Anderson Sakra in Early Buddhist Art

download Anderson Sakra in Early Buddhist Art

of 141

  • date post

  • Category


  • view

  • download


Embed Size (px)

Transcript of Anderson Sakra in Early Buddhist Art

  • 8/21/2019 Anderson Sakra in Early Buddhist Art


    McMaster University


    Open Access Dissertations and Theses Open Dissertations and Theses


    Sakra in Early Buddhist ArtLeona Anderson

    This Thesis is brought to you for free and open access by the Open Dissertations and Theses at DigitalCommons@McMaster. It has been accepted for

    inclusion in Open Access Dissertations and Theses by an authorized administrator of DigitalCommons@McMaster. For more information, please


    Recommended CitationAnderson, Leona, "Sakra in Early Buddhist Art" (1978). Open Access Dissertations and Theses. Paper 5624.
  • 8/21/2019 Anderson Sakra in Early Buddhist Art


    'Sl lG'l\ N Ei>ll LY BUDDHIST ART

  • 8/21/2019 Anderson Sakra in Early Buddhist Art


    Sakra in Early Budd.hist Art

    ByLeona Anderson, B Ed. B.A.

    A Thesi.sSubmitted to the School of Graduate Studiesin Part ial Fulfillment of the Requirements

    for the DegreeMaster of Arts

    McMaster University

  • 8/21/2019 Anderson Sakra in Early Buddhist Art


    M STER OF ARTS 1978)Religious StudiesTITLE Sakra in Early Buddhist ArtAUTHOR Leona Anderson, B.Ed. B.A. Calgary)SUPERVISOR Dr. Phyllis GranoffNUM ER OF PAGES vii i 129

    McMaster UniversityHamilton, Ontario

  • 8/21/2019 Anderson Sakra in Early Buddhist Art


    ,-The fo11ol,in[;; ti1esi s tr.:lces the development of IncrajSal:rain Buddhist iconography in India up to the third century A.D. Thehange in repres(mtations of Indra/Sal:ra p a : I ; : ~ 1 1 e 1 s la rger e\ ol-

    ution of popular Buddhism i t se l f from a religious system, in which thefigure of the his torical Buddha was predominant, into a devotionalcult centered on the figures of both the his torical Buddha and numerous

    h o d c h i s a t ~ v a s The study thus highlights one aspect of th is shift inemphasis from cZlrly H I n a Y ~ r i a Buddhism to l,Iahayana Buddhism. Art formsin conjunction with relevant t e x ~ s provide the context in which Indraappears in early Buddhist art (around the f i r s t century B.C.E. andhis subsequent development in Hahayana ar t (early Gandrllara and NathuriD.

    The f i r s t chapter reviews the character of rndra In non-Buddhistc o n t e ~ ~ t s : the Vedic and Epic t radit ions . E ~ v i d e n c e from these periods

    ....provides the context out of i ~ h i c h the Buddhist Sakra emerged. The Vedic,.Inera developed into the Epic Indra from ~ l h i c h the Buddhist S a t ~ r a seensto have evolved.

    At the early Buddhist si tes of Sanchi and Bharhut Satcra er.Jergesas a devotee of the Buddha. e appears in iconogra?hy and relevanttexts , in a narrative context as one of several characters in the J; takata les . e is ident i f iable ei ther by his iconographic form (a royalfigure ~ l h o sometimes ~ e a r s a cylindrical crown specific to him and

    ~ l h o carries a va jra and/or ja r of a:w::ta), or by vir tue of the context

    U s

  • 8/21/2019 Anderson Sakra in Early Buddhist Art


    in ~ h i h he appears.- - ~il.t Gandhara and l: athura ~ a 1 . ~ r a becomes a f igure of greater coro-plexi ty ~ v h o is often removed from any narrat ive context . S a l ~ r a andBrahr.ia at tend the Buddha in prototypical rlapresentat ions of the Buddhistt r iad (tbe Budcha and tHO bocldhisat tvas). This t r iad s ignals an impor-

    t an t development iR the ar t and theology of Buddhism. I t i s ' indicat iveof the' c:evelopment of the 1tlorship of the Buddha as the m lin object ofdevotion accompanied by Sal,ra and Bral:una in ear ly Buddhism and byboc cihisattvas in the l a t e r t rad i t ion . I t i s the emergence of theGe l a t -te r f igures in th i s role ~ ~ h i c h represents the most s igni f icant changein popular Buddhism in India which V1ClS to be t ransmitted to the FarEast . The Buddha has become a t ranshis tor ica l f igure 'l-lorshipped in -dependent of a narrat ive c o n t e ~ ; t Hi.s at tendants though they s t i l ladore the Buddha are l i f t ed from a nar ra t ive context a t ta in ing thes ta tus of Buddhist dei t ies .

    n addi t ion S a ~ : r a is intir.1ately r e la ted to the va j ra -bea re r vlhoemerges a t G a n d h ~ r a Tbe context in ~ 1 h i c h th i s l a t t e r f igure appears,his function, and his primary a t t r i bute, the va j ra indica te the natureof th i s relat ionshi;p. This iconographic form may be proto typica l of thel a t e r boddhisattva Vajrapani and cer ta in ly is tbe bas is of the Nio ~ . h oappear as f i e rce guardian f igures in iconography in Japan and China.

    These t ~ J O deve:lopr:1ents r e f l ec t the emergence of Nahayana Buddhismand are indica t ive of the di rec t ions t l i l l t a ~ : e as t grOlvs and devel -opes in India ~ ; h e r e t arose and outside of Inelia, in China and Japan .

    i i b

  • 8/21/2019 Anderson Sakra in Early Buddhist Art



    PageLIST OF ILLUSTRAT]ONS . . . . . . . . . . . iv

    ABBRE\TL1T IO}JS v i i

    A C I r n O l r J L E D G E ~ T S v i i i

    mTRODU T 0 G ,. 1



    cmr LUSION ................................. .................................... . ................................. 86


    FOOTIr 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 112.

    BIBLIOGR A PtIY ...... II 01 I I 125

    i i i

  • 8/21/2019 Anderson Sakra in Early Buddhist Art



    Figure Page1. Indra a t Bhaja (Ervin Baktay, Die Kunst Indiens ,

    @udapest:. Terra-Verlag, 1963; pI. 67). 92. Vessantara Ja taka , s a . . ~ c h i (John Harshall and Alfred

    Foucher, The Nonuments a t Sanchi, 2 vols. (Delhi:94LO 2: p l 29c) 97

    3. B h i ~ a J ~ t a k a , Bharhut (Ananda Coomaraswamy, LaS ~ u l p t u r e de Bharhut, Annales du Husee Guimet,vol. 6 {paris: Vanoest, 1956J pl . XLV 176). .98

    4. The vis i t of Sakra,_ Bharhut (Coomaraswamy, .Bharhut, pl. XXIV 63). . 985. .The vis i t of Sakra, -Sahchi. (Harshall and Fo:ucher,sanchI, 2: 3 5 b l ~ 986. Descent a t S r u L ~ i ~ a Bh;rhut Coomaraswamy,

    Bharhut, pl XI,31). . . . 997. Descent a t S a i i . k i ~ a t Sartchi (Marshall .and Foucher,s ~ c h i , 2: pl.34c) . . . . . 998. Detalokas, Sanchi ( Ibid. pl . 49a). 9. Heads of Indra t Gandhara (Inghol t , Gandharan Artin Pakistan New York: Pantheon Books, 1957 ,

    pls 331,332). . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 10010. Dipankara J;:taka, Gandhro-a S , ~ Gaulier , R. Jera-

    Bezard, and Ivl Maillard, ~ h i s m in Afghanistanand Central Asia, 2 vols. Leiden: E.J. Br i l l ,1976 , 2: f ig ,22). . . 100

    11. Birth of the Bodhisat tva, Gandhara (Asch,dn Lippe,The Freer Indian Sculptures, Orienta l Studies ,No. 8 \t ashington: Smithsonian In s t i t u t e , 197Ql,f ig . 8). 101

    12. Bir th of the Bodhisat tva, Gandhara (Lippe, f ig . 9). 101


  • 8/21/2019 Anderson Sakra in Early Buddhist Art


    vFigure Pa.ge13.



    Bath of the Bodhisattva, Gandhara (Madeleine Hallada, ~The G a n d h a r ~ Style [tondon: Thames and Hudson, 1968J,p l 87) 102

    Bath of the B0dhisattva, Gandhara (Hans Ackermann,Narrative Stone Reliefs from Gandhara in the Victoriaand Albert Museums ii-J. London, vol. XVII Wome: rsNeo,1975], p l Vii, bJ. o 02.

    The vis i t of "Sakra, Gandhara, (Albert Griinwede1, BuddhistArt in India, trans. A ~ C . Gibson, second ed. ~ o n d o n :Sis i l Gupta,1965], pl . 94), 1q

    16. The visi t of "S'aYJa, Gandhara (Ingho1t, p l 128). 10317. The visi t of Sakra, Gandhara (Ingho1t, pI 129) 104

    1 8 ~ The Buddha and V a j r a p ~ i Gandhara (Ingholt, p l v 3) . 1(419. Departure of the Bodhisattva, Gandhara (Ackermann,pl . l 1;l),. ' ..... I 11 ........ 10520. First Meeting with Brahman, Gandhara (GC'Jl.dharanSculptures from Pakistan, Introduction by B. Rowland

    ~ e w York: The Asia Society Inc. , 1960) p 4). u 10521. Offering of Grass, Gandhara (Rowland, Gandharan

    Sculptures, p 24). o 8 o # lo622. Buddha s Firs t Sermon, Gandhara (Lippe, p l ~ 11;.). 10623.. Buddha preaches to god in Trayastrimeia heaven,Gandhara (Ingho1t, p l 104). 10724. Parinirvana, Gandhara (Ackermann, pl. XLI), 10725. Parinirvana, Gandhara (Lippe, pI 16). 10826. Buddha and female worshippers, Gandhara (Ingholt,

    p l 189) . c827. The Story of the Niligir i Elephant, Gandhara(Ackermann, pl. XXIX a), 10928. Descent a t Sanklsa Gandhara (Ackermann, pl. G13). 109

    BUddha flanked y Sakra and Brahma, GandharaIngholt, p l 243). 110

  • 8/21/2019 Anderson Sakra in Early Buddhist Art


    v i

    Figure Page30. Reliquary of Kanishka, Gandhara Ingholt, pl 494 11031. Bimaran Relic Casket, Gandhara Ingho1t, pl. 1). 11132. Preaching Buddha on Lotus Throne, Gandhfu-a Ingho1tpl 253}

  • 8/21/2019 Anderson Sakra in Early Buddhist Art



    NG nguttara NikayaBe BuddhacaritaV HarivathsaV alitavistara

    HBh MahabharataMV MahavastuR Rimay