7. F2011 Destinations The Wall, Bath, Fishbourne
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Transcript of 7. F2011 Destinations The Wall, Bath, Fishbourne
Northern Frontier –Hadrian’s WallAquae Sulis (Bath)Fishbourne Palace
Defending the Northern Frontier
Home on the Wall
IMP(ERATORIS) CAES(ARIS) TRAIAN(I) / HADRIANI AUG(USTI) / LE(GIO) II AUG(USTA) / A(ULO) PLATORIO NEPOTE LEG(ATO) PR(O) PR(AETORE)
This work of the Emperor Caesar Trajan Hadrian Augustus (was built by) the Second Legion Augusta under Aulus Platorius Nepos, propraetorian legate.
Hadrian and Britannia
122/134 Addressing the troops
122 Arrival in Britain 134 Britannia
119 Defeat of rebels?
• Military• Economic• Border
Wall – Early Years
Period Construction Width (ft.)
122-126 Broad WallNarrow WallTurf WallFortlets
Wallsend to Irthing RiverIrthing to Burtholme BeckTo Bowness
After 122 Forts, mile castles, turrets
By 138 Turf Wall replaced by stone
~140 Abandoned – ditches covered at intervals
Types of Wall
Components of Wall
• Wall– Forts– Turrets – signal towers– Fortlets or milecastles
• Ditch (N)• Vallum (S) with protecting mounds
Types of Wall
• All c.15’ high• Broad Wall (10’)• Narrow Wall (8’ on a 10’ base)• Turf Wall (18’ wide)
– Later rebuilt in stone
• Newcastle (Pons Aelius)• Benwell (Condercum)
• Halton Chesters (Onnum)• Housesteads (Vercovicium)
– Built after broad foundations but before narrow wall
• Great Chesters– Replaced a milecastle
• Carvoran – A Stanegate fort that was near but not on the wall
• Birdoswald • Castlesteads
– Only fort not attached to the wall, garrisoned by auxiliaries
• Stanwix (near Carlisle)– Built by VI Victrix but garrisoned by a miliary
Forts Added after Wall
• Wallsend (Segedunum)• Chesters (Cilurnum)
– Wall crosses the Tyne– A cavalry fort
• Carrawburgh (Brocolitia)– An early addition
• Burgh by Sands (Aballava)– Added to reinforce lines near Solway
• Drumburgh• Bowness
– Terminus of the wall– Possible supply-depot
Fort Astride Wall
XX Valeria Victrix II AugustaVI Victrix
• Milecastles have arched gateways.
• House from 8 to 32 legionaries.
Turf and Stone
Rudge Cup uncolored replica in British Museum
Staffordshire Moorlands Patera
Hadrian’s Wall Forts
The Rudge Cup• A.MAISABALLAVAVXELODUMCAMBOGLANSBANNA• A. MAIS ABALLAVA VXELODUM CAMBOGLANS BANNA
The Amiens patera• MAISABALLAVAVXELODVNVMCAMBOG...SBANNAESICA• MAIS ABALLAVA VXELODVNVM CAMBOG...S BANNA ESICA
The Moorlands patera• MAISCOGGABATAVXELODVNVMCAMMOGLANNARIGOREVALIAELIDRACONIS
• MAIS COGGABATA VXELODVNVM CAMMOGLANNA
Drumburgh ? Stanwix Castleheads
Birdoswald Great Chesters
Wall – Middle Years
~140 Abandoned – ditches covered at intervalsForay into Scotland
~161 Abandon Antonine wallReoccupy and rebuild – Use of British labor in rebuilding and maintenance
Aquae SulisCurse tablets
Baths - Development
I. Great Bath and two small swimming baths to east
II. Laconicum; Heated bath suite to east
III. Reroofing; expansion east and west baths
IV. Eastern baths rebuilt in monumental style; Heated chamber and cold swimming bath added
V. Immersion bath at west end
Late 1st C.
Late 3rd – Early 4th C.
Water Flow - Model
Sacred Spring overflow
Aquae Sulis Complex
Cornerstone of Great Altar
Minerva reliefFound at Great Bath
• Petition at Sacred Spring• Offerings• Dedications• Use the healing waters• Visit other springs
Visions Dedication Stone
To the goddess Sulis, for the welfare and safety of Aufidius Maximus, centurion of the Sixth Legion Victrix, Marcus Aufidius Lemnus, his freedman, willingly and deservedly fulfilled his vow.
For the goddess Sulis, Lucius Marcius Memnor, augurer, gave this gift
Dedication from afar - Trier
Peregrinus son of Secundus, a citizen of the Treviri, to Loucetius Mars and Nemetona willingly and deservedly fulfilled his vow
Birth of Aesculapus(Cross Spring)
May he who has taken Vilbia from me dissolve like water. May s/he be dumb who devoured her, whether it be Velvinna or Exsupereus or Verianus or Severinus or Augustalis or Comitianus or Catus Minianus or Germanilla or Jovina.
• About half (~250) of the Latin curse tablets have been found in Britain
• 100+ from the sacred spring at Bath • 87 from the rural shrine of Uley, Glos.
Lord Neptune, I give you the man who has stolen the solidus and six argentioli of Muconius. So I give the names who took them away, whether male or female, whether boy or girl. So I give you, Niskus, and to Neptune the life, health, blood of him who has been privy to that taking-away. The mind which stole this and which has been privy to it, may you take it away. The thief who stole this, may you consume his blood and take it away, Lord Neptune.
Curse tablet, London
• Pierced 7 times• Cursed Tretia
Maria threatened with loss of ability to reveal secrets
• Misspelled words and incorrect grammar
• Lettering– 80 in cursive– 29 in capitals– 4 imitative– 5 blank
• Often deliberately written backwards
Baldock votive plaques
Baldock votive plaques Minerva
• To: Mercury• From: Saturnina a
woman• Cause:, a lost linen
cloth• Seeks: return• Reward: Third to
Mercury or Silvanus if returned
From the Air
Painting of Coastal Villa
Lady of the house
Man of the House
Layers of Mosaic
1st Century Mosaic
‘City Walls’ Mosaic
Geometric Mosaic, 1st C.
• Wall – TBA• Baths – Flooding in late 4th – early 5th century
leads to abandonment– Rediscovered and baths revived in late 18th C.
• Fishbourne –Destroyed by fire in late 3rd C.