History of the Ancient and Medieval World
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Transcript of History of the Ancient and Medieval World
History of the Ancient and Medieval World
Walsingham AcademyMrs. McArthurRoom 111AbsolutismPrussia, Austria & Russia
Emerging Nation States Foundation of Modern Europe
The New MonarchiesMachiavellis view of the successful rulerThe prince: agent of change in state formationThe need for unity, security and prosperityHow to model: Absolutism emerges on continentThe monarch must break feudal ties to pastWhat to look for in the successful state
The New Monarchies (cont.)Church and nobility subordinated to monarchBureaucracy to supervise royal policiesRoyal system of justiceRoyal monopoly on military powerDependable and adequate source of income
Winners and losers in early modern Europe
Thirty Years War (A Very Short Version)War begins over religion but politics and dynastic issues are whats really at stake.European powers all get involved and stir the pot.Outright banditry causes loss of life (30% of German population) and enormous property damage. (Consult Voltaires Candide) Peace of Westphalia, 1648: map of Europe redrawn and unity of HRE denied.Politics take precedence over religion; unity of Christendom in West seems no longer possible.
Assignment 1: due Tues, 5/15
Read text, pp 524-529Complete graphic organizer Answer thematic questions, pp 528 + 529Complete Map Skills assessment, pp 526Personal Map due 5/21
Frederick II, The GreatFirst Servant of the State (Self-described)
Assignment 2: due Wed, 5/16
Identify all blue terms text, pp 525-529 and answer Comprehension and Critical Thinking questions, pp 529.
Maria Theresa (1717-1780)Our lives and our blood for your Majesty
Assignment 3: due Thurs, 5/17Read text, pp. 530-535Complete Graphic Organizer Identify all new termsComplete Map Skills questions, pp 534
Peter the Great: St. PetersburgCommissioned by Catherine the Great, statue shows Peter as Roman hero (Consult NotesPage)
Assignment 4: due Fri., 5/18Answer Comprehension and Critical Thinking questions, pp 535.Answer questions Thinking Critically, Infographic, pp 532.Complete Map Auto-Test
Catherine The Great (as Minerva)Patroness of Arts and Lettersphilosopher on throne
Russia: The Issue of Warm-Water Ports
Winners and LosersExplain
WinnersLosersAustriaPolandPrussiaHoly Roman EmpireRussiaOttoman EmpireSweden
Losing Out against CompetitionWeakening of Monarchy (HRE and Poland) (Its elective- why a bad idea?)Poland disappears in 1795 as a result of actions by Russia, Austria and Prussia.Napoleon abolishes HRE in early 1800s. What a long run 800-1800 C.E.!Ottoman Empire: Leadership problems (weak sultans) and falling behind in especially military technology)
Winning States Central/Eastern EuropeIn different ways, different degrees winners establish service states which reward compliant nobles and create new nobles. (almost no middle class)Foreigners welcomed into state service- a modernizing forceConsciously imitating France, the benchmark autocratic state
Big Future Issue: the Monarch vs. the State
***By the mid-17th century, kings in Britain, France, Austria, Prussia and by the 18th century, Russia were beginning to see sciences usefulness. Societies for the promotion of scientific inquiry were supported or even chartered by monarchs. With such royal patronage, scientists were less concerned about offending church authorities, less interested in sciences relationship to religion. This development takes the Scientific Revolution beyond its role in the Renaissance. ********This equestrian statue of Peter the Great, created by the famous French sculptor Etienne Maurice Falconet, depicts the most prominent reformer of the Russia state as a Roman hero. The pedestal is made of a single piece of red granite molded into the shape of a cliff. From the top of this "cliff" Peter gallantly leads Russia forward, while his horse steps on a snake, which represents the enemies of Peter and his reforms. According to a 19th century legend, enemy forces will never take St. Petersburg while the "Bronze Horseman" stands in the middle of the city. During the Second World War the statue was not taken down, but was protected with sand bags and a wooden shelter. In that way, the monument survived the 900-day Siege of Leningrad virtually untouched.
*****Remind students of the late medieval liberium veto where anyone in the Diet could veto legislation.
HRE: Hapsburg emperors power is essentially gone so he turns attention to his own lands in Austria and then to neighboring lands (Ottoman lands, e.g. Hungary, Croatia, Slovenia and Poland)
Ottomans were increasingly losing wars with Austria (1683) and Russia which suggests a development lag. *