Andreea Dicu (slide design) Carmen Neghina Probably my best presentation so far. An insider's view into advertising.
7/3/2009 Advertising Psychology 2
Agenda 7/3/2009 Advertising Psychology 3 Advertising revealed Advertising tactics Elaboration Likelihood Model Communication Model/Techniques 1) Who say? 2) What? 3) By what means? 4) To whom? Methods of measuring advertising effects Trends and future developments
Innovative Fun Hard Work What do you think about advertising? Creative Deceptive Aggressive
Non-Personal Sponsor Mass Media What is advertising in theory? Large Audience Paid form of communication Persuasive
Definition of advertising Advertising is paid non-personal communication from an identified sponsor using mass media to persuade or influence an audience. (Wells, Burnett & Moriarty, 2003, p. 10) An advertising idea is a credible and provocative statement of substance about the brands main consumer benefit. 7/3/2009 7 Advertising Psychology
Major objectives 7/3/2009 8 Advertising Psychology
Effects of advertising 7/3/2009 Advertising Psychology 9
Unique Selling Proposition A motivating idea, uniquely associated with a particular brand, which is to be registered in the mind of the consumer The U.S.P. is about uniqueness must sell must make a proposition 7/3/2009 10 Advertising Psychology
Unique Selling Proposition In best cases our brand or product is unique in itself or is determined to be something unique for a special target group Can you give examples? Coca cola Porsche Rolex 7/3/2009 11 Advertising Psychology
Unique Selling Proposition 7/3/2009 Advertising Psychology 12 Unique Advertising that promises a unique benefit, or a benefit that is perceived as distinct and/or superior Proposition A clear, compelling consumer benefit that is delivered by the product Selling Significant and relevant to consumers - persuasive enough to incite action
Brand Wheel 7/3/2009 Advertising Psychology 14 What the brand is / what the brand looks like: Physical/functional characteristics of the brand Rational advantage for me. What the brand does: The results of using the brand. Psychological advantage of using the brand: How the brand makes me feel about myself / how others feel about me, using the brand If the brand were a person: How would it be? Brand Essence: The core of the brand. The sum of characteristics in the wheel. Attributes Benefits Values Personality Brand Essence
Brand Wheel 7/3/2009 Advertising Psychology 15 German, Masculine, Luxury, Expensive, well-engineered. Quality, Performance, Roadholding, Heritage, Bssssssing! Sports performance in luxury comfort, Best of both worlds. Is what it does Wise heads on young shoulders A passionate driver Serious but not serious-minded, charismatic, outgoing, joie de vivre, half german, half human. The steel fist in a velvet glove Attributes Benefits Values Personality Brand Essence DRIVING EXCELLENCE
A framework of psychological meaning 7/3/2009 Advertising Psychology 17 Attribute Bundle Perceptual Mode Context Tangible Attributes e.g. size color brightness music Data driven e.g. sight touch sound Individual characteristics e.g. attitudes perceptual selectivity personality Psychological Meaning Stimulus e.g. TV ad Billboard Image ad Social characteristics e.g. gender social class marital status occupation Intangible Attributes e.g. modern fun exciting Concept Driven e.g. cognitive associations cognitive abstractions Situational characteristics e.g. time to make decision number of available choices
Elaboration Likelihood Model (Petty & Cacioppo, 1986) Implies two routes to persuasion: Consumers that are motivated and able to process the message will devote more thought to the message contained in advertisement
Attitude change depends on the quality of the arguments Consumers that are not motivated and/or unable to process the message will switch to a less involved and elaborate processing of information Attitude change depends on the peripheral cues Central route to persuasion Peripheral route to persuasion 7/3/2009 18 Advertising Psychology
Examples of peripheral cues celebrity attractive source sources with high credibility expert sources humor erotic stimuli 7/3/2009 19 Advertising Psychology
Elaboration Likelihood Model Motivationto process the message can be influenced by personal relevance of the product need for cognition (a tendency to engage in and enjoy effortful analytic activity) personal responsibility Ability to process the message can be influenced by distraction prior knowledge intelligence message comprehensibility 7/3/2009 20 Advertising Psychology
Elaboration Likelihood Model 7/3/2009 Advertising Psychology 21 Consequences of elaboration Central route to persuasion Peripheral route to persuasion
relatively enduring / shows a greater temporal persistence
more predictive of behavior
shows a greater resistance to counter-persuasion
less enduring / relatively temporary
unpredictive of behavior
shows a greater susceptibility to counter-persuasion
Communication Model Who? Says what? By what means? To whom?
Communication Model Source characteristics 1) Credibility Lowercredibility sources - when the receivers thoughts about the product are favorable Higher credibility sources when the receivers thoughts are negative Profession has a greater effect upon perceived credibility than the spokesperson 2) Attractiveness 3) Gender 7/3/2009 Advertising Psychology 23 Who? Says what? By what means? To whom?
Communication Model Source characteristics 1) Credibility 2) Attractiveness For low involvement products coffee, perfume Attractive models do not enhance recall, but facilitate ad recognition 3) Gender 7/3/2009 Advertising Psychology 24 Who? Says what? By what means? To whom?
Communication Model Source characteristics 1) Credibility 2) Attractiveness 3) Gender Gender of models should match the image of the product held by users Any role depiction should be realistic and natural rather than stereotypical and false 7/3/2009 Advertising Psychology 27 Who? Says what? By what means? To whom?
Communication Model Who? Says what? By what means? To whom?
Communication Model 7/3/2009 Advertising Psychology 30 Who? Says what? By what means? To whom? Message appeal - the overall style of the advertising Rational appeal? Emotional appeal? One- vs. two- sided and comparative appeals?
Communication Model 7/3/2009 Advertising Psychology 31 Who? Says what? By what means? To whom? The MAC Model Memory only most of the choices we make are determined by habit Memory plus affect most of the conscious choices that make us pause are determined by affect Memory plus affect plus cognition some ads make us think, as well as do some decision Ads Memory Affect Perceptual filters Competitors for attention Cognition
Communication Model The MAC Model Consider a major purchase choice you made in the past. Did you use some rational basis to create a consideration set, or did you just fall in love with it when you saw it? 7/3/2009 Advertising Psychology 32 Who? Says what? By what means? To whom?
Communication Model The role of emotion Coca-Cola Have a Coke smile Pepsi-Cola Get that Pepsi feeling General Motors Get that great GM feeling AT&T Reach out and touch someone Saab One car you can buy where your emotions arent compromised by your intellect 7/3/2009 Advertising Psychology 33 Who? Says what? By what me