A Simple Orthotropic Finite Elasto-Plasticity Model .A Simple Orthotropic Finite Elasto-Plasticity
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A Simple Orthotropic Finite Elasto-Plasticity Model
Based on Generalized Stress-Strain Measures
Jorg Schrodera, Friedrich Gruttmannb & Joachim Lobleina
aInstitut fur Mechanik, FB 10Universitat Essen, 45117 Essen, Universitatsstr. 15, Germany
bInstitut fur Statik, FB 13Technische Universitat Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt, Hochschulstr. 1, Germany
1. Introduction.2. Kinematics and Generalized Stress-Strain Measures.
2.1. Generalized Stress-Strain Measures.2.2. Matrix Representation.
3. Constitutive Framework.3.1. Invariance Conditions.3.2. Representation of Anisotropic Tensor Functions.3.3. Free Energy Function and Related Polynomial Basis.3.4. Yield Criterion and Related Polynomial Basis.3.5. Solution Algorithm for the Set of Constitutive Equations.
4. Variational Formulation and Finite Element Discretization.5. Numerical Examples.
5.1. Necking of a Circular Bar.5.2. Conical Shell.
5.2.1 Isotropic Material Response with Nonlinear Hardening.5.2.2 Isotropic Material Response with Linear Hardening.5.2.3 Anisotropic Material Response with Nonlinear Hardening.
5.3. Cylindrical Cup Drawing from a Circular Blank.6. Conclusions.
References.Appendix A: General Return Algorithm.Appendix B: Matrix Representation of Tangent Moduli.
published in: Computational Mechanics, 30, 48-64 , 2002
A Simple Orthotropic Finite Elasto-Plasticity ModelBased on Generalized Stress-Strain Measures
J. Schrodera, F. Gruttmannb, J. Lobleina
aInstitut fur Mechanik, FB 10Universitat Essen, 45117 Essen, Universitatsstr. 15, Germany
bInstitut fur Statik, FB 13Technische Universitat Darmstadt, 64283 Darmstadt, Alexanderstr. 3, Germany
In this paper we present a formulation of orthotropic elasto-plasticity at finite strains based ongeneralized stress-strain measures, which reduces for one special case to the so-called Green-Naghdi theory. The main goal is the representation of the governing constitutive equationswithin the invariant theory. Introducing additional argument tensors, the so-called structuraltensors, the anisotropic constitutive equations, especially the free energy function, the yieldcriterion, the stress-response and the flow rule, are represented by scalar-valued and tensor-valued isotropic tensor functions. The proposed model is formulated in terms of generalizedstress-strain measures in order to maintain the simple additive structure of the infinitesimalelasto-plasticity theory. The tensor generators for the stresses and moduli are derived in detailand some representative numerical examples are discussed.
Keywords: Anisotropy, finite elasto-plasticity, generalized measures
1 . Introduction.
The complex mechanical behaviour of elasto-plastic materials at large strains with an ori-ented internal structure can be described with tensor-valued functions in terms of severaltensor variables, usually deformation tensors and additional structural tensors. Generalinvariant forms of the constitutive equations lead to rational strategies for the modellingof the complex anisotropic response functions. Based on representation theorems for ten-sor functions the general forms can be derived and the type and minimal number of thescalar variables entering the constitutive equations can be given. For an introduction tothe invariant formulation of anisotropic constitutive equations based on the concept ofstructural tensors and their representations as isotropic tensor functions see Spencer ,Boehler , Betten  and for some specific model problems see also Schroder .These invariant forms of the constitutive equations satisfy automatically the symmetryrelations of the considered body. Thus, they are automatically invariant under coordinatetransformations with elements of the material symmetry group. For the representationof the scalar-valued and tensor-valued functions the set of scalar invariants, the integritybases, and the generating set of tensors are required. For detailed representations of scalar-and tensor-valued functions we refer to Wang , , Smith , . The integritybases for polynomial isotropic scalar-valued functions are given by Smith  and thegenerating sets for the tensor functions are derived by Spencer . In this work weformulate a model for anisotropic elasto-plasticity at large strains following the line ofPapadopoulos & Lu . Here we use a representation of the free energy function andthe flow rule which fulfill the material symmetry conditions with respect to the referenceconfiguration a priori.
Papadopoulos & Lu  proposed a rate-independent finite elasto-plasticity modelwithin the framework of a Green-Naghdi type theory, see e.g. Green & Naghdi , us-
J. Schroder, F. Gruttmann & J. Loblein 3
ing a family of generalized stress-strain measures. An extension of this work to anisotropyeffects is given in Papadopoulos & Lu , where the algorithmic treatment deals withnine of the twelve common material symmetry groups. Furthermore, the authors developspecial return algorithms for some anisotropy classes. Generalized measures have beenused e.g. by Doyle & Ericksen , Seth , Hill , Ogden  and Miehe &Lambrecht  in the case of nonlinear elasticity.For an overview of the developments in the theory and numerics of anisotropic materialsat finite strains we refer to the papers published in the special issue of the InternationalJournal of Solids and Structures Vol. 38 (2001), EUROMECH Colloquium 394, and thereferences therein. In the following we discuss only a few contributions in this field. Ayield criterion which describes the plastic flow of orthotropic metals has been first pro-posed by Hill . A numerical study on integration algorithms for the latter modelat small strains and especially the evaluation of iso-error maps is given in De Borst& Feenstra . A constitutive frame for the formulation of large strain anisotropicelasto-plasticity based on the notion of a plastic metric is proposed by Miehe . Aconsistent Eulerian-type constitutive elasto-plasticity theory with general isotropic andkinematic hardening has been developed by Xiao, Bruhns & Meyers , combiningthe additive and multiplicative decomposition of the stretch tensor and the deformationgradient. An anisotropic plasticity model at large strains taking into account the postu-late of Iliushin is proposed by Tsakmakis  and specialized for transverse isotropyin Hausler, Schick & Tsakmakis . The main ingredient is the introduction ofan evolution equation for the rotation of the preferred anisotropy directions. A furtherapproach to describing the anisotropic elasto-plastic material behaviour is based on thehomogenization of polycrystalline meso-structures, in this context see Miehe et al. and references therein.
In this paper a theory of finite elasto-plastic strains using the notion of generalized stressand strain measures is presented. With the essential assumption of the additive decompo-sition of the generalized strains the structure of the constitutive equations corresponds tothe linear theory, in this context see also , . The model has been implemented ina bricktype shell element of Klinkel , see also Wagner et al.  and referencestherein. The element provides an interface to threedimensional material laws; it is im-plemented in the program FEAP . Due to special interpolation techniques based onmixed variational principles, the element is applicable for the numerical analysis of thinstructures. For a comparison of three dimensional continuum elements with shell elementsfor finite plasticity problems see Wriggers, Eberlein & Reese . Furthermore, theinterface of the program ABAQUS  is used for an implementation. We discuss three rep-resentative numerical examples: the necking of a circular bar; the load carrying behaviourof a conical shell; and the deep drawing process of a sheet metal plate.
The new aspects and essential features of the formulation are summarized as follows:(i) In our formulation we exploit the fact that the generalized strains and the GreenLagrange strains are characterized by the same eigenvectors. Using this feature one canextend results of Ogden  which have been derived in the context of isotropic elasticity.In  elastic stored energies as functions of the principal stretches are considered andfirst and second derivatives are derived.(ii) Based on these features the components of the projection tensors with respect to theprincipal axes are derived. Using the fourth-order and sixth-order transformation tensorsone can evaluate the Second Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor and associated linearization.
Orthotropic Finite Elasto-Plasticity 4
Furthermore explicit matrix representations are given. The expressions are simple andthus allow a very efficient finite element implementation.(iii) The constitutive equations for orthotropy are formulated in an invariant setting. Socalled structural tensors describe the privileged directions of the material. For the yieldcondition with isotropic and kinematic hardening we introduce a simple representationin terms of the invariants of the deviatoric part of the relative stress tensor and of thestructural tensors.(iv) The set of constitutive equations is solved applying a so-called general return method,see e.g. Simo & Hughes  and Taylor . Additionally, the condition of plastic in-compressibility is fulfilled by a correction of the inelastic part of the generalized strains.(v) For the numerical examples, where we compare different stress-strain measures, anidentification of all models is performed with respect to a given reference uniaxial tensiontest. Thus all formulations in the generalized measures reflect the