Alexander the Great - .Hellenistic Era(HEH•luh ... Alexander’s...

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  • 359 B.C.Philip II becomesking of Macedonia

    331 B.C.Alexanderdefeats Dariusat Gaugamela

    323 B.C.Alexander dies




    360 B.C. 340 B.C. 320 B.C.360 B.C. 340 B.C. 320 B.C.

    Alexander the Great

    398 CHAPTER 8 Greek Civilization

    HistorySocial ScienceStandardsWH6.4 Studentsanalyze the geographic,political, economic,religious, and socialstructures of the earlycivilizations of AncientGreece.

    Looking Back, Looking AheadIn Section 2, you learned that the

    Greek philosopher Aristotle was alsoa teacher. The king of Macedoniaadmired Greek culture and hiredAristotle to tutor his son, Alexander.Years later, his son would takecontrol of the Greek world.

    Focusing on the Philip II of Macedonia united the

    Greek states. (page 399)

    Alexander the Great conquered thePersian Empire and spread Greekculture throughout southwest Asia.(page 400)

    Locating PlacesMacedonia (MAsuhDOHneeuh)Chaeronea (KEHRuhNEEuh)Syria (SIHReeuh)Alexandria (A lihgZANdreeuh)

    Meeting PeoplePhilip II

    Alexander the Great

    Content Vocabularylegacy (LEHguhsee)Hellenistic Era (HEH luhNIHS tihk)

    Academic Vocabularyachieve (uhCHEEV)military (MIH luhTEHRee)

    Reading StrategySequencing Create a diagram like theone below to track the achievementsof Alexander the Great.

    398-403 Ch08-868874 1/6/05 5:00 AM Page 398

  • WH6.4 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the early civilizations of Ancient Greece.

    WH6.4.7 Trace the rise of Alexander the Great and the spread of Greek culture eastward and into Egypt.

    Macedonia Attacks GreecePhilip II of Macedonia united the Greek

    states.Reading Connection Have you ever wanted somethingbecause your neighbor had it? Read to find what the kingof Macedonia wanted from his neighbors, the Greeks.

    Macedonia (MA suh DOH nee uh) laynorth of Greece. The Macedonians raisedsheep and horses and grew crops in theirriver valleys. They were a warrior peoplewho fought on horseback. The Greeks lookeddown on them, but by 400 B.C., Macedoniahad become a powerful kingdom.

    A Plan to Win Greece In 359 B.C. Philip IIrose to the throne in Macedonia. Philip hadlived in Greece as a young man. He admiredeverything about the Greekstheir art,

    their ideas, and their armies. AlthoughMacedonia was influenced by Greek ideas,Philip wanted to make his kingdom strongenough to defeat the mighty PersianEmpire. In order to achieve this goal, Philipneeded to unite the Greek city-states withhis own kingdom.

    Philip trained a vast army of foot sol-diers to fight like the Greeks. He took overthe city-states one by one. He took somecity-states by force and bribed the leaders ofothers to surrender. Some united with hiskingdom voluntarily.

    Demosthenes (dih MAHS thuh NEEZ)was a lawyer and one of Athenss greatpublic speakers. He gave several powerfulspeeches warning Athenians that Philipwas a threat to Greek freedom. He urgedAthens and other city-states to join togetherto fight the Macedonians.

    CHAPTER 8 Greek Civilization 399

    As King Philip II of Macedonia becamemore powerful, he began to take part in the affairs of Greece. Demosthenes real-ized that Macedonias powerful armywould eventually be a threat to Greece.He tried to warn the Greeks to take action. Remember only that Philip is our enemy, thathe has long been robbing and insulting us,that wherever we have expected aid from oth-ers we have found hostility, that the futuredepends on ourselves, and that unless we arewilling to fight him there we shall perhaps beforced to fight here. . . . You need not speculate[guess] about the future except to assureyourselves that it will be disastrous unless youface the facts and are willing to do your duty.

    Demosthenes, The First Philippic inOrations of Demosthenes

    Which line of Demosthenes speech tellswhat he thinks will happen if the Greeksignore Philip?

    Demosthenes Warning Demosthenes

    file photo

    398-403 Ch08-868874 1/6/05 5:02 AM Page 399

  • WH6.4.7 Trace the rise of Alexander the Great and the spread of Greek culture eastward and into Egypt.

    However, by the time the Greeks saw thedanger, it was too late. The PeloponnesianWar had left the Greeks weak and divided. Inmany Greek city-states, the population haddeclined after the Peloponnesian War.Fighting had destroyed many farms and leftpeople with no way to earn a living. As aresult, thousands of young Greeks left Greeceto join the Persian army. Many who stayedbehind began fighting among themselves.The city-states grew weaker.

    Although the Athenians joined someother Greek states to fight Philips army, theycould not stop the invasion. In 338 B.C. theMacedonians crushed the Greek allies at theBattle of Chaeronea (KEHRuhNEEuh) nearThebes. Philip now controlled most of Greece.

    Summarize Why did Philip IIinvade Greece?

    Alexander Builds an EmpireAlexander the Great conquered the

    Persian Empire and spread Greek culture through-out southwest Asia.Reading Connection What will you be doing at age20? Read to learn what Philips son Alexander achieved.

    Philip planned to conquer the PersianEmpire with the Greeks help. Before Philipcould carry out his plan, however, he wasmurdered. As a result, the invasion of Asiafell to his son.

    Alexander was only 20 when he becameking of Macedonia. Philip had carefullytrained his son for leadership. While still aboy, Alexander often went with his father tothe battlefront. At age 16 he rose to com-mander in the Macedonian army. After his

    500 km0Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection

    500 mi.0



    W E






    Granicus334 B.C.

    Chaeronea338 B.C.

    Gaugamela331 B.C.

    Issus333 B.C.


    Persian Gulf

    Mediterranean Sea

    Black Sea

    Caspian Sea


    Euphrates R.





    D anube R.












    Alexanders Empire 323 B.C.

    1. Location Near what river was theBattle of Gaugamela fought?

    2. Movement What moderncountries make up the easternborders of the empire?

    Find NGS online map resources














    Extent of empireAlexanders routesof conquestMajor battle


    The Region Today

    398-403 Ch08-868874 1/6/05 3:40 PM Page 400

  • fathers death, Alexander was ready to ful-fill his fathers dreamthe invasion of thePersian Empire.

    What Did Alexander Conquer? In thespring of 334 B.C., Alexander invaded AsiaMinor with about 37,000 foot soldiers. He alsotook along 5,000 mounted warriors. WithAlexander at their head, the cavalrydestroyed the forces of the local Persiansatraps at the Battle of Granicus.

    By the next year, Alexander had freedthe Greek cities in Asia Minor from Persianrule and defeated a large Persian army atIssus. He then turned south. By the winterof 332 B.C., he had captured Syria (SIHR ee uh) and Egypt. Then he built the city ofAlexandria (A lihg ZAN dree uh) in Egyptas a center of business and trade. The citybecame one of the most important cities inthe ancient world.

    In 331 B.C. Alexander headed east anddefeated the Persians at Gaugamela, nearBabylon. After this victory, his army easilyoverran the rest of the Persian Empire.However, Alexander did not stop at Persia.Over the next three years, he marched eastas far as modern Pakistan. In 326 B.C. hecrossed the Indus River and entered India.There he fought a number of bloody battles.Weary of continuous war, his soldiersrefused to go farther. Alexander agreed tolead them home.

    On the return march, the troops crosseda desert in what is now southern Iran. Heatand thirst killed thousands of soldiers. Atone point, a group of soldiers found a littlewater and scooped it up in a helmet. Thenthey offered the water to Alexander.According to a Greek historian, Alexander,in full view of his troops, poured the wateron the ground. So extraordinary was theeffect of this action that the water wasted by

    Alexander was as good as a drink for everyman in the army.

    In 323 B.C. Alexander returned toBabylon. He wanted to plan an invasion ofsouthern Arabia but was very tired and weakfrom wounds. He came down with a badfever. Ten days later he was dead at age 32.

    Alexanders Legacy Alexander was agreat military leader. He was brave andeven reckless. He often rode into battleahead of his men and risked his own life.He inspired his armies to march intounknown lands and risk their lives in dif-ficult situations.

    The key to Alexanders courage mayhave been his childhood education.Alexander kept a copy of the Iliad under hispillow. Most likely his inspiration wasHomers warrior-hero Achilles. In the end,Alexanders reputation outstripped evenAchilles, and today he is called Alexanderthe Great.

    CHAPTER 8 Greek Civilization 401

    This carving of Alexander the Great on his horsedecorated the side of a tomb. Was Alexanderable to fulfill his plans of conquest? Explain.

    Alexander the GreatAlexander the Great

    Robert Harding Picture Library

    398-403 Ch08-868874 1/6/05 5:05 AM Page 401

  • A legacy (LEH guh see) is what a personleaves behind when he or she dies.Alexanders skill and daring created hislegacy. He helped extend Greek andMacedonian rule over a vast region. At thesame time, he and his