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Transcript of Ancient and Medieval Battle Simulator - Autentica§£o .Ancient, Medieval, Tactics, Battle,...

  • i

    Ancient and Medieval Battle Simulator

    Pedro Almeida dEa Moraes Vaz

    Dissertao para obteno do Grau de Mestre em

    Engenharia Informtica e de Computadores

    Jri

    Presidente:

    Orientador: Prof. Pedro Alexandre Simoes dos Santos

    Prof. Rui Filipe Fernandes Prada

    Vogais:

    Setembro de 2010

  • ii

    Abstract The objective of this work is to develop a platform that allows players to play the role

    of a general in ancient and medieval battles. Players create tactical plans describing how their

    armies will be placed in the battlefield, how they will behave, and then watch the battles in

    which their armies participated. This platform consists of a Tactical Planner, a Battle

    Simulator and a Battle Viewer.

    The Tactical Planner is a Graphical User Interface (GUI) that allows players to create

    rich and varied tactical plans with ease. In each tactical plan, players can decide what types

    of soldiers to use, where to place them in the formation, and give them orders to follow during

    battle. The tactical plan is independent from the specific composition of the army.

    The Battle Simulator is a MultiAgent System that simulates battles, using the

    formations and orders defined in each tactical plan and two given armies. Every contingent

    (group of soldiers in an army) will be played by an autonomous agent that will follow its

    orders. Each battle is stored so players can watch it in the Battle Viewer.

    The Battle Viewer is a GUI that shows players a battle of their choosing, which has

    already been simulated, together with some statistics about that battle. The Battle Viewer

    should allow players to understand, just from watching the battle, if they made the right

    choices with their tactical plan, or if they have to improve it for future battles.

    Keywords Ancient, Medieval, Tactics, Battle, Simulation

  • iii

    Resumo O objective deste trabalho desenvolver uma plataforma que permita aos jogadores

    fazerem o papel de um general em batalhas da antiguidade e medievais. Os jogadores criam

    planos tcticos que descrevem como os seus exrcitos vo ser colocados no campo de

    batalha, como se vo comportar, e depois vem as batalhas em que os seus exrcitos

    participaram. Esta plataforma consiste num Planeador Tctico, num Simulador de Batalhas e

    num Visualizador de Batalhas.

    O Planeador Tctico uma Interface Pessoa Mquina (IPM) que permite aos

    jogadores criarem planos tcticos ricos e variados com facilidade. Em cada planeamento

    tctico, os jogadores podem decidir que tipos de soldados vo usar, onde os vo colocar na

    formao, e que ordens lhes vo dar para executarem durante a batalha. O planeamento

    tctico independente da composio de qualquer exrcito.

    O Simulador de Batalhas um Sistema MultiAgente que simula batalhas, usando as

    formaes e as ordens definidas em cada planeamento tctico, mais um exrcito para cada

    lado. Cada contingente (grupo de soldados num exrcito) ser controlado por um agente

    autnomo que seguir as suas ordens. Cada batalha guardada para os jogadores as

    poderem rever no Visualizador de Batalhas.

    O Visualizador de Batalhas uma IPM que permite aos jogadores verem uma

    batalha sua escolha, que j tenha sido simulada, juntamente com algumas estatsticas

    sobre essa batalha. O Visualizador dever ajudar os jogadores a compreenderem se fizeram

    as escolhas certas no seu planeamento tctico, para uma determinada batalha, ou se tm de

    melhorar esse planeamento para batalhas futuras.

    Palavras-chave Antiguidade, Medieval, Tctica, Batalha, Simulao

  • iv

    Acknowledgements I would like to thank: professor Pedro Santos, for his enthusiasm in explaining the

    course of some ancient and medieval battles from our History, for helping me organize my

    thoughts and for his patience in answering all my questions; Marco Quinta, for complementing

    professor Pedros knowledge about ancient and medieval battles; professor Rui Prada, for

    always going straight to the point and for being practical; Marco Vala, for his fresh ideas that

    helped us improve the Tactical Planner; professor Manuel Fonseca, for the thesis he

    provided, which helped me organize mine; all the subjects who helped improve the Tactical

    Planner by testing the prototypes; all the subjects who tested the platform in its final version;

    and last but not least, my parents, because without them I would not have reached this point

    in my life. Thank you all!

  • v

    Table of Contents Abstract ....................................................................................................................................... ii

    Keywords .................................................................................................................................... ii

    Resumo ..................................................................................................................................... iii

    Palavras-chave .......................................................................................................................... iii

    Acknowledgements.................................................................................................................... iv

    Table of Contents ....................................................................................................................... v

    Figures ...................................................................................................................................... vii

    Tables ...................................................................................................................................... viii

    Acronyms ................................................................................................................................. viii

    Definitions .................................................................................................................................. ix

    1 Introduction ..........................................................................................................................1

    1.1 Problem.......................................................................................................................1

    1.2 The Battle of Cannae ..................................................................................................2

    1.3 Objectives ...................................................................................................................4

    1.4 Dissertation Layout .....................................................................................................5

    2 State of the Art.....................................................................................................................6

    2.1 Placing an army on the battlefield ..............................................................................7

    2.2 Shapes, combat options and terrain ........................................................................ 12

    2.3 Available orders for the army ................................................................................... 14

    2.4 Battle status ............................................................................................................. 16

    2.5 Movement on the battlefield..................................................................................... 20

    2.6 Event-driven behavior .............................................................................................. 22

    2.7 Comparing solutions ................................................................................................ 23

    3 Conceptual Model ............................................................................................................ 29

    3.1 Concepts .................................................................................................................. 29

    3.2 The Battle of Cannae in our Conceptual Model ...................................................... 36

    3.3 Platform Architecture ............................................................................................... 39

    4 Tactical Planner ................................................................................................................ 41

    4.1 Low-Fidelity Prototypes ........................................................................................... 42

    4.2 Functional Prototypes .............................................................................................. 50

    5 Battle Simulator and Battle Viewer ................................................................................... 57

    5.1 Battlefield: The Environment ................................................................................... 57

    5.2 Placing contingents in the battlefield ....................................................................... 58

    5.3 Battle Contingent: The Agent .................................................................................. 64

    5.4 The Battle Simulator ................................................................................................ 71

    5.5 The Battle Viewer .................................................................................................... 72

    6 Playtesting the platform .................................................................................................... 77

  • vi

    7 Conclusions ..................................................