ARTIFICIAL EYE By U.Sandhya Rani 08A91A04A7. INTRODUCTION  The “Epiretinal” approach involves...

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Transcript of ARTIFICIAL EYE By U.Sandhya Rani 08A91A04A7. INTRODUCTION  The “Epiretinal” approach involves...

ARTIFICIAL EYE

ARTIFICIAL EYE

By U.Sandhya Rani 08A91A04A7INTRODUCTIONThe Epiretinal approach involves a semiconductor-based device placed above the retina, close to or in contact with the nerve fiber layer retinal ganglion cells. At present, two general strategies have been pursued.The Sub retinal approach involves the electrical stimulation of the inner retina from the sub retinal space by implantation of a semiconductor based micro photo diode array(MPA) into this location. VISUAL SYSTEM

Its primary task include transmitting images with aviewing angle of at least 140deg and resolution of 1 arc min over a limited capacity carrier ANATOMY OF EYE

The macula is the highly sensitive area of the retina

The macula is responsiblefor our critical focusing visionEYE-CAMERA SIMILARITY

A camera needs a lens and a film to produce animage. In the same way, the eyeball needs a lens (cornea, crystalline lens, vitreous) to refract,or focus the light and a film (retina) on which to focus the rays RETINA

Light first enters the optic (or nerve) fiber layer and the ganglion cell layer,under which most of the nourishing blood vessels of the retina are located. Retinal DiseasesRetinitis Pigmentosa (RP)Age-related macular degeneration (AMD)

AMD and RP affect at least 30 million people in the world. They are the most common causes of untreatable blindness in developed countries and, currently, there is no effective means of restoring vision.OCULAR IMPLANTSOcular implants are those which are placed inside the retina. It aims at the electrical excitation of two dimensional layers of neurons within partly degenerated retinas for restoring vision in blind people.EPI RETINAL IMPLANTSSUB RETINAL IMPLANTS

The Issues Involved In The Design Of The Retinal Encoder Are:

CHIP DEVELOPMENT BIOCOMPATIBILITY RF TELEMETRY AND POWER SYSTEMS

SUB RETINAL IMPLANTATION

CORTICAL IMPLANTS

CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE

People suffering from low vision to, people who are completely blind will benefit from this project. Congenital defects in the body, which cannot be fully corrected through surgery, can then be correctedFuture work has to be focused on the optimization and further miniaturization of the implant modules

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