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A MODEL OF ISLAMIC GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING
A MODEL OF ISLAMIC GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING
By: Anwar Sutoyo1AbstractThis paper is based on a Ph.D dissertation2 at the Postgraduate School of Indonesia Education University, Bandung in 2006. The research was motivated by the reality that the result of counseling in Indonesia has not been optimal. Developing humans potential has not been carried out optimally. The solution to humans problem has not been holistic and tends to be superficial. The unsatisfactory result of the guidance and counseling might be because the guidance and counseling service tends to be based on empirical data and rational thought. The information from God who creates human beings has been ignored. Therefore, the information is worth exploring to be further developed into A Model of Islamic Guidance and Counseling after it was examined by experts and its model was tested.
Key words: A Model of Islamic Guidance and Counseling, fitrah, tafsir maudhui
There are many teenagers and adults who should have been able to behave according to social, legal, and religious norms but they did not do so. Drinking, theft, prostitution, robbery, rape (even happened to siblings, parents, or own children), corruption, manipulation, sadistic murder committed by relatively educated people indicates that the fitrah given by Allah to everyone since he/she was born does not develop and function well.Education and guidance have been conducted since thousands of years ago. Their methods and techniques are regularly refined. However, the effort has not produced the best result. Even worse, the humans deviation from fitrah, which is the root of tendency to a positive behavior grows larger. This failure is suspected to be rooted from the knowledge limitation of experts about humans fitrah and its development model. As a result, a lot of education and guidance are based only on empirical facts and humans rational thought. Meanwhile, the information coming from the Creator of human beings is paid little attention. _________________1 A lecturer in the Department of Guidance and Counseling, Faculty of Education Science, Semarang State University
2 The original title is A Model of Quranic Counseling to Develop Human Fitrah towards Kaffah CharactersThe ignorance of fitrah in the individual and social life causes a bad consequence to those who did it. In addition, it causes a suffering and poverty to the surrounding society who lives according to the fitrah. Natural disasters which killed thousands of people and the outbreak of various diseases which could not be handled medically indicates that there has been a warning from Allah to humans to go back to their fitrah. Considering this, the first important step is to explore the information about the real essence of human being according to its Creator. This deals with the questions of Who is actually human being? What is human being creation for? What is its fitrah? and How is the development model? Through the answers to the questions it is expected that a model of Islamic Guidance and Counseling can be developed.
In developing the model, some typical steps of model research were taken: (1) Reviewing tafsir maudhui to obtain information of who human being is and what its characteristics are. A hypothetical model was developed based on the study on tafsir maudhuI, (2) The developed model was then presented in a seminar involving experts on guidance and counseling and experts on Islamic religion, (3) A tentative guidance and counseling model was developed from the result of the seminar. The model was then tried out in the field, and (4) A refinement was conducted after the try out. Next, a definitive model was developed as presented below.
The Essence of Human Being in the Quran
There are some terms used in the Quran for human being: (1) basyar used for things related to visible physical aspects of human being in general, such as the skin, hair, general physical appearance, biological needs, which are not distinctive from one human being to the other. However, in some cases the word is also used to refer to psychological aspects, such as human needs and limitation of ability, (2) Insan used to refer to human being with all its aspects (its body and soul) and to describe differences in the aspects of spirituals, faith, and behavior, and (3) dzuriyyah used to describe the descendant and innate characteristics. Human being does not exist by itself, but there is one who creates it, that is Allah SWT. Allah SWT is the Creator of the very first human being (when human being model did not exist) and the present human being. Human beings are created from the raw material of dirt, the essence of dirt, and nutfah. Human being creation begins with a cell which turns into a clog, a flesh, and skeleton. The skeleton is wrapped is flesh. As time goes by the cell turns into eyes, ears, nose, legs, hands, blood, and heartresponsible for pumping the blood for the whole life, blood vessels covering the whole body, lung, brain, and digestive organs. There is one human who is directly created by Allah without involving any other party as what happened to the creation of Adam (PBUH). Allah also involves other party in creating other human beings as what happened to the creation of common human beings, except the creation of Isa (PBUH) which only involves a mother without a father. From the day they were born to the day they die humans are not supposed to have fun only. There are commands, prohibition, and laws that they have to obey. There is a purpose behind it. Behind the purpose there is a wisdom or advantage of a deed. There is a secret behind something which Allah ordained, which is not always instantly understood by human3. The life of individuals and humans as a whole will end at an unknown time. There will be a reckoning and judgment. This is unlike the animals who after died are not held responsible for what they did during their lifetime.
The human beings living in this world are not let just play and have fun. There will be a time when they will be questioned about (1) how they spent their life, (2) how they spent their young age, (3) how they obtained their wealth and how they spent it, and (4) how they put their knowledge into practice. After that, they will be judged by The Most Glorious for what they have done in the world. There is no chance to lie because on that day their mouths are sealed up and then their hands, legs, eyes, ears, hearts, even skins will bear witness to what they used to do during their lifetime in the world (QS, 36: 65). There are duties humans must accomplish, that is being the caliph of Allah on earth. The caliph is ________________3 QS, 3: 185, 4: 78, 21: 35 promoted and dismissed by Allah to do duties according to His will and laws in the field of expertise or authority according to what Allah gives to them. This does not mean that Allah is not capable or places human as God. Not! The promotion is meant to be a test and appreciation for human. Thus the essence of humans duty as the caliph of Allah on earth is to bear amanah (responsibility) according to what Allah and His Messenger teach. Created by God humans are equipped with fitrah, that is elements and systems that Allah gives to every human. The elements include the body, soul, nafs, and iman, where the fitrah of believing in Allah becomes the foundation and core of the other three fitrahs. The potential of iman is seen as the foundation and core because if somebodys iman has developed and functioned well, the other fitrahs (body, soul, and nafs) will also develop and function well.
The physical fitrah is a biological aspect which is prepared as a place for the psychological fitrah, which has a developmental power to the biological process. The power is termed living power (al-hayat). It will not cause any real action if it is not powered by the psychological fitrah. The psychological fitrah is the essence of human character and lies in the material and immateriality. It is more everlasting than the physical fitrah. It is sacred and fights for spiritual dimensions. It can exist and turn to a real action if it blends with the physical fitrah. The nafs fitrah is an integrated blend of physical (biological) fitrah and soul fitrah (psychological). It has three main components: heart, intelligence, and desire which interact with each other and manifested in personality traits. The iman fitrah functions as a navigator and controller to the other three fitrahs (physical, psychological, and nafs).
There are some characteristics of humans: (a) Created by Allah humans consist of two inseparable components, body and divine soul (intelligence and psychology) (QS, 38: 7). The body is a biological aspect prepared as a container of the soul; (b) Since their early creation humans are equipped with religious fitrah that is witnessing the oneness of Allah and obeying Him; (c) Created by Allah, humans are equipped with an intelligence which enables them to differentiate between the good and the evil; (d) Created by Allah, humans are equipped with feeling4 which enables them to know hidden and invisible things; (e) Humans are not able to know for sure about what they are attempting or earning in the future, yet they are obliged to make an effort; (f) Created by Allah, humans are equipped with a conscience (fuad) and qalb which enables them to think about things beyond the world of senses and its details. The conscience then takes humans to general things and in turn produces general and holistic laws; (g) The humans place before they were born is the fathers back bones. After they were born until the due day5 their place is the earth. There is also a place to live before they were born, that is the womb of the mother. After they were born at this world and died their place is