And Organic Chemistry Last Module!!. Key Terms Solution Aqueous solution Dipole-dipole attraction...
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and Organic Chemistry Last Module!! Slide 2 Key Terms Solution Aqueous solution Dipole-dipole attraction Ion-dipole attraction Solute Saturated Solubility Hydrogen bonding Solvent Unsaturated Alloy electrolyte Slide 3 Solutions Solutions are ____________________ of two or more pure substances. In a solution, the _______ is dispersed uniformly throughout the ______________. Solvents are usually present in larger amounts than solutes Solutions have ___________________________, they can exist in different ratios eg. Tea When a solute dissolves in a solvent, no chemical reaction occurs Solutions can be __________________________ Slide 4 Composition of air: N (78%), O (21%), Ar (0.9%) and CO2 (0.03%) Slide 5 Slide 6 Aqueous Solutions Water is the __________________ Water is: Ethanol Liquids that do no dissolve in one another are _________________ Oil and water Slide 7 Alloys _______________ Adding another element to a metal __________________ __________________ Bronze is an alloy of copper and tin Bronze is stronger than copper and can be melted in ordinary fire Slide 8 Solubility and Saturation The ability of a solvent to dissolve a solute depends : Why temperature? Slide 9 Solubility of NaCl at 20 o C 20g of NaCl dissolve to form an unsaturated solution 36g of NaCl dissolve to form a saturated solution 40g of NaCl forms a saturated solution and 4g of precipitate Slide 10 A saturated solution: An unsaturated solution: A supersaturated solution contains more solute than is present in a saturated solution at a specific temperature. Sodium acetate crystals rapidly form when a seed crystal is added to a supersaturated solution of sodium acetate. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XSGvy2FPfCw&feature=related Slide 11 Factors that Affect Rate of Dissolving and Solubility A. ___________--brings more fresh solvent into contact with more solute. B. _______________ the solute into smaller size particles. Smaller particles have more surface area than larger size particles. Since dissolving occurs at the surface of the solute, this allows more solvent to come in contact with more solute. C. ________________________-this speeds up the particles and increases the rate of contact between solvent and solute particles. Slide 12 The Process of Dissolving at the Molecular Level 1. ______________________________________________ _______________ Requires energy. In an ionic solid, the forces that are holding the ions together must be broken. In a molecular solid, the forces between the molecules must be broken. ______________________________________________ ___________________-This also requires energy. There is an ______________________________________________ ___________________ This step gives off energy. Slide 13 Important! When the forces of attraction between _______________ in a mixture are ___________ than the forces of attraction of _________________ ___, a solution forms The strength of each attraction influences the solubility, Slide 14 How Does a Solution Form? 1.Solvent molecules attracted to surface ions. 2.Each ion is surrounded by solvent molecules. 1.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EBfGcTAJF4o&feature=r elatedhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EBfGcTAJF4o&feature=r elated Ionic solid dissolving in water Slide 15 like dissolves like Two substances with similar: non-polar molecules are soluble in non-polar solvents CCl 4 in C 6 H 6 polar molecules are soluble in polar solvents C 2 H 5 OH in H 2 O ionic compounds are more soluble in polar solvents NaCl in H 2 O or NH 3 (l) 12.2 Slide 16 Dipole-Dipole Attractions Intermolecular Usually only 1% as strong as ionic or covalent bonds. Slide 17 Hydrogen Bonding in Water Between the H molecule on one water molecule and the O molecule of another water molecule. Stronger than regular dipole-dipole attraction, but much weaker than the covalent bond intramolecularily between O and H. Water is sticky! Slide 18 Ion-Dipole Attractions The _______________of the water dipole is attracted to the _____________ on the surface of the ionic crystal compound. The ________________of the water dipole is attracted to the ____________ Ion-dipole attractions= Generally, _____________________________________ When ions are present in an aqueous solution, they are said to be ___________________ Hydrated ions can conduct electricity in water = __________________________ Slide 19 How Does a Solution Form? The ions are solvated (surrounded by solvent). If the solvent is water, the ions are hydrated. The intermolecular force here is ion-dipole. Slide 20 Hydrated Calcium Ion Slide 21 An electrolyte is a substance that, when dissolved in water, A non-electrolyte is a substance that, when dissolved, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aELPrWzixeU&feature=r elated nonelectrolyte weak electrolyte strong electrolyte 4.1 Slide 22 Electrolytes Your body fluids -- blood, plasma, interstitial fluid (fluid between cells) -- are like seawater and have a high concentration of sodium chloride. The electrolytes in sodium chloride are: sodium ion (Na + ) - cation chloride ion (Cl - ) - anion Slide 23 Electrolytes As for your body, the major electrolytes are as follows: sodium (Na + ) potassium (K + ) chloride (Cl - ) calcium (Ca 2+ ) magnesium (Mg 2+ ) bicarbonate (HCO 3 - ) phosphate (PO 4 2- ) sulfate (SO 4 2- ) Slide 24 Electrolytes Electrolytes are important because they are what your cells (especially nerve, heart, muscle) use to maintain voltages across their cell membranes and to carry electrical impulses (nerve impulses, muscle contractions) across themselves and to other cells. Your kidneys work to keep the electrolyte concentrations in your blood constant despite changes in your body. For example, when you exercise heavily, you lose electrolytes in your sweat, particularly sodium and potassium. Slide 25 Predicting Solubility EN! Slide 26 Solubility of Covalent Compounds Except: methanol, ethanol, and sugars.why? These molecules have polar bonds which can form hydrogen bonds with water They become ____________________ They are ________________________ Slide 27 Sucrose Slide 28 Insoluble Covalent Bonds Eg. Oil and grease Slide 29 like dissolves like Two substances with similar intermolecular forces are likely to be soluble in each other. 12.2 Slide 30 Factors that affect solubility 1. Molecule Size Alcohols have OH groups that form bonds with H The larger the molecule, Table 8.2 pp. 295 Slide 31 Factors that affect solubility 2. Temperature Slide 32 Heat Pollution O concentration in the water decreases Fish and plants dont have enough O to breathe. Slide 33 Pressure and Solubility An unopened bottle of soda pop feels firm due to the high pressure inside and contains a lot of gas dissolved in the soda pop. If you remove the cap from the bottle you suddenly see bubbles of gas appearing in the soda pop. When you remove the cap the pressure on the solution of soda pop decreases and the gas that was dissolved in it, no longer can stay dissolved and comes out of solution. Slide 34 Homework Read about The Bends on pg. 299 All questions from Lessons 1 & 2 Self-Check #1 Readings for Monday: Lesson 3 & 4