U Hla Baw nihcun: Kuanfang pawl zohfelnak ding kong he pehtlai in ballistic experiments le tests tuahnak ding thilri zeihmanh kan ngei lo. Ral lio ah kan thlau dih. Ramdang ah hi bantuk tuahnak ding thilri ngah khawh dingin kaa zuam. India ah a ummi Lawrence le Mayo sinah, meiceu hmangin kuanfang phun thleidan khawhnak le zei kuanbawm ahdah khumhmi phun asi ti hngalh khawhnak seh nan ngei maw tiah ka hal hna. Cu bantuk phun kan ngei lo tiah an ka leh. England ah ka cah `han hna, nain ka ngah hlei lo. India ah kuanfang `ha tein zohfelnak kan rak tuah lo, zeicahtiah hi lio caan ah vanlawng a tlaak tan asi pinah, India ah mipi an buai tuk lio caan he aa tong i, India ah kan rak kalpi kho lo. Cun, hi thil hi cu politics he aa pehtlaimi thil asi tikah, kan rak kalpi ngam lo. A caan a rauh lai pinah, a thlen zong an thlen men lai i, felfai in thil aa tuah kho lai lo ti zong kan rak phaan caah asi.79 19 July 1947 ni suimilam 11:00 hrawnghrang, mithah lainawnnak thawngpang nih Burma Command

79. Ibid.: 34.

Adapted from Shelby Tuckers A Heros Death, in his book Burma: The Curse of Independence

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Headquarters a phanh deuh hlanah, Major Hugh Toye nih U Saw cu phone in na rak ka leeng ta kho hnga maw tiah a chawnh. Major Hugh Toye cu Singapore ah a ummi intelligence ofcer asi i, a hawipa dam lo ruangah Kawlram ah a hawipa zaka ah a rian a hung `uanpiak tami asi. Hlan deuh ah voikhat an rak i tong bal cang. Toye nih a phone chawnhmi kong cu: Phone cu U Saw nih a rak tlaih colh ko, hnawhsare phun zongin a um lo, amah bonte khin a si ko i, thadam ngai in kan i chawn, a thinlung ah zei pipai a buai ding phun in a um lo. A aw ka theih ningin chim ahcun, an inn zong amah bonte asi ko i, hnahnawhnak phun um dawh asi lo. U Saw nih ka cum a pi deuh i, ka ke a kih deuh caah thaizing Zarhpi ni tu ah ka ra lai tiah a ka ti. A hnu ah hi phone kan i chawnh lio caan hrawngah mithattu pawl U Saw hauchung an phanh cu asi tiah kan theih. Thla hnih a rauh hnu ah Kawlram ka chuahtaak, hi tiang ahhin zung nih an bia an ceih rih hna lo, ka kal hin cun a liim hmanh an liim awk hrimhrim asi. Zeisihmanh ah, lainawngpa nih daite in a rak um ko i, lainawgtu pawl thadam ngai in a rak don ko hnga ding cu, kei nihcun asi kho ding thil in ka hmu lo. U Saw nih sualnak a ngei lai tiah ka ruat bal lo.80 Cun lainawn lio caan hrawngah Rangoon ah khua a sami Colin Tooke kongah ruah awktlak thil khuaruah-

80. Telephone conversation with Toye, 5 October 2000; Toye, correspondence with author, 2001. 25 March

Adapted from Shelby Tuckers A Heros Death, in his book Burma: The Curse of Independence

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har pakhat a um rih. U Saw kong an hlathlaimi nih a lung a tuai ngai, a zum hna lo. Palik nih U Saw an leirawi

AHO CU DAH A THATTU TAKTAKreally al

tihi a lung a hrin ziar caah, amah tein hlathlainak a tuah ve i, a le pawl kha a inn ah felte in a m. Cun a inn cu Alsatian uico hraang taktak a conghter. Zanlei sang voikhat i a inn a hung `in ah, a sin-um pa nih a uico cu a kaa in a buanbare a tawh i a thih caah tiva ah ka hlonh tiah a chimh. Cu zing ah a uico a dam tuk fawn, zawtnak asi ahcun mah tluk rang cun a thi manh lai lo ti a hngalh caah Tooke nihcun a uico ruak cu a vung char i saram sii-bawi thiammi sinah a kalpi. Zawtnak asi lo, poison asi ti an hngalh. Cun Tooke nih a innchung i a rak m ziarmi U Saw kong a hlathlaimi le a rak tlau ti a hun theih. Tooke cu a lau tuk hringhran, cun a hlathlainak cu a pehzulh `han, a rauh hlanah Landrys acute paralysis (khuaruahhar zen zawtnak phun khat, poison asiloah sii-vai `halo nih a chuahtermi zawtnak asi81 ) in ruah lopi in a thi ve. Adang hngalh awktlak pakhat a um rih. Governor rian a rak `uan chungmi Sir Gilbert Laithwaite i a secretary nih lainawnnak a um hnu suimilam tlawmpal ah thirhri [telegram] a rak tuk i, cu ah cun, Innka lenglei ah meithal aa kenmi PVO ralkap (Aung San ralkap) pakhat nih mithattu pawl cu a rak kham hna caah an kah. Hipa nih lai nawngtu pawl cu 4th Burma Ries minung an si tiah `ha tein a hliah hna,82 tiah a `ial. Sihmanh sehlaw, hi PVO kutka congpa tu cu tehte ah an chuahter lo. U Saw tekong hlathlainak

81. Anonymous, Who killed Aung San? Karen NationUnion

April 1986 (to which

I am indebted also for other details in this McCrae, formerly of the Irrawaddy Flotilla

paragraph). Alasdair

Company, told this story to H.A Stonor at

a meeting of the Burma Luncheon Club in 1985. Kin Oung ports the same story

(1996: 61, 142) re-

with minor variant details, citing Stonor and Michael Busk as

his sources.

82. Telegram, R.W.D. Fowler to Sir Gilbert Laithwaite, 19 July 1947 (BL OIOC: M/4/2714); Tinker (ed.), 1984, vol. II,

item 452: 673.

Adapted from Shelby Tuckers A Heros Death, in his book Burma: The Curse of Independence

DAL THUMNAKBulletin,

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le an biaceihnak kongah tam bik le a tling bik ti awkin a `ialtu Dr. Maung Maung nih hipa hi cu a hrelh. Hipa kong cu aa thlauter deih i, 4th Burma Ries nih lainawnnak ah pehtlaihnak a ngei maw ngei lo zeihmanh a `ial lo

AHO CU DAH A THATTU TAKTAK

4th Burma Ries cu Ne Win nih a hruaimi ralkap an si i, Ne Win kong asi ning lonak sang in a `ialtu cu Dr. Maung Maung asi. Tin Tut an thahmi nih lunghrinhnak a zualter chinchin. 1895 ah a chuak, deputy commissioner fapa asi. Dulwich College, Queens College, Cambridge, le Dublin University tehna ah mnak a rak cawng i, Middle Temple ah sihni riansang [barrister] a rak `uan. Kawlmi lakah Indian Civil Serice chungtel hmasa bik, Dorman Smith cozah nih ram remh`hannak a tuahmi ah ruahnak petu, Rance i CAS(B) ah uktu, Kandy kal lio ah Aung San changtu, Executive Council ah Finance le Revenues Vuanci, Aung San-Atlee hnatlaknak ah siseh, Panglong hnatlaknak ah siseh, kap hnih kar ah rian`uantu le minthutca a hran `ialtu, FACE chungtel, 1947 phunghrampi caah biapi bik a hran `ialtu,83 council (a hnu ah cabinet) i nance le revenues caah chungtel, cun U Nu kuttang ah ramdang lei vuanci, 1947 kum ah Burma Financial Mission kha London ah a vung hruaitu, Freeman-Let Ya Defence Agreement tuah khawhnak dingah Let Ya changtu, auxiliary forces caah inspector general, cun The New Times of Burma a dirhtu le editor, cu vialte rian a rak `uan balmi Tin Tut cu 18 September 1948 ni ah an thahAung San an thah hnu

83. Nu, obituary, The Nation, 20 September 1948.

Adapted from Shelby Tuckers A Heros Death, in his book Burma: The Curse of Independence

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thla 14 a rauh ah asi. Politics lei in a dohtu nih mi thattu an al hna i an thah anti nain, nihin ni tiang a thattu kong `ha`hi in an hlathlai rih lo, a hrilh zong an hrilhah bal lo.84 Tin Tut nihhin thil tam tuk dara a hngalh? Kan hngalh ve bantuk in, Special Crimes Tribunal i an president Kyaw Myint cu a u pa asi. Cun tah, Tun Hla Oung nih zeidah a hngalh ve hnga? Kawlmi lakah Sandhurst ah a kai hmasa bikmi, deputy inspector general asi i, July 1947 thawkin Palik zung misual ngiahlaitu Criminal Investigation Department ah a lu bik, cun Aung San an thah hlan nihnih aa duh ah U Saw inn va ngiathlai dingin a minung pawl a altu zong asi. Mithah lainawn lio caan ah secretrait building ah a rak um ve lio asi i, U Saw le meithal kaptu pawl cu tlaih dih dingin palik pawl nawlpetu

84. Tinker, 1959: 38.

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asi ruangah min`hatnak a hmumi pa asi. U Saw case he pehtlai in hlathlainak ah [an fale i umh hnu ah] a sahlawh Justice Thaung Sein [Tun Hla Oung fapa Kin Oung nih Thaung Sein fanu a `hit] he tiin, `uanvo an pekmi pa asi i, U Saw thong a tlak chung zongah U Saw kilven ding [a zaam lonak ding, mi nih an thah lonak ding] `uanvo a latu pa asi.85 August 1948 ah, U Nu nih ralkap vialte i a lubik changtu ah major-general reng in a rian a kaiter, asinain, a rauh hlanah, London khua um Kawlram embassy zung ah ralkap lei rian ngeitu military attach `uan dingin an pheo `han colh. 1951 kum ah Kawlram tlung dingin aa thawh. Kawl ngiahlaitu intelligence ofcer pawl nih a lawng citmi cu Colombo

85. Kin Oung, 1996: xiii.

Adapted from Shelby Tuckers A Heros Death, in his book Burma: The Curse of Independence

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ah an luhpi, cun, [Kawlram lut ti lo dingin] a passport a thi [hman khawh asi ti lo] an tipiak.86 A donghnak bik

AHO CU DAH A THATTU TAKTAK

lunghrinh phu thil pakhat cuhihi U Saw case ah thil dawhcah lo bik, cun vawlei cungah a um bal lomi thil zong asi laikhuazei ahdah biaceihnak zung nih an biaceihmi record an tuahmi ca transcript a um? Lainawngtu pawl cu rampi pakhat i an lubik hruaitu le a hawile parukinterim acozah i a lubik pakua lakah pasarihhe an thah hna ruangah taza cuai ansi. Mah tlukin a biapimi biaceihnak ah record transcript a um lo tihi kan i zumh kho hnga maw? Cuti si lo ah, transcript (record) pakhat hmanh kan rak `ial lo hei ti ko hna sehlaw, zei ruangah, zeicahdah an `ial lo? A case a tawngthamtu palik phu cungah siseh, biaceihtu phu cungah siseh, zumhnak pakhat hmanh a ngei lomi U Saw nih amah tein a bia an ceihmi ca a `ialtu aa chiah lo ti zong kan zum kho hnga maw? Zumh awk le bochan awk a tlak ngaimi biahrampi [source] pakhat nihcun transcript (record) `ha tein a rak um ko, cucu Dr. Maung Maung nih a rak laak i zeitik hmanhah a hun chuahpi `han ti lo, tiah ati.87 Mr. Justice Mya Thein nih amah pumpak in an biaceihnak vialte cu record a

Tun Hla Oung fapa Kin Oun g nih Aung San thattu kong cauk a chuah ve [a pa cungah lunghrinhnak a ser lo].

86. Ibid.: 70.

87. The party that made this statement has requested anonymity for his own protection.

Adapted from Shelby Tuckers A Heros Death, in his book Burma: The Curse of Independence

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rak tuah dih,88 ti asi, si kunah, khoika dah cu record cu an um? Cun khoika ahdah palik reports pawl an um? Chanthar Kawl miphun tuanbia ah a biapi bikmi sualnak he pehtlai in an record vialte cu an dihlak in an lo dih.89

88. Dr. Maung Maung, 89. Accessing court records normally entails making application to the clerk of the court record. I once obtained

AHO CU DAH A THATTU TAKTAK

1962: 25n.

Cucaah, hi mithah lainawnnak ah U Saw rumro nih sualphawtnak a comi hi a dik lo. Asinain, U Saw nih lainawng pawl a hlaan hna lo i, a almi hna zong asi kun lo ah, ahodah a altu cu an si kun hnga? Ahodah, tiah kanmah le kanmah zong kan i hal awk asi, a bikin, aho nihdah hi lainawnnak in miaknak a hmuh lai? Aung San a thihnak kum 50 tlinnak lio ah, BBC [hi kong he pehtlai in ahote phu cung asiloah zeihmanh ah `uanvo ngei asi lo i, a dik le dik lo kong zongah `uanvo ngei asi lo] nih, CPB [Communist Party of Burma] nih Aung San an thah le cangka in Mirang (British) pawl lainawnnak ah `uanvo ngeitu an si90

having custody of the

from the clerk of the of Appeals for the

United States Court Fifth Circuit a transcript

comprising 12 folders

that was shipped to me in New Orleans charge. As the Special from Dallas free of

Crimes Tribunal was

tiah an rak puh

disbanded after trying the Saw case, the court having cus-

DAL THUMNAKof Burma.

colh hnanak kong program pakhat an rak chuah. Cu zong nihcun evidence pakhat hmanh a chuahpi lo i, an mi puhmi zong zumh tlak ansi lo. BBC nihcun CPB puhnak cu a hram i lak in Kawlram chung ummi Mirang pawl ngeihchiah le chawva vialte kilven khawh dingah cun..., lainawnnak ah Mirang ansi kho tiah a hun nolhchapmi telawng hi tehte asi kan ti hnga. Mirang ralbawi pawl Major Young, Major Moore le Captain Vivian, Major Daine, British company ah rian a `uanmi Kalapa Malhotra, cun British Council ah rian a `uanmi John Stewart Bingley tehna pawl an cawlcangh ning

tody of the transcript should be the High Court When I sought the

transcript there, however, I was told to dis-

continue this quest. Aung San, BBC 2, 19

90. Who Really Killed July 1997.

Adapted from Shelby Tuckers A Heros Death, in his book Burma: The Curse of Independence

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zoh in, a ang setsai lomi tehte an chuahpi. Mirang ralbawi pali hna hi U Saw he aa theihngalmi ansi pinah i naihniam ngai in aa pehtlaimi ansi. Vivian hi U Saw inn ah a lutchuak lelekmi asi, cun thonginn chung an um veve lio caan ah U Saw nih Vivian cu ca a rak kuat bal. U Saw nih Vivian sinah meithal a rak cawk taktak, nain Bren guns ansi, mithahnak an hmanmi phun Thompson sub-machine guns le Sten guns ansi lo.91 Vivian le Young cu a thlithup

tary Brg. , CPB Secre wikom hlun a lehning ah Aung San h biahalmi a w nih BBC irang cozah Kyaw Za ngeitu cu M nnak `uanvo ti. lainaw an si a rak

91. All pertinent testimony in Saws trial, including that of the assasins themselves and the ballistics expert, concurred in the type of weapons used. The .45 shelss found in Aung Sans body were of a type red from tommy-guns; Bren guns re a 9 mm round. McEnery, 1990: 113. See also note from Sir Gilbert laithwaite to Secretary of State, 11 August 1947 (BL OIOC: M/4/2715); Tinker (ed.), 1984, vol. II, item 489: 716. 92. Smith, 1991: 114. 93. Kin Oung, 1996: 51-2. 94. By a Burman judge. See McEnery, 1990: 114, note 3; Kin Oung, 1996: 54.

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meithal zuar ruangah sualphawt ansi.92 Hriamnam an zuar ruangah mithah lainawnnak ah a bawmtu ansi ti khawh asi lo. Zeicahtiah Ralpi Pahnihnak hlan deuh thawkin, a mizei paoh nih meithal le hriamnam cu an rak i caw, an rak i khon ciomi asi ko caah asi.93 Karen National Defence Organization (KNDO), Thakhin Soe Red Flag communists, Than Tun White Flag communists, Aung San i a PVO, U Saw i a Galon Tat, Basein hruaimi Dobama Tat, Ba Maw hruaimi Maha-Bama Tat, Students Revotuonary Front, cun adangdang phun`anhtu ti min kengin damiah phun in a cawlcangmi phu tampi, tbk. tehna nih meithal le hriamnam cu an i cawk, an i khon cio lio caan asi. Young sual an phawtnak cu Khin Maung Yin nih a `awncopmi biaphuan ruangah asi, asinain Young cu sualnak a ngei lo tiah an hmuh `han,94

adang ralbawi pahnih hna zong cu zei sualnak

Adapted from Shelby Tuckers A Heros Death, in his book Burma: The Curse of Independence

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hmanh an phaw ve hna lo. Malhotra cu Vivian he sang khat te ah a ummi asi i, Vivian he zong U Saw he zong aa kom ngaimi pa asi.95 Bingley cu U Saw inn i zanriah95. Kin Oung, 1996: 54.

AHO CU DAH A THATTU TAKTAK

dumnak voikhat ah aa tel ve i, [Kan] dihlak in nangmah bawmh dingah timhcia kan si,96 tiah ati ti asi. Khuaruat setsai lo a chimmi ruangah asi lai cu, U Saw nih, thonginn a um lio ah, a bawmtu ding cazin ah a telh. Asinain, hi vialte an puhmi hna nihhin mithahnak dingah a bawmtu ansi tinak dingah proof a pe kho lo i, hi hna chungin ahohmanh zong cu sualphawtnak an tuah ve hna lo. Mi kaptu pawl 4th Burma Ries chungin ansi tiah aa cinken ziarmi an rak ummi nih, a thattu taktak kherhlainak dingah lam tampi a awnter ti awk asi. Zeicahtiah, 4th Burma Ries a uktu cu, kan hngalh bantuk in, Ne Win asi caah asi. Ralkap vialte lak i a sang bik rian (reng) cu, Aung San hnatlaknak thawngin Let Ya pek a rak siNe Win an pe lo. Aung San nih 4th Burma Ries ca i hruaitu ding ca hmanhah hin Ne Win zaka ah Karen pa Kya Doe in kan thlen lai tiah a rak ti.97 Ne Win cu hi lio caan ah lieutenant colonel (Lt. Col.) reng lawng a rak si rih98 nain amah nak reng sang deuhmi Let Ya, Tun Hla Oung, Kya Doe, Smith Dun le adang pawl nakin ralkap `ha deuh ka si tiah aa ruat. Karen pawl nih upa deuh rian an tlaihmi le Aung San nih ramluatnak hmuh hnu ah ralkap (Army) vialte hruaitu si te dingin S