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Avalokiteshvara, Tara, Manjushree, Mahakala

Transcript of Benoytosh Bhattacarya,Indian Buddhist Iconography, Buddhist Deities

  • Call No. &qq .3aay Accession No. Q s - 7 5 V l ~ c f



    This book should bc returned on or bef'orc the date last ~llnrkcd bclow.


    Mainly Based on THE SADHANAMALA

    and Cognate Tgntric Texts of Rituals

    Formerly Director of Oriental Institute and General Editor, Gaeku~ad's Orrental Serles, Bnroda


  • Published by K. L. MUKHOPADHYAY, 6/1A, Banchharam A k u t Lane, Calcutta- I t , India.

    SECOND EDITION Revised and Enlarged with 357 Illustrations

    JUNE 1958

    Dr. B. Bhattacharyya Naihati, 2CParganas

    Printed by A. C. Ghosh, GHOSH PRINTING HOUSE PRIVATE LIMITED, 17A, British Indian Street, Calcutta-1

    Bound by NEW INDIA BINDERS, SB, Patwar Bagan Lane, Calcutta-9

  • Jndcriied to tRo 3Memoru o/ Xtj Father


    The Mighty Gods and Goddesses of the Buddhist Pantheon wish t o reveal themselves before the world once again through the pages of the Buddhist Iconography. Their Will is supreme. After overcom- ing difficulties, delays and obstacles, the Buddhist Iconography at last is presented t o the scholarly world in a second edition after a lapse of full thirty-four years. It is pleasant to live these long years to see my favourite book pass through a second edition. This is an occasion when I should remember with gratitude two of my illuse trious preceptors, Professbr A. Foucher and my father Mm. Haraprasad Shastri both of whom are no longer in the land of the living. I believe in my heart of hearts that their invisible care and blessings are in a large measure responsible for this happy ending. It gives me immense satisfaction.

    When the first edition of this book was published in 1924, my studies were much hampered owing to paucity of material. But since then such a great volume of information has been published that it appears almost overwhelming. I never could think that it would be possible for me t o handle such vast material in a manner befitting this serious subject. Thus the second edition goes to the world with all its imperfections of which I am conscious more than my critics.

    After 1924, the texts of the SZidhanarnala and the Ni+pannayog~vali were published. Both these texts proved to be veritable mines of information on Buddhist gods and goddesses. Between the two publications, the edition of the Advayavajrasarigraha and the Suhyasamaja followed in rapid succession, and the information furnished in these two excellent texts not only added to my difficulties, but also changed materially the whole outlook underlying the classi- fication and arrangement of Buddhist deities. These Sanskrit texts were published in the Cjaekwad's Oriental Series when I was the General Editor under, my ,erstwhile Maqter, the late His Highness Maharaja Sayaji Rap 111, Gaekwad of Baroda and his illustrious Dewan Sir V. T. Krishnaw Charjar, now Deputy Chairman of the Planning Commission f q the @public of India. . ,Later, publications such as the Elements of Buddhist Iconography by &omaraswaray.rhe second edition of the hsSods of. Northem Buddhism

  • by Alice Getty, the Iconography of Tibetan Lamaism by Mrs. A. K . Gordon and the Iconography of Buddhist and Brahmanical Sculptures in the Dacca Museum by my friend and colleague Dr. N. K. Bhattasali, Curator of the Dacca Museum, made my work of revision still more difficult and embarrassing !

    Professor Walter Eugene Clarke of the Harvard University by publishing the two sumptuous volumes of the Two Lamaistic Pantheons served to put the proverbial last straw on the camel's back. This book published for the first time photographs of an unbelievable number of Buddhist statuettes in the Royal Temple at Peiping in Manchuria. If the statues had been entirely Chinese in character it would not have affected me in the least, because I am connected palpably with the Indian branch of Buddhist iconography. But an examination of the published photographs showed that the Peiping collection was exclu- sively inspired by Indian tradition, depended entirely on Indian texts, and faithfully followed thedirections given in Sanskrit texts such as the S2idhanamTila and the Nispannayogavali. The remarkable Indian character of the Chinese statuettes led me t o include a large number of them in this book, and their study made the task of revision not only difficult but also delicate by forcing me to include Chinese specimens in a book which is chiefly concerned with the Indian branch of Buddhist iconography. I must thank the learned American author Professor Clarke for imposing on me this additional labour and responsibility !

    The study of the Buddhist branch of Indian iconography is one of the most interesting and fascinating of all studies. In Buddhist icono- graphy the whole world is interested because Buddhism is not confined within the limits of India like Hinduism or Jainism, but travelled far and wide beyond the Himalayas t o Tibet, China, Japan, Korea and Mongolia on one side, and to IndoeChina, Siam, Indonesia, Burma and Ceylon on the other. In the time of the great Achaemenid Emperor Darius, Lord Buddha laid the foundation of a religion which was destined to be the religion of one third of the population of the globe. The fountain head of inspiration relating t o Buddhist icono- graphy was furnished by the ancient Sanskrit manuscripts of India, and the ideas and directions contained therein travelled t o different coun- tries, notably Tibet and China, where they were coloured by the art and culture characteristics of the respective peoples. W e have now reached a stage where it is no longer possible to isolate Buddhist icono-. graphy of India from its developments in Tibet and China which we16 profoundly influenced by the Buddhist Tantras of India. And th; chief need of the subject is the publication of a great volume cf

  • original and unpublished manuscript material that lies hidden in the archives of MSS Libraries throughout the world. When this huge material is published then alone the study of Buddhist iconography can be said to be complete.

    The second edition has been thoroughly revised and greatly enlarged. New chapters have been incorporated, old chapters have been redistri- buted. Many pictures have been deleted, and many new ones have been included in order t o make the study as up-to-date as possible. In 1924, when the first edition .was published, I could only see the material side of the problem. But with the availability of fresh material, the other side, namely the psychic side, also became apparent. Evidence of this change will be found in the introduction which is almost wholly re-written, as also in other chapters, notably on the DhyBni Buddhas. I offer an explanation here lest my readers receive a shock while reading this book in a second edition. I may further point out that repetitions in a book of this kind can hardly be avoided. and deities have been repeated at different places for different purposes and in different contexts. My critics of the first edition will also notice how irrepularit- ies pointed out by them have been regularised in the second edition

    In preparing this edition I have received help from a number of persons. With their help I could complete the revision and place the book in the hands of scholars in its present form. First of all, it is my sacred duty to acknowledge the debt I owe'to the late lamented Dr. N. P. Chakravarti, one-time Director-General of Archaeology in India, for graciously permitting me to reproduce all the photographs belonging to the Department as were included in the first edition. These photographs either purchased direct or reproduced from Depart- mental publications are shown in the list of Acknowledgements. It is hardly necessary for me t~ add that iconographic studies in India are not possible without the generous help of the Archaeological Department-help that is always given cheerfully as also gracefully.

    Shrimati Hansa Ben Mehta, the talented Vice-Chancellor of the Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, has laid me under a deep debt of obligation by ordering a loan for the purpose of reproduction, of nine full-page blocks belonging to the University. As the Baroda Museum now belongs to this University I have t o thank the Vice- Chancellor also for using the Baroda Museum specimens in this book. '

    It is difficult for me to adequately express my gratitude and thank- fulness to our worthy colleague and associate, Prof. Walter Eugene a a r k , Wales Professor of Sanskrit in the Harvard University, who

    me permission t o reproduce as many photographs as I liked from 1(

  • his monumental book : Two Lamaistic Pantheons. He made no conditions, and I am simply overwhelmed with his kindness and generosity.

    T o my friend and colleague, Dr. Hermann Goetz, formerly Curator of the Baroda Museum, I feel very deeply indebted for allowing me to take a number of photographs of interesting Buddhist images deposited in the Baroda Museum years ago, for their eventual reproduction in this volume from my own negatives. All the statuettes belonging to the Baroda Museum and published in this book show the place of their origin at the foot of each and every such illustration. I have to thank the Baroda Musuem authorities and Dr. Goetz, the eminent art-critic, very heartily for the favours enumerated above.

    Pandit Siddhiharsha VajrHcHryya of Nepal, my friend, philosopher and guide, helped me at every step. He supplied copies of rare manus- cripts and original Nepalese drawings of rare deities whenever there was need for them. The drawings of the Twenty-Five Bodhisattvas were all procured by him from Nepalese artists. Out of this number, sixteen were copied from stone images in one of the famous Caityas of Patan in Nepal. I am deeply indebted to him, as also t o his son Dharmaharsha and his grandson Purnaharsha VajrScSryya for their intelligent, prompt, active and effective co-operation. I am also grate- ful t o my old artist of Nepal, Virman Chitrakar who supplied all the Nepalese drawings illustrated in the first edition.

    T o Professor N. A. Gore I am indebted for three beautiful photo- graphs : one of Gagapati (four-armed) and two of the rare deity SifihZsy'. from originals in the collection of his father-in-law, Dr. H. G. Moghe, L. D. S., R. C. S. ( Eng. ) of Khar, Bombay. I express my gratitude to both while reproducing all the three photographs in this edition.

    I take this opportunity of once again recording my heartfelt thanks t o Dr. W. Y. Evans-Wentz who allowed me years ago to reproduce some of the miniatures in his possession. His name is mentioned at appropriate places.

    My grateful thanks are also due to Miss Raihana Tyabji, the mystic daughter of the illustrious Indian leader, the late Shri Abbas Tyabji, for going through the first edition for the purpose of a detailed revision more than 15 years ago.

    I am also indebted t o the Manager, Bomby Branch of the Oxford University Press for readily agreeing to have this second edition pub- lished through Firma K. L. Mukhopadhyay. It was he who pursua.

  • ded me, much against my wishes, to revise the book for a second edition as early as 1949. I have many reasons to be thankful to him.

    It is my pleasant duty to express my indebtedness t o the Curators, Keepers and Superintendents of Museums, Picture Galleries, image collections, and the rest, wherefrom images in metal, stone and paint- ings have been selected for reproduction in t h ~ s volume. I am parti- culary grateful to the authorities of the Indian Museum, Calcuttta, the Museum and Picture Gallery at Baroda, the Provincial Museum, Lucknow, the Museums at Sarnath, Nalanda and Dacca, the Vahgiya Siihitya Parisat Museum, Calcutta, and the Palace Temple Collection of images at Peiping in Manchuria. T o all of them I tender my grateful acknowledgments.

    All those Universities of India which prescribed the first edition of the Indian Buddhist Iconography as a text-book for the M.A. Examination in Ancient Indian History and Culture, deserve my grateful thanks for selecting the book. It is hoped that the authorities will extend the same patronage to the second edition which is now published.

    My grateful thanks are due to Messrs. Ghosh Printing House Private Limited, Calcutta, especially Shri P. C. Basak, for exercising great care on the accurate printing and excellent get-up of this volume. In spite of our best efforts, however, a few errors have crept in, and for these I crave the indulgence of my readers. These are mostly minor errors and can be corrected with ease. Shri N. L. Dutt has also been very helpful, and I acknowledge my indebtedness to him.

    Lastly, I am duty bound to acknowledge my indebtedness to my brother Shriyut Paritosh Rhattacharyya of Messrs. Sanjal & Co., Calcutta, for his sustained encouragement and for his many acts of kindness.

    My gratitude to Shri K. L. Mukhopadhyay of Firma K. L. Mukho- padhyay knows no bounds, for all that he has done in bringing out this edition in its present form. I thank him cordially and bless hinl heartily.

    This time I can only inscribe the book to the memory of my loving father, the late Mahamahopadhyaya Haraprasad Shastri in whose invisi- ble but tender care I have the honour t o place this second edition of Buddhist Iconography.

    Shastri Villa Naihati (West Bengal)

    Rathayiitri 1958 B. BHATTACHARYYA


    A ADV AS1 Bendall Bhattasali Clark Foucher Getty GNB Gordon GOS IBBS

    ITL JASB JBORS JRAS Kern NSP S'im'airami TLP Vogel

    Appendix Advayavajrasailgraha Arch~ological Survey of India Professor Cecil Bendall (Dr.) N. K. Bhattasali Professor Walter Eugene Clark Professor A. Foucher Miss Alice Getty Gods of Northern Buddhism Mrs. A. K. Gordon Cjaekwad's Oriental Series Iconography of Buddhist and Brahmanical Sculptures I the Dacca Museum Iconography of Tibetan Lamaism Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal Journal of the Bihar und Orissa Research Society Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain Professor H. Kern Nispannayog~vali Pandit Satyavrata S'im'akrami Two Lamaistic Pantheons, 2 Vols. Professor J. Ph. Vogel


    Grateful acknowledgments are made of the Courtesy and Copy- right of the following institutions among others and of private collec- tions, with their officers, curators, keepers, superintendents as well as individual owners, while reproducing photographs of images, bronzes, sculptures, bas-reliefs, statuettes, miniatures and blocks in their charge, the copyright being reserved in all appropriate cases.

    I. The Archaeological Survey of India, New Delhi along with the Archaeological Museums at Calcutta, Lucknow, Sarnath and Nalanda functioning under the Department, in respect of Figures : 1, 2, 3, 4,S, 17, 26, 27, 45,46, 77, 81,83, 84, 85,94, 95, 96. 98, 99, 101, 104, 105, 107, 116, 130, 138, 140, 142, 148, 152, 153, 151, 156, 166, 167, 169, 180, 189, 190 and 233.

    11. The Museum and Picture Gallery under the M. S. University, Baroda, in respect of Figures : 13, 16, 42, 74, 75, 87,92, 97, lC6, 127, 131, 160, 163,168 and 188.

    111. The Palace Temple at Peiping in Manchuria and the author of the Two Lamaistic Pantheons, 2 Vols., Professor Walter Eugene Clark, in respect of Figures : 30,50, 71, 80, 11 1, 114, 115, 122, 123, 129, 133, 183, 193, 134, 195, 202, 203, 204, 205, 2C6, 207, 208, 209, 210, 211, 212, 213, 214,217, 219,220, 221, 222, 223, 224, 225, 231, 236, 237, 238, 239, 240, 241,242,243, 244, 245,246,247 and 248.

    IV. Professor W. Y. Evans-Wentz (private collection), in respect of Figures : 19, 22, 28, 33, 37, 150, 157, 165, 196, 197, 198, 199, 200 and 229.

    V. Dacca Museum, Dacca (East Pakistan), in respect of Figures : 89, 125, 185 and 249.

    VI. Vahgiya SZhitya Parigat, Calcutta, in respect of Figures : 93 and 149.

    VII. Dr. H. G. Moghe, L.D.S., R.C.S. (Eng.), of Khar, Bombay (private collection), in respect of Figures : 215, 216 and 227.

    VIII. Berlin Museum, Berlin, Germany, in respect of Figure : 90, IX. Leiden Museum, Leiden, Holland, in respect of Figure : 141.

  • X. The Late Mr. W. 8. Whitney of New York (private collection), in respect of Figure : 161.

    XI. The Hindu Monastery at Bodh Gaya, in respect of Figure : 164. XII. Dacca Szhitya Parisat, Dacca (East Pakistan), in respect of

    Figure : 184. XIII. Her Highness The Dowager Maharani Chimanabai Gaekwad

    of Baroda (private collection), in respect of Figure : 228. XIV. The Oriental Institute of the M.S. University, Baroda for the

    loan of nine full page blocks, in respect of Figures : 89, 99. 103, 105, 156,166, 169, 173 and 177.

    XV. The Indian Museum, Calcutta, in respect of Figures : 1, 3 ,4 , 5, 26, 45, 46, 81, 84, 85, 95, 104, 138, 140, 142, 148, 152, 153, 156, 167, 169. 180 and 190.

    XVI. The NHland5 Museum, NPlandH (Bihar), in respect of Figures : 17, 27, 189 and 233.

    XVII. The Provincial Museum, Lucknow, in respect of Figures : 99, 105, 154 and 166.

    XVIII. The SgranPth Museum, SHranHth (Benares), in respect of Figures : 77, 94, 98, 107, 116 and 130.

    XIX. Pandits Siddhiharsha, Dharmaharsha and Purrlaharsha VajrH- czryya of Kathmandu (Nepal), in respect of Nepalese images repro- duced in Figures : 9, 10, 11, 14, 15, 29, 43, 44, 82, 86, 91, 102, 108, 146, 151, 176, 187, 201 and 226.


    Preface Abbreviations Acknowledgments Synopsis of Contents List of Illustrations Select Bibliography Errata Introduction ... . . . . . . 1

    1. Materials for the study of Buddhist Iconography ; 2. Vajrayiina Mysticism ; 3. The Psychic Process of S'idhana ; 4. Godhead in Buddhism ; 5. The Pantheon.

    CHAPTER I. DhyHni and Mortal Buddhas ... ... 42 Vajradhara ; 1. Amit'abha ; P'i~dar'a ; PadmapZgi ;

    2. Aksobhya ; M'imaki ; VajrapBqi ; 3, Vairocana ; Locan5 ; Samantabhadra ; 4. Amoghasiddhi ; THrl ; Vi6vapBqi ; 5. Ratnasambhava ; Vajradh'atviivari ; Rarna- pPgi ; 6. Vajrasattva ; Vajrasattv'itmika ; GhaqfHp'iqi ; Mortal Buddhas ; Vajr'isana ; Durgatipariiodhana ; Mortal BuddhaQaktis ; Mortal Bodhisattvas ; Maitreya.

    CHAPTER 11. The Bodhisattvas .. . ... . , . 82 1. Samantabhadra ; 2. Aksayamati ; 3. Ksiti-

    garbha ; 4. A k ~ Q a ~ a r b h a ; 5. Gaganagaaja ; 6. Ratna- . plqi ; 7. S'igaramati ; 8. Vajragarbha ; G l o k i t e Q v a r a ;it 10. MahZsth'amaprPpta ; 11. Candraprabha ; 12. J'ali- nIprabha ; 13. Amitaprabha ; 14. Pratibhlnaktiya ; 15. SarvaQokatam~nir~h'atamati ; 16. Sarvanivaragaviskambhi ; 17. Maitreya ; 18. MaZjuSri 3 19. Gandhahasti ; 20. Jii'i- naketu ; 21. Bhadrap'ila ; 22. SarvPpayaZjaha ; 23. AmoghadarSi ; 24. Surahgama ; 25. Vajrap'a~i 4 General remarks.

    CHAPTER 111. Bodhisattva MaEjukri , . . ... 100 1. Vajrar'aga ; 2. Dharmadhltu-V~igSSvara ; 3. MaEju-

    ghoga ; 4. Siddhaikavira ; 5. Vajr'inahga ; 6, NZma- sahgiti Maajuiri ; 7. V'igiQvara ; 8. Mazjuvara ; 9. Ma% juvajra ; lor Maiijukums'ata ; 11. Arapacana ; 12. Sthira- cakra ; 13. V'adirZit.

  • CHAPTER IV. Bodhisattva Avalokitehvara 1 . . . ... 124 1. Sadaksari Lokefvara ; 2. Sifihan'ada ; 3. Khasarpapa;

    4. LokanHtha ; 5. Hd'ahala ; 6. Padmanarttehvara ; 7. Hari- hariharivzhana ; 8. T~ailok~avakahkara ; 9. Rakta-Lokes- vara ; 10. MHy'ajBlakrama ; 11. Nilakaptha ; 12. Sugati- sandarbana ; 13. Pretasanrarpita ; 14. SukhBvati Lokek vara ; 15. Vajradharma ; General.

    CHAPTER V. Emanations of Amitlbha - ... ... 145 I. Gods :

    1. M a h ~ b a l a ; 2. Saptaiatika Hayagriva 11. Goddesses :

    CIIAPTEK VI. Emanations of Aksobhya . . . ... 154 I. Gods :

    1. Capdarosaqa ; 2. Heruka ; 3. Hevajra ; 4. Buddha- hap'ila ; 5. Sambara ; 6. Sapt'aksara ; 7. Mahlmiiy5 ; 8. H&a ; ktayamzri ; 10. KrsgayamBri ; 11. lam- -

    Jambhala ; 13. VighnBntaka ; 14. Vajrahiinlilra ; 15. Bhiitadzmara ; 16. Vajrajjvzliina-

    ; 18. Param~hva ; 19. YogBm-

    CHAPTER VII. Emanations of Aksobhya (continued) ... 189 11. Goddesses :

    jjvBlZkarBli ; 5. Parpakabari ; 6. Prajii'ipzra carcikz ; 8. Mah~mantr ' inus~r iq i ; Y a h l p r a t y a h g i r Z ; 10. Dhvajggrakeytirii ; 11. Vasud BrB 1 2. Nair'itmB ; 13. JZ~nadZkini ; 14. Vajravid'irapl.

    CHAPTER VIII. Emanations of Vairocana ... ... 206 I. Gods :

    1. N'imasariglti 11. Goddesses :

    CHAPTER IX. Emanations of Amoghasiddhi .. . ... 226 I. Gods :

    1. Vajr'am~ta

  • 11. Goddesses : 2. Khadiravaqi Tars ; 3. MahPSri TPrH ; 4. VaSya-

    tIrH ; 5. Sadbhuja SitatHrP ; 6. Dhanada TZirH ; 7. Sitat'irii 8. Pargahabari ; 9. Mah"azyiiri ; 10. Vajra6yhkhal'i ; 1 I. Vajrag~ndh'ari.

    ... CHAPTER X. Emanations of Ratnasambhava ... I. Gods: 1

    1. Jambhala ; 2. Ucchusma Jambhala 11. Goddesses : /

    3. Va' tHrH ; 4. MahHpratisar'i ; 5. Vasudh'ir'i ; 6. Apa ?IF; jitH 7. Vajrayogini ; 8. Prasanna THrH

    ... CHAPTER XI. Collective Deities ... ... ... I. Ten Gods of Direction : ... ...

    1. Yam'intaka ; 2. PrajEPntaka ; 3. Padm'intaka ; 4. Vighnlntaka ; 5. Takkir'ija ; 6. Niladanda ; 7. Mah'i- bala; 8. Acala; 9. U q i s a ; 10. Sumbharzja.

    11. Six Goddesses of Direction : ... ... 1. Vajr'ifikuBi ; 2. VajrapGi ; 3. VajrasphofB ;

    4. Vairaghaqfl ; 5. Usqisavijay~ ; 6. Sumbhii. ... ... ... 111. Eight Usgisa Gods :

    1. Vajrosr;lisa ; 2. Ratnosgisa ; 3. Padmosqiga ; 4. V iS~osq i~a ; 5. Tejosglsa ; 6. Dhvajogqisa ; 7. Tik- sgosgisa ; 8. Chhatrosqiza.

    ... ... IV. Five Protectresses : ... 1. Mahlpratisar'i ; 2. Mahiislahasrapramardani;

    3. MahHmantr'inusHri~i; 4. Mah~iitavati ; 5. MahP- miiy iiri.

    ... ... V. TgrPs of Five Colour : ... 1. Green TgrP ; 2. White T'irH ; 3. Yellow TPrii ;

    4. Blue THrH ; 5. Red THrB. ... VI. Eight Gauri Group : ... ...

    1. Gauri ; 2. Cauri ; 3. Vetiili ; 4. Ghasmari ; 5. Pukkasi ; 6. Sabari ; 7. CagdIli ; 8. Dombi.

    VII. Four Dance Deities : ,.. ... ... 1. Lssy'i ; 2 . . Miilii ; 3. Gitii ; 4. Nytyz.

    ... VIII. Four Musical Instruments : ... 1. Va&k ; 2. V ' q H ; 3. Mukund'a ; 4. Murajii.

  • ... ... IX. Four Door Goddesses : ... 1. T'ilik'i ; 2. KuEci ; 3. Kap'ic'i ; 4. Patadh'irigi.

    X. Four Light Goddesses : ... ... ... 1. Siiryahast'i ; 2. dip^ ; 3. Ratnolk'i ; 4. Tadit-

    kar'i. ... XI. Four Animal-Faced Goddesses : ...

    1. Hay'iky'i ; 2. $iikar'lsy'i ; 3. ~v'in'isy'i ; 4. Si&- h'isy'i.

    ... XII. Four D'lkini Group : ... 1. D'.kini ; 2. L'imH ; 3. Khagdaroh'i ; 4. R ~ p i d .

    ... ... CHAPTER XII. Philosophical Deities : ... ... I. Twelve Pframit'is : ... ...

    1. RatnapSramitH ; 2. Diinap'iramit'i ; 3. $ilap5ra- mitH ; 4. Ks'intip'iramitii ; 5. Viryap'iramit'i ; 6. Dh'y'a- nap'iramitf ; 7. Prajii'lp'iramit'i ; 8 Up5yap'aramitl ; 9. PragidhHnap'iramitH ; 10. BalapHramit'. ; 1 I . JA'ina- pHramit5 ; 12. Vajrakarmap'iramit'i.

    ... ... 11. Twelve VaBit'i Goddesses : ... 1. Ayurva6it'i ; 2. Cittavaiit'i ; 3. Parisk~ravaBit'i ;

    4. Karmavaiit'i ; 5. Upapattiva6itii ; 6. Rddhiva- Bit5 ; 7. Adhimuktivakit'i ; 8. PraqidhHnavaBitH ; 9. JEInavakit'i ; 10. DharmavaSitH ; 11. Tathat'ivahit'i ; 12. Buddhabodhiprabh'i-vaBit3.

    ... 111. Twelve Bhtimis : ... ... 1. Adhimukticary'i ; 2. Pramudit'i ; 3. Vimal'i ;

    4. Prabh~kar i ; 5. Arcigmati ; 6. Sudurjay'i ; 7. Abhi- mukh; ; 8. DtiraiigamH ; 9. Acal'i ; 10. S'idhu- mati ; 11. Dharmamegh'i ; 12, SamantaprabhI.

    ... ... IV. Twelve Dh'irigls : ... I . Sumati; 2. RatnolkH ; 3. Uagigavijay'i;

    4. Mfr I ; 5. Pargababari; 6. J'iiiguli ; 7. Ananta- mukhi ; 8 Cund'i ; 9. Prajz'ivardhani ; 10. Sarvakar- m'ivara~aviBodhan3 ; 11. Ak+ayajZfnakaraqQii ; 12 Sarvabuddhadharmakoaavati.

    ... ... V. Four Pratisamvits : ... 1. Dharma Pratisar5vit ; 2. Artha Pratisahvit ;

    3. Nirukti Prat isahi t ; 4. Pratibhiina Pratisahvit.

  • ... : C H A ~ E R XIII. Hindu Gods in Vajrayiina : ... 1. MahHkHla ; 2. Gagapati ; 3. Ga~apatihbday'a ; 4 Sarasvati ;

    ... ... 5. The Eight DikpTlas : I Indra ; 11. Yama ; 111. Varuqa ; IV. Kubera ;

    V. k n a ; VI. Agni ; VII. N a i ~ t i ; VIII. VHyu ... 6, Ten Principal Hindu Deities : 6 6 Brahmii ; 11. Vispu ; 111. ahesvara ; IV.

    Kiirttikeya ; V. Vlr'ahi ; VI. CHrnu9c;Z~ ; VII. BhyhgT.; VIII. Gagapati; IX Mahsk'ila; X. Nandikebvara.

    ... ... 7. Nine Planets : ... I. Aditya ; U, Candra ; 111. Mahgala ; IV.

    Budha ; V. Byhaspati ; VI. Sukra : VII. 6ani ; VIII. R'ihu ; IX. Ketu.

    ... ... 8. Balabhadra Group : ... I. Balabhadra ; 11. Jayakara ; 111. Madhukara ;

    IV. Vasanta. 9. Lords of the Yakqas, Kinnaras, Gandharvas and

    ... ... ... Vidyiidharas : ... I. Yakga Kings ; 11. Kinnara King ; 111. Gandharva

    King ; IV. Vidysdhara King. ... 10. Twenty-Eight Constellations ...

    11. Time Deities : ... ... ... I. Months ; 11. Dates ; 111. Zodiacal Signs ;

    IV. Seasons CHAPTER XIV. Conclusion ... ... ... Apppendix. 108 Forms of Avalokiteivara ... ...

    ... Glossary ... . . ... ... ... ... Index of Words ... ...

    ... Index of Illustrations ... ... ...




    Fig .

    1 . 2 . 3 . 4 . 5 . 6 . 7 . 8 . 9 .

    10 . 11 . 12 . 13 . 14 . 15 . 16 . 17 . 18 . 19 . 20 . 21 . 22 . 23 . 24 . 25 . 26 . 27 . 28 . 29 . 30 . 31 . 32 . 33 . 34 .


    MgyH's Dream (Bharhut) Bodhi Tree (Sanchi) .. ... Buddha's Head-dress (Bharhut) Buddha's Footprints (Bharhut) ... Wheel-of-the-law (Bharhut ) . .

    ... Simbhu (Nepal) ...

    ... Baudh (Nepal) . . Kathe Simbhu (Nepal)

    ... Dharma (Nepal) ...

    ... Buddha (Nepal) ...

    ... Sangha (Nepal) ... Adibuddha Vajradhara (Nepal) ... Vajradhara (Baroda Museum) ... Va jradhara Y ab-yum (Nepal)

    Vajradhara Yab-yum (side view) ... Vajradhara (Baroda Museum)

    Buddha in different Mudrzs (Nalanda Museum) ... Buddha in different Mudrzs (Java)

    Amitlbha (Nepalese miniature) . . ... Phdarg (Nepalese drawing)

    PadmapBgi (Nepal) ... ... Aksobhya (Nepalese miniature)

    ... ... Aksobhya (Nepal) ... M'imakf (Nepalese drawing) ... Vajrap'iqi (Nepal) ... ... Vajrap'ipi (Indian Museum) ... Vajrap'igi (Nalanda Museum) ... Vairocana (Nepalese miniature) ... Vairocana (Nepal) ...

    Vairocana Vajradhiiru (Peiping) . . ... Locan'l (Nepalese drawing) ... Samantabhadra (Nepal)

    Amoghasiddhi (Nepalese miniature) ... Amoghasiddhi (Nepal) ...


    33 33 36 36 36 37 37 37 49 40 40 57 58 58 58 58 5 9 59 60 60 60 60 61 61 61 62 62 62 62 63 63 63 64 64

  • Fig .

    35 . 36 . 37 . 38 . ~ 3 9 . 40 . 41 . 42 . 43 . 44 . 45 .

    Names '

    THrS (Nepalese drawing) ... ... ... Vibvap'iqi (Nepal) ... ...

    Ratnasambhava (Nepalese miniature) ... ... ... Ratnsambhava (Nepal) ... ... Vajradh5tviSvari (Nepalese drawing) .

    ... Ratnapzqi (Nepal) ... ... ... Vajrasattva (Nepal) . . ... Vajrasattva (Baroda Museum) ... ... Vajrasattva Yab-yum (Nepal) ... ... Vajrasattva Yab-yum (side view) ...

    Seven Mortal Buddhas with Maitreya (Indian Museum) ... ... ...

    ... VajrBsana (Indian Museum) ...

    ... ... Maitreya (Nepalese drawing)

    ... Samantabhadra (Nepalese drawing) ...

    ... ... Akgayamati (Nepalese drawing) ... ... Aksayamati (Peiping) ...

    ... Kgitigarbha (Nepalese drawing) . .

    ... Ak56agarbha (Nepalese drawing) ... ... ... Gaganagazja (Nepalese drawing) ... RatnapBci (Nepalese drawing) ... ... SHgaramati (Nepalese drawing) ... ... ... Vajragarbha (Nepalese drawing)

    Avalokireivara (Nepalese drawing) ... ... MahBsthBmaprBpta (Nepalese drawing) . . Candrapra bha (Nepalese drawing) ... ...

    ... Jiiliniprabha (Nepalese drawing) ... Amitaprabha (Nepalese drawing) ... ... PratibhSinakCiya (Nepalese drawing) ... ... Sarva6okatamonirghPtamati (Nepalese drawing) ... Sarvanivaraqaviskambhi (Nepalese drawing) ...

    ... Maitreya (Nepalese drawing) ...

    ... MaEjuQr; (Nepalese drawing) ...

    ... Gandhahasti (Nepelese drawing) ...

    ... JiiBnaketu (Nepalese drawing) ... Bhadrap'ala (Nepalese drawing . . ... ... Smv'ipgyazjaha (Nepalese drawing) ... ... Sa~viip'ayaiijaha (Peiping) ... ... Amoghadargin (Nepalese drawing) . . . . . f , _ ...

    ... Surahgama (Nepalese drawing) . ... . Maiijubri with Gaqapati and V i ~ g u (Baroda ~useumj:::'


    64 65 65 65 66 66 66 67 67 67

  • Fig . Names ... 75 . Vajrariiga (Baroda Musem) ... 76 . VajrarHga (Nepalese drawing)

    77 . Siddhaikavira (Sarnath Museum) ... ... 78 . VajrInahga (Nepalese drawing)

    79 . Nlmasahgiti MaiijuSrT (Nepalese drawing) 80 . NImasahgiti MaZjuAri (Peipinp) ... 81 . V~giivara (Indian Museum) ... 82 . VlgiBvara (Nepal) ... ... 83 . MaEjuvara (Birbhum) ... ... 84 . MaEjuvara (Indian Museum) ...

    ... 85 . MaEjuvara (Indian Museum) 86 . MaZjuvara (Nepal) ... ... 87 . MaEjuvajra (Baroda Museum) ... 88 . MaiijukumHra (Nepalese drawing) ... 89 . Arapacana (Dacca Museum) ... 90 . Arapacana (Berlin Museum) ... 91 . Arapacana (Nepal) ... ... 92 . Arapacana (Baroda Museum) ... 93 . Sthiracakra (Vahgiya Sghitya Parisat) ... 94 . Sadak~ari Group (Sarnath Museum) ... 95 . Sadaksari Group (Indian Museum) ... 96 . Sadaksari Group (Birbhum) ... 97 . Sadaksari LokeSvara (Baroda Museum) 98 . Sadaksari MahPvidyP (Sarnath Museum) 99 . SihhanHda-Mahoba (Lucknow Musuem)

    100 . Sihhan'ada (Nepal) ..: ... 101 . Sihhangda (Magadha) ... 102 . SihhanHda (Nepal) ... ... 103 . Khasarpa~a (Vikrampur, Dacca) ... 104 . Khasarpaqa (Indian Musuem) ... 105 . LokanHtha-Mahoba (Lucknow Museum) 106 . Lokanltha (Baroda Museum) ... 107 . Lokan'atha (Sarnath Museum) ... 108 . Lokan'atha (Nepal) ... 109 . HHlPhala (Nepal) ... ... 110 . PadmanartteSvara (Nepal) ... 11 1 . Padmanartteivara (Peiping) ... 112 . Padmanartteivara (Nepalese drawing) ... 113 . Hariharihariv&ana (Nepalese drawing) 114 . Trailokyavai~hkara (Peiping) ... 11 5 . RaktaeLokeSvara (Peiping) ...


    ... 110

    ... 110

    ... 111

    ... 111

    ... 111

    ... 112

    ... 112

    ... 112

    ... 169

    ... 169

    ... 169

    ... 170

    ... 170

    ... 170

    ... 171

    ... 172

    ... 172 .. 172 ... 173 ... 173 ... 173 ... 174 ... 174 ... 174 ... 175 ... 176 ... 176 . 176 ... 257 ... 259 ... 258 ... 259 ... 259

    260 ... 260 ... 260 0.. 261 .a. 261 ... 261 0.. 262 * a * 262


    Fig .

    116 . 117 . 118 119 . 120 . 121 . 122 . 123 124 . 125 . 126 . 127 . 128 . 129 . 130 . 131 . 132 . 133 . I34 . 135 . 136 . 137 . 138 139 . 140 . 141 . 142 . 143 . 144 . 145 . 146 . 147 . 148 . 149 . 150 . 151 . 152 . 153 . 154 . 155 . 156 .

    Names ... Nilakaqyha (Sarnath Museum) ... SugatisandarSana (Nepalese drawing)

    Pretasantarpita (Nepalese drawing) ... Sukhiivati Lokeivara (Nepal)

    Vajradharma (Nepalese drawing) . . ... KurukullH (Nepalese drawing)

    Kurukula (Peiping) ... ... Bhrku~i (Peiping) ... ... Cagdarosaca (Nepalese drawing) ...

    ... Heruka (Dacca Museum) Ruddhakap'ila (Nepalese drawing) ... Buddha kap'ila (Baroda Museum) ...

    ... Hayagriva (Nepalese drawing)

    ... Hayagriva (Peiping) ... Ucchusma Jambhala (Sarnath Museum) Vighn'antaka (Baroda Museum) ... Paramliva (Nepalese drawing) ... Yog'imbara (Peiping) ... ... Kllacakra (Nepalese drawing) ... Mahlcina THrl (Nepalese drawing) ... Mahiicina Tar'i (Nepalese drawing) ...

    ... J~hguJi (Nepalese drawing) EkajatH (Indian Museum) ... EkajatH (Nepalese drawing) ... ~ a r ~ a b a b a r i (Indian Museum) ... PrajElpHramitH (Leiden. Holland) ... Pra j5Zp'iramid (Indian Museum) ... Vajracarcikii (Nepalese drawing) ... Pratyahgira (Nepalese drawing) ...

    ... Pratyahgirl (Nepalese drawing) PratyahgirH (Nepal) ... ...

    ... Dhva jggrakeyiirg (Nepalese drawing) NairiitmH (Indian Museum)

    ... NairHtm'i (Vangiga Sahitya Parisat)

    ... Vajravid~ragi (Nepalese miniature) ... N~masahgiti (Nepal) ...

    ... Astabhu ja M ~ r i c i (Indian Museum) Asfabhuja MHrici (Indian Museum) ... Asfbhuja M'irici (Lucknow Museum) ... DaSabhujasita M ~ r i c i (Nepalese drawing)

    ... Ugql~avijay Zi (Indian Museum)


    ... 262

    ... 263

    ... 263

    ... 263

    ... 264

    ... 264

    ... 264

    ... 265

    ... 265

    ... 265 ... 266 ... 266 ... 266 ... 267 ... 267 ... 267 ... 268 ... 269 ... 268

    . 269 ... 269 ... 269 ... 270 ... 270 ... 270 ... 271 ... 271 ... 271 ... 272 ... 272 ... 272 ... 274 ... 274 ... 274 ... 274 ... 276 ... 275 ... 276 ... 276 ... 278 ... 277

  • Fig .

    198 . 199 . 200 . 201 . . 202 . 203 . 204 . 205 . 206 . 207 . 208 . 209 . 210 . 211 . 212 . 213 . 214 . 21 5 . 216 . 217 . 218 . 219 . 220 . 221 . 222 223 . 224 . 225 . 226 . 227 . 228 . 229 . 230 . 231 . 232 . 233 . 234 . 235 . 236 . 237 . 238 .


    Mahiimantr'inus'iri$ (Nepalese miniature) ... Mah'iQitavat'i (Nepalese miniature) ... hiah5mFiyiir? (Nepalese miniature) ... Mahattari T'ar'i (Nepal) ... Vetal'i (Peiping) ... Ghasmari (Peiping) ... Pukkasi (Peiping) ... Dombi (Peiping) ... LBsyH (Peiping) ... G i t ~ (Peiping) ... Nrtys (Peiping) ... Viq5 (Peiping) ... MukundB (Peiping) ... TEilik5 (Peiping)

    KaparI (Peiping) . . ... Dip5 (Pei ping) ... RatnolkB (Peiping)

    Si&hHsyH (Dr . Moghe's Collection) . . Si&hZisyZi. upper view (Dr . Moghe's Collection)

    ... Dgkini (Peiping) Liiml (Nepalese painting in colour) ...

    ... DhyBna PBramitB (Peiping)

    ... PravidhHna PZramitH (Peiping)

    ... Upapatti Vahit5 (Peiping)

    ... Rddhi Vakitg (Peiping)

    ... Dharmamegh~ (Peiping)

    ... Nirukti Pratisnhvit (Peiping) Pratibhiina Pratisafivit (Peiping) . .

    ... Mah5kZla (Nepal) Gaqapati (Dr . Moghe7s Collection) ... Gaqapati (Maharani Chimanabai Collection)

    ... Ga~apatihydayl (Nepalese miniature) Mah~sa~asva t l (Nepalese drawing) ...

    ... Va jravi~ti Sarasvati (Peiping) ... Vajrakirad~ (Nepalese drawing) ... Vajra65radl (Nalanda Museum) ... Arya-~arasvati (Nepalese drawing) ... Vajrasarasvati (Nepalese drawing) ... Indra (Peiping) ... Agni (Peiping) ... VZyu (Peiping)


    294 295 295 295 296 296 296 353 353 353 354 354 354 355 355 355 356 356 356 357 376 357 357 358 358 358 359 359 359 360 360 360 369 369 369 370 370 370 371 371 37 1

  • Fig .

    239 . 240 . 241 . 242 . 243- 244 . 245 246 . 247 . 248 . 249 .

    Names BrahmE (Peiping) ... Maheivara (Peiping) ...

    ... Gagapati (Peiping)

    ... RBhu (Peiping)

    ... Ketu (Peiping)

    ... Navami Tithi (Peiping)

    ... Dabami Tithi (Peiping)

    ... TUB (Peiping)

    ... Kumbha (Peiping)

    ... Mina (Peiping) Khadiravagi THrB (Dacca Museum) ...


    ... 372

    ... 372

    ... 372

    ... 373

    ... 373

    ... 373

    ... 374

    ... 374

    ... 374

    ... 375

    ... 375


    Fig .

    1(A) . 2(A) . 3(A) . 4(A) . 5(.4). 6(A) . 7(A) . 8(A) 9(AJ .

    10(A) . 11 (A) . 12(A) . 13(A) . 14(A) 15(A) . 16(A) . 17(A) . 18(A) . 19(A) . 20(A) . 21(A) . 22(A) . 2 3(A) . 24(A) . 25(A) . 26(A) . 27(A) . 28(A) . 29(A) . 30(A) . 31(A) . 32(A) .

    Eyeecopy of paintings in the Machhandar Vahal. Kathmandu. Nepal

    ... Hayagriva Lokeivara

    ... Mojaghgajabala (?) Lokeivara

    ... Hiilghala Lokeivara

    ... Hariharihariv'ahana LokeQvara

    ... MiiyZjBlakrama Lokekvara

    ... Sadaksari ~ o k e b v a r a

    ... Anandldi Lokebvara

    ... Vaky~dhikiira LokeSvara

    ... Potapiida Lokekvara

    ... K a m a ~ d a l u I. okeQvara

    ... Varad'iyaka Lokebvara

    ... Jatiimukuta Lokekvara

    ... S u k h ~ v a t i Lokeivara

    ... Pretasantarpapa LokeSvara

    ... M ~ ~ ~ j i i l a k r a m a k r o d h a Lokekvara

    ... S ~ ~ a t i s a n d a r i a n a ~ o k e k v a r a

    ... Nilakaqtha LokeSvara ~okan ' a tha -~ak t ' i ry yiivalokiteQvara Trailokyasandarbana Lokeivara ... Simhaniitha Lokehvara ... Khasarpaqa LokeQvara ... Maqipadma Lokebvara ... Vajradharma Lokebvara ... Pupala ( 1 ) Lokehvara ... Utnauti (?) Lokeivara ... V~+qHcana Lokekvara ... Brahmadaqda Lokegvara ... AcHta (?) Lokeivara ...

    ... Mah'avajrasattva Lnkekvara ViSvahana Lakekvara ... S~kyabuddha Lokeivara ... Siintiisi LokeSvara ...


    ... 401

    ... 401

    ... 401

    ... 401

    ... 402

    ... 402

    ... 402

    ... 402

    ... 403

    ... 403

    ... 403

    ... 403

    ... 404

    ... 404

    ... 404

    ... 404

    ... 405 ... 405 ... 405 ... 405 ... 406 ... 406 ... 406 ... 406 ... 407 ... 407 ... 407 ... 407

    408 ... 408 ... 408 ... 408


    Fig .

    33(A) . 34(A) . 35(A) . 36(A) . 37(A) . 38(A) . 39(A) . 40(A) . 41(A) . 42(A) . 43(A) . 44(A) . 45(A) . 46(A) . 47(A) . 48(A) . 49(A) . 50(A) . 51(A) . 52(A) . 53(A) . 54(A) . 55(A) . 56(A) . 57(A) . 58(A) . 59(A) . 60(A) . 61(A) . 62(A) . 63(A) . 64(A) . 65(A) . 66(A) . 67(A) . 68(A) . 69(A) . 70(A) . 71(A) . 72(A) . 73(A) .


    Yamadagda LokeQvara ... Vajrosgisa LokeQvara ... Vajrahuntika (?) LokeQvara . . JZlinadhtitu LokeBvara ... KBraqdavyiiba Lokebvara ... Sarvanivaraqaviskambhi LokeQvara Sarvakokatamonirgh~ta Lokekvara . . Pratibhtinakiita LokeQvara ... Ampaprabha LokeQvara ... Jglinipra bha LokeSvara ... Candraprabha Lokekvara ... Avalokita Lokebvara ... Vajragarbha LokeSvara ... Sligaramati Lokekvara ... Ratnapzgi LokeSvara ... GaganagaEja LokeBvara ... AkiiSagarbha LokeBvara ... Ksitigarbha ~okehvara ... Aksayamati LokeQvara ... Srstiklintii LokeBvara ... ~arnantabhadia LokeQvara ...

    ... Mah~sahasrabhuja LokeSvara Mahiiratnakirti LokeQvara ... Mahiiiahkhaniitha LokeSvara ...

    ... Mahlisahasrasiiryya Lokekvara Mahliratnakula Lokekvara ... MahliplitIla Lokekvara ... Mahiimazjudatta Lokebvara ...

    ... Mahticandra bimba LokeSvara

    ... Mahlis'iryyabimba Lokeivara

    ... Mahli-Abhayaphalada Lokekvara Mah~dAbha~akari Lokekvara ... Mahlimai5jubhEta LokeSvara ... Mahiivikvaiuddha LokeSvara ... Mahlivajradhlitu Lokekvara ... Mah'avajradhyk LokeQvara ... MahHvajrapli~i LokeQvara ... MahHvajranZitha LokeSvara ... Amoghap'ika LokeSvara ... DevadevatH LokeQvara ... Pigdaplitra Lokekvara ...


    409 409 409 409 410 410 $10 410 411 411 411 411 412 412 412 412 413 413 413 413 414 414 414 414 415 415 415 415 416 416 416 416 417 417 417 417 418 418 418 418 419

  • Fig .

    74(A) . 75 (A) . 76(A) . 77(A) . 78(A) . 79(A) . 8C(A) . 81(A) . 82(A) . 83(A) . 81(A) . 85(A) . 86(A). 87(A) . 88(A) . 89(A) . 90(A) . 91(A) . 92(A) . 93(A) . 91(A) . 95,A) . 96(A) . 97(A) . 98(A) . 99(A) .

    100(A) . 101(A) . 102(A) . 103(A) . 104(A) . 105(A) . 106(A) . 107(A) . 108(A) .

    Names ... SZl thavHha Lokebvara ... Ratnadala Lokeivara ... Visqup'a~i Lokeivara ... Kamalacandra Lokeivara ... Vajrakhapda Lokeivara ... Acalaketu LokeQvara ... Sirisarii(?) LokeQvara

    Dharmacakra LokeQvara ... HarivHhana LokeBvara ...

    ... Sarasiri (?) LokeQvara ... Harihara Lokeivara ... Simhanzda LokeQvara ... ViQvavajra Lokeivara ... AmitIibha Lokeivara ... Vajrasattvadhiitu Lokeivara ... Viivabhiita LokeAvara ... DharmadhLtu LokeQvara ... Vajradhiitu Lokeivara ... $iikyabuddha Lokeevara ... Cittadhiitu Lokeivara ... CintZma~i LokeQvara ... hntamat i Lokebvara ... MaFijunHtha LokeQvara ... Vis~ucakra Lokeivara ... K y t s j a l i Lokeivara ... Vispukiint Z Lokeivara ... Vajrasrsta Lokekvara ... $ahkhanstha Lokesvara ... Vidyiipati LokeQvara

    NityanPtha LokeQvara ... ... PadmapHpi LokeQvara ... VajrapPqi Lokebvara ... MahPsthHn~aprZpta Lokeivara ... Vajran~tha Lokeivara ... grimad-Aryy~valoltiteivara


    ... 419

    ... 419

    ... 419

    ... 420

    ... 420

    ... 420

    ... 420

    ... 421

    ... 421

    ... 421

    ... 421

    ... 422

    ... 422

    ... 422

    ... 422

    ... 423

    ... 423

    ... 423

    ... 423

    ... 424

    ... 424

    ... 424

    ... 424 .. 425 ... 425 ... 425 ... 425 ... 426 ... 426 ... 426 ... 426 ... 427 ... 427 ... 427 ... 427


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  • XXXI

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    Gordon (Antoinette K.)-The iconography of Tiberan Lamaism (ITL), Columbia University Press, New York, 1939.

    Grunwedel (A)-Buddhist Art in India, translated from German by Agnes Gibson, revised and enlarged by J. Burgess, London, 1901.

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    Page Line or Fig. VI[I 6and 23

    7 2 7 9 n. 3

    15 23 17 3 18 33 18 34 20 31 23 19 26 15 2 7 36 28 32 32 1 2 33 Fig. 2

    43 3 6 3 Fig. 30 75 5 80 last 109 Fig. 71

    134 n. 1 154 1 181 15 185 9 219 1 227 2 3 229 24 295 Fig. 199 359 Fig. 226

    400 15 415 Fig. 59 (A) 4 29 3 7

    For Clarke Budhhisrn jPyote willread inVajrayog:ni Siddhis In the con fees withe th lamp become moniscience here in Bodhi Tree ( Ama~aoat i) Asia Vajradhatu Yub-yum has SarvHpHyaEjaha

    Calrk CHAPTER V Siva V'ihana VASYA Companion VASYATARA Mah'isitavati Mah'ikBla (Peiping) MahPpatala MahBparala 88. Vrjrasattvadh'itu

    Read Clark Buddhism jHyate will read In Vajrayogini Siddhis was The confess with the lump becomes omniscience herein Bodhi Tree (Sanchi) India Vajradhgtu Yab-yum has this SarvBpHyaiijaha (Peiping ) Clark CHAPTER VI Siva VBhana- V A ~ Y A Companions VASYATARA MahBBitavatI Mah"aka1a (Nepal) MahBpZit'ain MahHpEtHla 88. Vajrasattvadhiitu

  • 1. Materials for the study of Buddhist Iconography.

    All the three great religious systems of India, Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism developed well-filled pantheons, and it is not always easy to decide to which of thesr three systems a particular image should be assigned. The importance of the study of iconography, which prima- rily concerns itself with the proper recognition of images thus becomes apparent. . The difficulties of the investigator are increased hy the fact that a free and frequent interchange of deities took place among the three religious systems. Such Hindu de~ties as Piir\?atI, Indra, Lak~mi. Sarasvati are to he found among the Jainah. The Hindus, on the other hand, have borrowed goddesses like MahPcirliitHrH, Jinguli, VajrayoginI from the Buddhist pantheon and incorporated them into their own under the names of TIrH, Manas2 and Chinnanlastii respectively. Thus there is evidence that a free interchange of deities actually took place at the \.c.rv outset of Buddhism and Jainism as in the more promiscuous TZntrii age. The Jninas and the R~~cldhists alike borrowed Hindu gods In their earlier stages, but in the Tiintric age Buddhist gods were commonly exploited.

    The problem of correct idcnt~tication c d images, therefore. presents a real difficc~ltv which creat scholars ha \e more than once attempted to s:~lr:e. Scholars ot d l l ~ouiltries. Nladdell, Gn~nwedel . Foucher, Hurgcss, (;etty, Coomaras\vamy, Rhattasali, Kakhaldas Ranerji and many others, have written useful a n J authoritative works, and collected together R considerilhlr amount of information on Hud,lhist iconography. I t is unfortunate. however, that the pantheon of the Indian VajrayInists who were mainly responsil~lt~ in Iyililding it up has s o far heen more or less neglected Gettv and IJeniker's 'Gods of Northern Rudtlhism', although a ~na\tcrpiece, deals only with Tibetan, Chinese and Japaneht. god5 hut thc. pt~telv Indian gods seen) t o have attracted little notice fro111 t!:en~. I t was I'rofessor Foucher who by the publi- cation of his 'Erudes sur I' Icortogrr~ghir Ihtddhique de L' lndr' in two parts puhlislled as early as 1900 and 1905, first drew the attention of sch lars to this rich field of resenrch. His curiosity was roused by a stu & of the miniatures appearing on such Buddhist manuscripts as the PrajfiHpiiramitl, and then he made a systematic attempt to identify the sculptures. For the purpose of recopnisinp images he hunted out a

  • number o f SBdhanas from the manuscripts of S'idhanamgll, and he was surprised to find that the images tallied most remarkably with the descriptions given in the unpublished text of the Tiintric manuscript. Again, the images and sculptures supplied interesting details such as were not available in the Siidhana. Thus the SBdhana and the image mutually enlightened each other. Professor Foucher's second volume embodies a critical, although partial, study of the Siidhanamiilii and it was this book that first emphasized the necessity of referring to a SBdhana in order to make or justify any single identification of a Buddhist image. When the present author was studying at the feet of the illus- trious savant, Professor Foucher, at the Indian Museum, Calcutta, he was advised to edit and study the different recensions of the SiidhanamPlH before proceeding with the delicate art of identification of Buddhist deities. ) The SldhanamPlB is thus the most valuable and jmportant-.a&to Buddhist [email protected] only because it records the latest advances in psychic research of the Vajrayana Buddhists, but also because it was a product of a period when Buddhism was about to be destroyed in Bengal due to Mussalman invasion. This standard work on Buddhist iconography has been ~ublished in two volumes as Nos. 26 and 41 of the Cjaekwad's Oriental Series with an elaborate introduction dealing with the text and the various problems raised therein.

    The edition of the Si idhanam~l~ _ _ . . l , . ~ - . _ comprises 31 . 2 ' SBdh5n~s-d contains __._-- descripti- umerou_s_ Bud4hic,$eit&s. All new S'adhanas found in a different collection called the Siidhanasamuccaya have been carefully incorporated in their appropriate places in the present edition, which may very well represent a Vade Mecum of the S'idhana literature of the ~uddhists . he Sadhanarn~lii not --I----..-. only gives valuable .- details -- regarding the -_ deities, .l_-l- buts study of this y ~ k , ~ e a J s _ much h j s ~ r i c d aiia cultural informati0~9~&-TAgt&-&, the TBntric philosophy, an'dits psychic exercises, and on authors, Siddhas, Mantras, Maqdalas, and magic as prevalent among the Buddhists. The specia1.form of Buddhism which developed in the Tlntric period is called the Vajrayiina, and the Sidhanamiilii throws a great deal of light on this obscure pzkh of Bud- dhism which was current in India from the 7th to the 13th century A.D.

    The SHdhanamllg does not however exhaust the material for the study of Indian Buddhist Iconography. One of the SHdhanamiilii Mss. is dated ir the Newari Era 285 corresponding to A.D. 1165, and there- fore, this work is not expected to record all the developments that took place after 1165 A. D. Many of the later developments are found incorporated in the work entitled the Dharmakotasahgraha- of Am~tlnanda who was the Residency Pandit when B. Hodgson was the

  • Resident of Nepal. A manuscript of this work is preserved in the Durbar Library of N,epal, and there is also a copy of the original, preserved in the Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal in the Government Collection. AmrtPnanda's work is not published.

    Besides AmytHnanda's work there are others more ancient and capable of supplying much iconographic material. One such work is the Nispannayog~valT of MahHpaqdita PbhayHkara Gupta of the Vikrama- BTla monastery wh%flourished during the reign of the - - Pala -. -. - King-KHma- pHfa. ( A.D. 1084- 1130 ). This valuable work is now in the Cjaekwad's Ortental Series as No. 109 with an elaborate introduction and a full summary of its contents

    The Nispannayogavali is a work on Mandalas and is remarkable for its richness of information and brevity. It contains in all 26 Mavdalas in twenty-six chapters, some short, some long. All these Mavqlalas describe innumerable deities of theTantra cult. A large number of these descriptions is absolutely originaI, highly interesting and informa- tive. Marly of the names and forms which were altogether lost, are published here for the first time. Many of the deities described accurately in the work are not t o br found anywhere in printed literature. The Nispannayogiivali thus presents a unique, original, useful and most valuable information which constitutes our most autherltic material for the study of the images and deities belonging to the Buddhist pantheon. Ni~pannayog~vali outbeats S'idhanamzl~ since the material presented here is more varied, more extensi\.e and nlore prolific.

    What service this NispsnnayogBvali can render t o 13uddhism may be illustrated by a reference to the several hundreds of images of Buddhist deities discovered in the Forbidden City of Peiping in Manchut i~ . In July 1926 Stael Holstein the Russian archzologist received permission t o visit a number of Lama temples situated in Peiping which seen1 to have been neglected for a long time. In the upper storey of one of these temples he found J collection of bronze statuettes constituting a Lamakt Pantheon which had consisted originally of 787 figures. These figures along ~71ih a series of photographs from three manuscripts written in Chinese were studied%y the famous American Professor Walter Eugene Clark, Wales Professor of Sanskrit in the Hnrvard University, and he published this rich material in two sun~ptuous volumes, entitled, the Two Lumaistic Pantheons in the Har\.ard Yenching Institute Monograph Series in the year 1937. The first volume contains an introduction, bibliography and indexes of deities in Sanskrit, Tibetan and Chinese. The second volume contains illustrations of innumerahle deities.

  • These illustrations are of the utmost importance for the study of the Buddhist pantheon not only of China but also of India, Nepal and Tibet. The original images bear inscriptions in Chinese and sometimes in Tibetan and other languages, and the learned editor took great pains in restoring their original Sanskrit names. A large number of these names derived from Chinese sources is found in the Nispannayog'ivall with their full iconographic descriptions. Thus the Nigpannay~~Pvali provides the much needed descriptive texts which served as a basis for the artists to prepare the statuettes found in China. Since this book Nispannayog'avali gives full iconographic descriptions of most of these deities it is not unreasonable to suppose that the Nispannayogiivali formed at least one of the originals from which the artists obtained the correct idea of the form of the numerous deities represented in the statuettes. Otherwise it is difficult to conceive how form can be given t o such obscure deities as the Sixteen Boddhisattvas, the Twelve Piira- mitgs, the Twelve Vaiitas, the Twelve EhGrnis, the Four Pratisamvits, etc. which are described accurately in the Maiijuvajra Magdala of the Nispannayog~vali. It is simply imposible to prepare images of these deities without the help of descriptions as given by Abhayzkaragupta. The volume of information given in the Nispannayog~vali of Abhayiikara- gupta is so great that an independent book is required t o deal with them exhaustively.

    Besides the above mentioned Nispannayogiivali, there are numerous Tiintric texts which furnish considerable material for the study of Buddhist iconography of the Tiintric period with which this work primarily concerns itself. Some of the more important materials can be found in the original Tantra works such as the Heruka and the Hevajra Tantras, Cagdamahiirosa~a Tantra, Vajrav'ir'ihi Tantra, ~ri ; lsamucca~a, Vajrsvali nHma Ma~dalopiiyikii, ~ o ~ i n i j g l a Tantra Abhidh'inottra Tantra and many others The list of such original Tantras furnishing valuable information on Buddhist deities can by no means be exhausted. The works above mentioned are all unpublished, and their handwritten copies can be found in the manuscript libraries such as the Durbar Library, Nepal; Asiatic Society's Library, Bengal; University Library, Cambridge; Musee Guimet, Paris; and the Russian Academy of Sciences in Leningrad. Numerous such manuscripts are also t o be found in the hundreds of Buddhist monasteries of Nepal at Kathmandu, Pattan and Bhatgaon. Thus there is still an inexhaustive field for research and original work in Buddhist iconography alone It is a pity that these valuable and original source books of Buddhism should remain unpublished in this country, and sooner attention is drawn t o this field of work, the better it will be for the history of our

  • cultural past. It is a matter of deep regret that even to-day there are lakhs of handwritten manuscripts in India in private houses, and no effort is being made to collect o r preserve them. Thus these valuable source books of Indian history and culture are allowed t o perish in India. Sanskrit being the most important member of the Indo-European family of languages is world property to-day, and it is the duty of every scholar in the world to see that this precious heritage is not allowed to be dissipated in an irresponsible manner.

    There is another class of manuscripts which bears miniatures and paintings of Buddhist gods and goddesses. The different recensions of the PrajEHpHramitZ and PaEcaraks'a bear miniakre paintings on them. Illuminated manuscripts of the K'arandavytiha and Bodhicaryzvat'ara are also not unknown. The Paiicaraks'a manuscripts are t o be found almost in every Buddhist house in Nepal, they hear different sets of miniatures, and are calculated t o serve many household purposes. Holy books are illuminated with miniatures in order that they may he treated with respect by others, and in order that their sanctity may be increased and preserved.

    By far the most important material for .the study of Buddhist iconography ... . is represented by sculptures, bronzes, metal images and miniatures. The earlier phases of Buddhism & more o r less free from thqrepresentations of gods and goddesses. But scenes from Buddha's life, and JPtaka stories were given preference in the earlier Buddhism, Such scenes and stories are found represented in stone at Sanchi, Rharhut, Amaravati and also in the Gandhara school. According to Professor Foucher the first image of the Buddha was fashior~ed in the Gandhara school of art.( ') Sculptures of Bodhisattvas and Hindu gods are not rare in this school. The sculpture remains at Amaravati are ~ o n t e m ~ d r a n e o u s with those of the Gandhara school. The Mathura school followed closely and then came the sculptures of Sarnath, Magadha, Bengal, Orissa, Java and Nepal in the TBntric age. The paintings at Ajant'a begin from the first century A.D. and the sculptures of Ellora and many other places, Buddhist cave temples of Southern and Northern India show the influence of immature Tantra on them. Sculptures produced in the earlier schools have received ample atten- tion of great scholars, but images belonging to the Tiintric and post- THntric periods and profoundly influenced by the Tantras have not been s o fortunate. The excavations at Sarnath, N'aland'a, Kurkihar have brought t o light a large number of images of Buddhist gods and goddesses belonging t o the Tantra school, and it may be reasonably expected that the old strongholds of THntric learning such as Odanta- - -- -- - .- - - - - -- - - - - -- --

    (1) Foucher : Beginnings of Buddhist Art and other essays, p. 127.

  • purl, VikramaBila, NPlandii, Sarnath and Jagaddala monasteries will prove n o less fruitful ir, this respect. The museums of Eastern India such as Sarnath, Patna, Calcutta, Dacca, Rajshahi, Mayurbhanj, Khiching and few others contain numerous metal images and sculptures belonging to the Tsntric cult. That Bengal in the pre-Muhammadan period was practically Buddhist is made obvious by the fact that the worship of Dharma and Maiijughoga still prevails there, and that nu. merous Buddhist sculptures are being constantly discovered throughout the length and breadth of the province. It is needless t o add that the Buddhist images discovered in Bengal, Rihar and Assam are mostly the product of the TBntric school of the Buddhists.

    The wealth of sculptural and bronze remains in Nepal has not yet received the attention it deserved. Nepal is the only country which abounds in rich material for the study of Buddhist iconogaphy, and in Nepal Buddhism can be studied as a living religion. Some of the Buddhist monasteries at Pattan are s o rich in images that they can he said t o constitute small museums by themselves. The stEpa of Rodh- 115th alone contains 110 less than a hundred and eight sculptures execut- ed in a neat manner. Occasional images of Guru Padn~asambhasa in the peculiar Tibetan technique and costume bespeak the Tibctn11 character of the temple. Forty-seven images in this famous temple are represented in Yab-yum and the rest are sinale. About ten of thr sit~gle images depict the Siddhas of Tibet such as Mila-ras-pa, Mar-pa, Padmasambhava, Naro-pa and others. Although Tibetan i n character the temple contains nevertheless some of the purely Indian gods of the Vajrayzna pantheon, such as Sadaks3ri Lokekvara, VPI;, Heruka, YamHntaka and a few others. An old Tihetan tradition declares tl-tat in the matter of art Bengal comes f i r~ t , Nepal second while the Tibetan and Chinese are the worst.

    At Simbhu in Nepal one can witness the grandeur of an excellent Buddhist museum where the finest specimens of Buddhist sculptures are preserved round about the StCipa itself and in the ~Grroundings. At the Macchandar Vahal or the temple of Matsyendran5tha the great Nztha Yogin, there can be found 108 different forms of AvalokitrSvarn painted o n a running in colo r. ' Images and forms of deities 8 that are not available in India are t o he fi>und in plenty in the Buddhist monasteries in Nepal. Anywhere in Nepal round a central sttipa ticrs of small chapels rising from the grou!ld to the top are found to contain first class artistic specimens of Buddhist gods and goddesses. In monasteries which are run by courteous and learned TBntric monks one can find quite a number of images, sculptures, bronzes, pai~ltings - - - -. -- - - -

    ( I ) These 108 forms are illustrated in the ~ ~ ~ e n d i ; at the end of this volume

  • and illuminated manuscripts. It is possible t o have an idea of the enormous wealth of cultural remains in Nepal, when it is remembered that the number of monasteries at Kathmandu alone exceeds five hundred.

    In Nepal, interesting material for the study of Buddhist iconography is obtained from an entirely unexpected quarter. There is a class of people called the Citrakiiras or professional artists. They are so proficient in their art that they can produce an excellent drawing of any Buddhist deity in a few minutes. These artists seem to have a phenomenal memory with regard to the iconographic details such as the number of faces and hands, the pose, the symbols, the weapons and the parental Dhyiini Buddha. They prepare such drawings in the presen:e of the customer without ever referring to a book or painted specimen, although at home they keep albums full of drawings in black and white and paintings in colour all relating to Buddhist deities. The specimens obtained from a gifted CitrakZra named VTrm~n are repro- duced in the body of the book in large numbers. All line drawings, barring the twenty-four Bodhisattvas, reproduced in this volume are from his drawings'in black and white.

    The above is a short survey of materials of different kinds that are available to the student of Buddhist iconography. It may be noticed that the images, scuiptures, bronzes, drawings, miniatures, and the gods and goddesses represented by these, together with the literature explaining them, all belong to the THntric mode of thought and culture. They are brought together under the comprehensive term of Vajray'ina or the "Adamantine Vehicle". It leads therefore to a con. sideration of that form of Budhhism which is well known as VajrayHna.

  • 2. Vajrayzna Mysticism. Both the Hindus and the Buddhists were alike prolific writers on

    the Tantras and the literature extant o n them is wonderfully extensive. One of the reasons why the word Tantra cannot be defined is that the Tantra comprises an astounding number of subjects along with its own numerous sub-divisions. Whatever was best, whatever was ennobling and whatever was beautiful in India were all incorporated in the Tantra. THntric literature contributes a great deal t o such sciences a s astronomy, astrology, medicine, alchemy, chiromancy, horoscopy, divi- nation, prog&s'is, Yoga and Hathayoga. The Tantra is an admixture o i ieligion, philosophy, science, superstition, dogmas, psychic exercises and mysticism. In this wonderful literature is locked up much of the cultural history of India, and when this literature is intensively studied, it will reveal a great deal of India's past history and culture, particularly for the period between the 7th century A. D. right upto the Muham- madan conquest. It may here be mentioned that the Tantras, inspite of all their faults, are peculiarly Indian and represent India's contribu- tion to world culture. A literature of this kind is not found in the history and civilization of any other country in the wbrld.

    T o understand the rise of VajrayHna it is necessary to go back t o the original teachings of the Buddha. Buddha prescribed fwp Ylnas in the beginniy, namely, the SrHvakayPna and -tvc=ka-


    buddhayzna. The Sr'avakas were t 6 G r fr&> Buddha but they had t o wait till the advent of another Buddha for their emancipation. In the meanwhile the Srlvakas could teach, but they could neither attain NirvHna themselves nor help others t o attain it. The Pratyekas were eminent men ; they could attain Nirvzna by their own efforts, without the help of a Buddha but they could not impart Nirv'iqa t o others.

    Buddhism continued in this state till the rise of the MahlyZina pro- perly called, the BodhisattvayBna.\ The Mahiiyznists dismissed the previous YHnas with the contemptuous epithet of Hhaylna . They claimed that they could not only attain NirvPna, nay even Buddhahood, with their own unaided efforts, but could also help others t o atrain these ideals. The diitinction between MahHyZna and Hinay~na is graphically described in the earliest work, the MahXyHnasiitrPlahkHra, attributed t o the famous Buddhist sage AsaAga.

    Thus there were three Ylnas in Buddhism about 300 A. D. which may approximatelv be taken as the time of Asahga. But against these three YHnas there were four schools of philosophy in Buddhism, namely, the SarvHstivHda (SautrHntika), the Viihyiirthabhahga (Vai-

    . . G - V ---, ~. - bhlsika), the V~jnanavada A- - . - (Yog'icsra), and the Sunyav~da (Madhya-

    -.- - -

  • maka). How these four systems of philosophy were distributed amongst the three YPnas is one of the vital questions of Buddhism. The Tattvaratn'ivali of Advayavajra (12th century A. D.) answers this question in a praiseworthy manner. According to this authority "Three are the Ylnas, Sr'ivakayzna, Pratyekayzna And Mah'iygna. There a re four theories; Vaibhzgika, Sautrgntika, YogBcHra and Madhyamaka. Sravakay2na and Pratyekay'ina are explained by the theories of the Vaibh'isikas. MHhgyHna is of two kinds : Piiramitlnaya and Mantranaya. PBramitEnaya is explained by the theories either of Sautrgntika, YogPcHra o r Madhyamaka. Mantranaya is explained by the theories of Yogiic'ira and Madhyamaka only". '

    Thus Mantranaya c o m c e s with the most abstruse theories of 4~=a and z j ~ z n a v ~ d a . Advayavajra in one place says,-"Mant. ranaya is very abstruse. I t concerns men who seek emancipation by deep and solemn methods. It is also very extensive owing to the understanding of such theories as the four symbolic representations. Therefore, the author is not fit t o explairl it". ' Advayavajra cites for his authority a statement which says that the Mantrakistra trans- cends all other h s t r a s , because though the S ~ s t r a s have the same common object there is n o fear of ignorance here. The means are many and the end not difficult of attainment by men whose senses are sharpened t o the highest degree. Advayavajra in his S e k a n i r ~ a ~ a accepts the Mahzsukha theorv, dilates upon the various stages of the Mahzsukha which according to him is not possible of attainment with- out the Sakti the enlbodinlent of Karuqii. :'

    It is hardly necessary now to state that the Buddhism of the Lord Buddha found entirely different expressions as time p s s e d from century to century, so much so, that e\.en if Buddha is reborn, he will not be able t o recognize Vajrayiina o r the Buddhist Tantra as his own handi- craft. Though rh t Buddha was antagonistic t o all sorts of sacrifices, sorcery, necromancy o r magic, he nevertheless is credited by some later authorities with having given instructions on Mudriis, Mandalas, Yoga and Tantra, so that prosperity in this world could be attained by his less advanced disciples who seemed to care more for this world than for the NirvH1;a preached by him. ' India in Buddha's time y s such that any religion which dared Carbid all kinds of mdgical practices, could hardly be popular. A clever organiser as the Buddha was, he did not fail t o notice the in~portance of incorporating magical practices in his reiigiorl t o make it popular from all points of view. The Tantras and

    -- .. . - - - - . - - - . - .-

    1. Adv. p. 14 2. Adv. p. 2 1 3. Adv. p. 28 4. Tattvasahgraha of &ntaraksita "Taduktan~antru~og~dini~am~J Vidhivat Krtst. Praj'n~r~g~avibhutv~didy~yadharmo. pi jayote. Aloka 3487


  • Mantras were all there in the time of the Buddha, but unfortunately, we do not possess any connected account of them except a few works on the Dh'iraqis in which the Chinese were interested in the beginning of the Christian era. These Dh'iraqis are only unmeaning strings of words which are said to confer great merit when mutterred repeatedly for a number of times. Then comes the worship of Buddha in the PrajE'i- plramit'i with all the paraphernalia of worship such as are found in the Tantras. Then follow the different recensions of the PrajEiip'iramit'i, its sctra, hrdayasiitra, its Dh'irapi and Mantra the recitation of all of which confers the benefit of reading the whole of the Praji%ipHramit'i scripture. This is a very old work and was translated into Chinese in the second century. A. D. The Mai?juSrimiilakalpa appears to be a pro- duct of the same period and is full of deities, mudrgs, magdalas and Tantric practices, which became systematized in the Guhyasam'ija Tantra in circa 300 A. D.

    The Buddhist Tarltras belong undoubtedly to Mah'iy'ina although it is quite possible to infer the presence of magical practices amongst the followers of the early Buddhism.' The Tontras were a development of the YogHclra which was inspired by the Siinyav~da of the Madhya- makas. VajrayHna marks a step in advance even of the Yog'ic'ira thought.

    The Mah'iyitna in the opinion of the Vajray'inists is co-extensive with what they called Dharma which they considered as eternal and to which was given a more important place in later Buddhism, than was assigned t o the Buddha himself. The Vajrayiinists refer to 6iinya in all their writings, but this is not the h n y a of the Madhyamakas about which neither existence nor non-existence nor a combination of the two nor a negation of the two can be predicated To the Madhyamakas J both the subject and the object are h n y a in essence ; there is no reality either of the mind or of the external world. Obviously, this is a position which was not agreeable t o the Vajray'inists because to them a positive aspect in the h n y a is absolutely necessary. The Y o g ~ c ~ r a or the VijEHnavHda goes a little further and the view of Vijii'inav'ida as formulated by the school is that when emancipation is obtained it does not become Siinya, but turn into eternal consciousness. VajrayHna, on the other hand,-is characterized as the 'Path which leads t o perfect enlightenment' or what they call in Sanskrit 'Ansttara Samyak Sambodhi'. Vajrayzna literally means the adamantine path o r vehicle, but its technical meaning is the '&inya Vehicle' where h n y a is used in a special sense to represent Vajra. It is said.--

    1. Bhattacharyya : Buddhist Eeoterism, p. 24

  • "STinyatii is designated as Vajra because it is firm and sound, and cannot be changed, cannot be pierced, cannot be penetrated, cannot be burnt and cannot be destroyed". '

    The Mahzyanists differ from the HInayBnists who are keen on obtaining liberation for themselves by their own efforts. The Mah'iy'anists, on the other hand, d o not care for :heir own salvation. They are more solicitous about the deliverance of their fellow creatures/ than about their own. Their compassion for the sufferings of others actuates them t o renounce their comforts, merits and even their right to salvation. The ideal of a MahByHnist finds expression in the Kiiragdavyiiha where the ideal Bodhisattva AvalokiteQvara is represented as refusing his well earned NirvH~a until all beings of the world were in possession of the Bodhi knowledge and obtained freedom from worldly miseries. ?

    This then may be considered to be the goal of every Bodhisattva, which can be reached by following the tenets either of S ~ n ~ a v ~ d a or of VijZ~naviida. The Madhyamaka theory postulated a transcendental state but the Yogiiczra added the element of VijiiBna 'consciousness' t o 6iinya. The Bodhi mind is a chain of VijiiHna which is changing every moment, the VijEiina of the previous moment giving rise t o the VijCHna of the succer~ling moment with the same memory the same conformations and same qualities, and this process goes on till Vijziina attains liberation.

    Now, this is the sort of emancipation t o which the VijEZnavsdins led their followers. In this NirvHna, as is already pointed out, there are two elements, 6iinya and VijEiina. The Vajrayiina which is a direct outcome of the YogHclra school introduced a new element o r the element of Mahiisukha 'eternal bliss' t o their conception of liberation. The evolution of Buddhism became complete and found full expression in VajrayHna.

    Vajray'ina introduced many innovations of a revolutionary character. It introduced, for instance, the theory of the five D h y ~ n i Buddhas as embodiments of the five Skandha: o r cosmic elements and formulated the theory of the Kulas o r families of the five Dhy'ini Buddhas from which deities emerge according to need. It introduced the worship of the PrajZB o r Sakti in Buddhism for the first time, and a host of other things including a large number of gods and goddesses, their SBdhanas

    1. Adv. p. 23 2. K~raqdavyEha, ed. Siim~irami, pp. 21-22

  • for the purpose of visualisation, Mantras, Tantras, Yantras, Mudr'is, Mapdalas, mystic realizations and psychic exercises of the most subtle character.

    It is not possible to trace the origin of Vajraygna without referring to the Tibetan authorities and ancient T'antric authors T'irzngth is reported to have said ' that T'antrism existed from very early times and was transmitted in a secret manner from the time of Asanga down to the time of Dharmakirti. Asahga who was a brother of Vasubandhu (280-360 A. D.) must have flourished circa 300 A. D. and Dhar~nakirti who is not mentioned by the Chinese traveller Hiuen Thsang but is referred to with great. respect by I-Tsing very probably belonged to a period between 625-675 A. D. Thus it can be seen that during a long period of nearly three hundred years TZntrism was handed down from Gurus to disciples in an occult manner, before its followers could be numerically strong enough t o preach their secret doctrines it1 public. It seems, therefore, reasonable that the MalGsiddhas such as Saraha, N'agHrjuna, Luipl, l'admavajra, Anahgavajra, Indrabhiiti and the rest who were masters of Tantra and were great authors and magicians, were the chief agents to boldly and publicly preach their doctrines and exhort people to follow their tenets, doctrines and practices. Their endeavours combined with their unique personal achievements must have converted a considerable number of people to Vajraylna faith.

    It is rather difficult to point out the source of inforn~ation from which Tiirlnzth drew his inspiration, but a perusal of such Tzntric works as the Guhyasiddhi of Padmavajra and the JZHnasiddhi of Indra-

    makes it possible to infer that it was the Guhyasamlja which was regarded as the most ancient and the most authoritative work of the Tantra school. Padmavajra not only advocates the cause of Tiintric Buddhism but also gives a succinct digest of the work which he calls ; r~ -sam~ja or the 'Venerable SamHja' in his treatise which is still unpub- lished. IndrabhCiti in his Jalnasiddhi acknowledges the Guhyasamiija as the work of highest authority, and gives a summary of some chap- ters and the topics dealt with in this work. There is thus hardly any doubt that the Guhyasamgja is the original Sahgiti which introduced for the first time the tenets of VajrayHna into Buddhism. It is believed to have been introduced in an Assembly of the Faithful by Lord Buddha who is here called Sarva-TathHgata-KHya-VHk-Citta. The Guhyasam~ja is written in the form of a Sahgiti and is considered highly authoritative even now amongst the Vajray'anists, and is regarded as one of the Nine Dharmas of Nepal. This is evidently the first work of Vajraygna, and -

    1. Kern : Manual of Buddhtsm, p. 133

  • Asahga quite conceivably may have had something to do with it, as i t is comnlonly believed that the Tantras were introduced by Asahga after being initiated by Maitreya the Coming Buddha in the mysteries of Tantra in the Tusita heaven. '

    It cannot be denied that in the very beginnings of Buddhism and even when MahByBna sprang up in later times a very strict discipline was enjoined on the followers of the faith. O n the monks the rules were very strictly put into operation. For instance, they must not have any- thing to do with women, must not take any forbidden food. Wine, flesh, fish, appetisers and such objects of enjoyment were specially forbidden. The rules were indeed good and were very attractive in the time of the Buddha. But it is wholly absurd to expect obedience to such strict disciplinary measures from all members of the Sangha even in the Buddha's life-time, if not for centuries after his disappearance. And after all, what will be the result ? Freedom from births and rebirths was only a possibility, and success at best was only questionable ! The members of the Sahgha must have revolted from time to time against the unnatural rules of discipline imposed on them, and party quarrels were already in evidence in the Second Great Council when the MahZs5hghilias were expelled from the Orthodox church by the Sthaviras or Elders, because the latter were unwilling to make any concession on the ten minor points of discipline. Rebellion against the rules on broader and more important matters of discipline must have been in existence amongst the monks but they could not create a party of their own which could sufficiently withstand the criticisms of the orthodox section which was sure to go against them and denounce them as heretics. Those monks who saw s-alvation only in leading a natural life went on devising plans to modify their faith according to their light, probably by writing what is called the original Tantras which were secretly handed down through trusted disciples who could practice their secret rites without let or hindrance. These Tantras are in the form of Sangitis and are said to have been delivered by the Buddha in an Assembly of the Faithful. It is in this Sahgiti form that all new ideas were introduced into Buddhism and the Sarisitis were very powerful agencies in the introduction of innovations, because Buddhism will not be prepared to accept anything as true unless spoken by the Buddha in a public assembly.

    The orthodox followers of the faith were sure to challenge anything that had not been sponsored by the Buddha, and that seems to be the

    - . - - - - -- - -

    1. For further information refer to introduction to GuhyasamHja published in the Cjaekwad's Oriental Series, (GOS).

  • reason of the great popularity of the Sahgiti literature. The original Tantras of Buddhism are written in the SaAgiti form wherein are in- culcated doctrines which are diametrically opposed t o the original teachings of the Buddha. Easy methods leading to happiness in this world were held out in this literature, easy paths leading t o salvation were shown ; great parade was made of the merits accruing from the repetitions of the Mantras, DhHravis, panegyrics and worship of gods and goddesses. But everywhere any casual reader can detect a desire on the part of the authors to thwart all unnatural rules and regulations imposed on the followers. These disciplinary regulations, as a conse- quence gradually slackened down one after another, and ultimately when the Vajrayznists gained in power the secret doctrines no longer remained secret, but were openly preached and practised to the great annoyance of the orthodoxy.

    In order to increase the popularity of Vajraylna the followers inclu- ded in it every conceivable tenets, dogmas, rites and practices that were calculated to attract more adherents. Thus the leading tenets of MantrayHna along with Mantras, Maqdalas, Mudrzs, gods and god- desses were included in VajrayHna. The earliest work of this class is said to be thc VidyHdharapitaka which has been characterised by Hiuen Thsang as belonging to the canonical literature of the MahEsEhghikas. But this work is not available in original Sanskrit, and it is not possible to say anything with regard to the contents of the text. But with regard to another work the MaZjuirim~lakalpa the circumstar~ces are different. This extensive work is published in the Trivandrum Sanskrit Series in three volumes. The text forms a part of the ancient Vaipulyastitras of MahEyBna and is decidedly the earliest work of Mantraysna at present available. It is written in the Safigiti style in prose and in verse, and in an archaic style closely resembling the GHthl style, and is written throughout in what is called the Mixed Sanskrit. This work must have been very popular even after the destruction of Buddhism in India as will be evident from the fact that the book was copied only about four hundred years back in a monastery of South India by Ravicandra the head of the Mtilaghosa VihEra. ' The MaEju6rimLilakalpa deals with the formulae and practices which lead both to meterial prosperity and spiritual regeneration, and belongs to the early centuries A. D. but decidedly after the time of the composition of the Amitlyus Siitra or the Sukhiivati Vyiiha which ushered in the conception of AmitZbha and Avalokiteivara for the first time in MahHyPna. The Amitzyus Siitra was first translated into Chinese in a period between A. D. 148-170, and hence the time of its composition may be fixed at about 100 A. D. "

    -- -- ---- -

    1. See introduction to the MaiijuirImtilakalpa by the editor, Ganapati Shastri. 2. Sukhiivativyiiha, p p. 1, 28, 32

  • The MaiTj~lBrirniilakaI~a in that case would only be about a hundred years later than the Amitzyus Siitra. If the Guhyasam'ija is accepted as the very first work of the Vajray'ana school i t must be admitted that much time must have elapsed between the age of the MaZju6rimiilakalpa and that of the Guhyasam'ija which is put down in circa 300 A. D.

    The beginning of the Safigiti in the MaiTju6rim61akalpa is in the orthodox style as opposed to the T'intric style which is decidedly later, and where Bhagav~n is introduced in the company of a large number of women instead of an assembly of pious and devout Bodhisattvas only as in the earlier Safigitis. The doctrine of the five Dhy'ani Buddhas o r even their names, Mudr'is, Mantras, families, Saktis, colour and direc- tion are all absent in the MaZj~QrimElakal~a. Moreover, the Mantras and MudrHs which were later systematized in the Vajraygna work of Guhyasam'ija are found scattered in the body of the text of the MaZju- Qrimtilakalpa in a disorganised manner. The Mantras of some of the Dhylni Buddhas are indeed to be found in the Ma'iiju6rimiilakalpa although not exactly in the sarne meaning and form as in the later Guhyasam'ija. The Ma?iju6rimiilakalFa further apeaks of MantrayHna but it does not refer t o Vajrayzna which is mentioned for the first time in the Guhyasamzja the Tantra of Secret Communion. Under the circumstances it is possible t o call the MaEjuirimElakalpa as one of the earliest Mah'iy'ana Siitra works on which perhaps is based the outward foundation of the Vajrayzna system. Yet one who willread this work carefully will not fail t o notice that it is a ~ r o d u c t behind which there is a history of development of several centuries. And probably, if ever one can go t o the root of MantrayZna one will have to voice the opinion of $'antaraksita and KamalaLila that instruction on Tantras, Mudr'as and Maqdalas were delivered by the Buddha for the benefit of such followers as would care more for their material prosperity than spiritual.

    Vajray'ina thus included in its purview all varieties of attractive tenets, notions, dogmas, theories, rites and practices, and incorporated all that was best in Buddhsim and probably in Hinduism also, and owing t o this circumstance VajrayZna attained great fame and popularity. It satisfied everybody, the cultured and the uncultured, the pious and the sinner, the lower and the higher ranks of the people and devotees. Vajray'ina catered to all tastes with equal efficiency, and i t had some. thing useful for everybody. Its universal popularity became an esta- blished fact.

    It is difficult t o say from what exact locality T'antrism took its origin. In the SPdhanamiil'a are mentioned the four Pithas o r sacred spotsof the

    1. See irltroduction to GuhyasamZija, where this date hae been ditlcuracd.

  • Vajrayfnists, namely, Kfmlkhy'., Sirihatta, Pcrgagiri and Uddiyzna. The Tibetan authorities are of opinion that the T'intric Buddhism origi- nated from Uddiyfna. The location of Uddiyzna thus is important for the history of t