9 Aids to Navigations

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Transcript of 9 Aids to Navigations

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    Navigation

    NAU 102

    Lesson 9

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    Navigation Aids

    Beacons

    Manmade objects intended to help fix

    your position and avoid hazards.

    Buoys

    LightsRanges

    Fog Signals

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    Navigation Aids

    Some private aids maintained by:

    U.S. Coast Guard operates and

    maintains U.S. navaids.

    State governmentsOther federal agencies

    Individuals/Companies

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    Buoys

    Mark channels

    Floating navaids

    Anchored to the bottom

    Indicate shoals & obstructions

    Warn of dangers

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    Buoys

    Convey information by:

    Shape

    Color

    Letters or Numbers

    LightTopmark

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    Buoys

    Reflective tape

    Common equipment:

    Radar reflectors

    Sound signalsBells & Gongs

    Whistles & Horns

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    Lateral Marks

    Sides of channels

    Navaids mark:

    Channel junctions Channel bifurcations

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    Cardinal Marks

    Indicate direction of navigable water.

    Show cardinal directions (N, S, E, W) of safe

    water

    E.g. Always pass to the North

    of a North Cardinal Mark

    Note: cardinal marks are not

    used in U.S. waters

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    Safe Water Marks

    Indicate an area of safe (navigable)

    waters.

    E.g. Mid-channel & fairway buoys

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    Isolated Danger Marks

    Navaids mark points of danger.

    E.g. Submerged wreck

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    Special Marks

    Traffic separation

    schemes

    Navaids mark special features of interest:

    Anchorages

    Recreational zones

    Etc.

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    Lateral Systems

    Historically there have been many

    buoyage systems in the world.

    1970s - International Association

    of Lighthouse Authorities (IALA)simplified the system

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    IALA Buoyage Systems

    Two major international systems:

    IALA - BIALA - A

    Europe

    Africa

    Most of Asia

    Australia

    New Zealand

    North America

    South America

    Japan

    Philippines

    South Korea

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    IALA Buoyage Systems

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    Direction Conventions

    Based on entering from seaward.

    E.g. The right (or starboard) side of achannel is to starboard of vessel entering

    from sea.

    E.g. The right side is to port of a vessel

    heading towards the sea.

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    Direction Conventions

    Many places entering from seaward is

    not clear.

    E.g. Along coasts and Intracoastal

    waterways.

    Clockwise direction around U.S. is treated

    as entering.

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    Direction Conventions

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    Lateral Colors

    Red to

    starboard

    IALA - B

    Green to port

    Red-Right-Returning

    Red buoys and green buoys mark the sides of

    channels

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    Lateral Colors

    IALA - A is opposite.

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    Lateral Colors

    Horizontal Red & Green Bands

    Mark junctions & bifurcations

    Top color indicates preferred channel.

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    Lateral Colors

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    Cardinal Colors

    Horizontal Black

    & Yellow Bands

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    Safe WaterColors

    Red & White Vertical Stripes

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    Isolated DangerColors

    Black & Red Horizontal Bands

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    Special Marks Color

    Solid Yellow

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    Buoy Shapes

    5 Basic Shapes

    Can

    Cone (Nun)

    Sphere

    Pillar

    Spar

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    Buoy Shapes

    Can

    Mark port side of

    channels

    Mark channel

    junctions

    preferred channel

    to starboard

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    Buoy Shapes

    Can

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    Buoy Shapes

    Conical / Nun

    Mark starboard

    side of channels

    Mark channel

    junctions

    preferred channel to

    port

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    Buoy Shapes

    Conical / Nun

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    Buoy Shapes

    Sphere

    Safe Water Marks

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    Buoy Shapes

    Pillar

    Any type of buoy

    Often lighted

    Tall, central structure

    on broad base.

    Color & topmarkindicate type

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    Buoy Shapes

    Pillar

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    Buoy Shapes

    Spar

    Any type of buoy

    Often lighted

    Usually notfloating, driven into

    bottom.

    Thin cylinder

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    Buoy Shapes

    Isolated danger marks and

    special marks may be any

    shape.

    Pillar or spar

    are preferred.

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    Topmarks

    Shapes attached to pillars and spars.

    Indicate type of mark.

    Square = port sideCone = starboard

    side

    Lateral Marks

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    Topmarks

    Isolated Danger

    2 Spheres, one

    above the other

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    Topmarks

    Safe Water

    1 Sphere

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    Topmarks

    Special Purpose Yellow X

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    Topmarks

    Double Cones = Cardinal Marks

    North South East West

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    Topmarks

    North points up.

    South points

    down.

    West looks like aWine glass.

    The points pointto the black

    stripe(s).

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    Introduction to Navigation

    Questions?