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  • N E W Y O R K


    2nd Edition

  • Copyright 2005 LearningExpress, LLC.

    All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions.

    Published in the United States by LearningExpress, LLC, New York.

    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data:

    501 challenging logic & reasoning problems.

    p. cm.(LearningExpress skill builders practice)

    Includes bibliographical references.

    ISBN 1-57685-534-1

    1. LogicProblems, exercises, etc. 2. ReasoningProblems, exercises, etc.

    3. Critical thinkingProblems, exercises, etc. I. LearningExpress (Organization)

    II. Title: 501 challenging logic and reasoning problems. III. Series.

    BC108.A15 2006



    Printed in the United States of America

    9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

    Second Edition

    ISBN 1-57685-534-1

    For information or to place an order, contact LearningExpress at:

    55 Broadway

    8th Floor

    New York, NY 10006

    Or visit us at:




    ANSWERS 99



  • This bookwhich can be used alone, with other logic and reasoning texts of your choice, or in com-bination with LearningExpresss Reasoning Skills Success in 20 Minutes a Daywill give you practicedealing with the types of multiple-choice questions that appear on standardized tests assessing logic,reasoning, judgment, and critical thinking. It is designed to be used by individuals working on their own and by

    teachers or tutors helping students learn, review, or practice basic logic and reasoning skills. Practice on 501 logic

    and reasoning questions will go a long way in alleviating test anxiety, too!

    Maybe youre one of the millions of people who, as students in elementary or high school, never understood

    the necessity of having to read opinion essays and draw conclusions from the writers argument. Or maybe you

    never understood why you had to work through all those verbal analogies or number series questions. Maybe you

    were one of those people who could never see a plan of attackwhen working through logic games or critical think-

    ing puzzles. Or perhaps you could never see a connection between everyday life and analyzing evidence from a

    series of tedious reading passages. If you fit into one of these groups, this book is for you.

    First, know you are not alone. It is true that some people relate more easily than do others to number series

    questions, verbal analogies, logic games, and reading passages that present an argument. And thats okay; we all

    have unique talents. Still, its a fact that for most jobs today, critical thinking skillsincluding analytical and log-

    ical reasoningare essential. The good news is that these skills can be developed with practice.

    Learn by doing. Its an old lesson, tried and true. And its the tool this book is designed to give you. The 501

    logic and reasoning questions that follow will provide you with lots of practice. As you work through each set of

    questions, youll be gaining a solid understanding of basic analytical and logical reasoning skillsall without mem-

    orizing! The purpose of this book is to help you improve your critical thinking through encouragement, no




  • An Overview

    501 Challenging Logic and Reasoning Problems is

    divided into 37 sets of questions:

    Sets 14: Number Series

    Sets 56: Letter and Symbol Series

    Sets 78: Verbal Classification

    Sets 911: Essential Part

    Sets 1217: Analogies

    Sets 1819: Artificial Language

    Set 20: Matching Definitions

    Set 21: Making Judgments

    Set 22: Verbal Reasoning

    Sets 2327: Logic Problems

    Sets 2831: Logic Games

    Sets 3237: Analyzing Arguments

    Each set contains between 520 questions,

    depending on their length and difficulty. The book is

    specifically organized to help you build confidence as

    you further develop your logic and reasoning skills.

    501 Challenging Logic and Reasoning Problems begins

    with basic number and letter series questions, and then

    moves on to verbal classification, artificial language,

    and matching definition items. The last sets contain

    logic problems, logic games, and logical reasoning

    questions. By the time you reach the last question,

    youll feel confident that youve improved your critical

    thinking and logical reasoning abilities.

    How to Use This Book

    Whether youre working alone or helping someone

    brush up his or her critical thinking and reasoning

    skills, this book will give you the opportunity to prac-

    tice, practice, practice!

    Working on Your OwnIf you are working alone to improve your logic skills or

    prepare for a test in connection with a job or school,

    you will probably want to use this book in combination

    with its companion text, Reasoning Skills Success in 20

    Minutes a Day, 2nd Edition, or with some other basic

    reasoning skills text. If youre fairly sure of your basic

    logic and reasoning abilities, however, you can use 501

    Challenging Logic and Reasoning Problems by itself.

    Use the answer key at the end of the book not

    only to find out if you got the right answer, but also to

    learn how to tackle similar kinds of questions next

    time. Every answer is explained. Make sure you under-

    stand the explanationsusually by going back to the

    questionsbefore moving on to the next set.

    Tutoring OthersThis book will work well in combination with almost

    any analytical reasoning or logic text. You will proba-

    bly find it most helpful to give students a brief lesson

    in the particular operation theyll be learning

    number series, verbal classification, artificial language,

    logic problems, analyzing argumentsand then have

    them spend the remainder of the session actually

    answering the questions in the sets. You will want to

    stress the importance of learning by doing and of

    checking their answers and reading the explanations

    carefully. Make sure they understand a particular set of

    questions before you assign the next one.

    Addit ional Resources

    Answering the 501 logic and reasoning questions in this

    book will give you lots of practice. Another way to

    improve your reasoning ability is to read and study on

    your own and devise your own unique methods of

    attacking logic problems. Following is a list of logic and

    reasoning books you may want to buy or take out of the




  • REASONINGReasoning Skills Success in 20 Minutes a Day

    (2nd Edition) by LearningExpress

    Critical Reasoning: A Practical Introduction by

    Anne Thomson (Routledge)

    Attacking Faulty Reasoning: A Practical Guide to

    Fallacy-Free Arguments by T. Edward Damer


    Thinking Critically: Techniques for Logical Rea-

    soning by James H. Kiersky and Nicholas J.

    Caste (Wadsworth)

    LOGICEssential Logic: Basic Reasoning Skills for the

    Twenty-First Century by Ronald C. Pine

    (Oxford University Press)

    Increase Your Puzzle IQ: Tips and Tricks for

    Building Your Logic Power by Marcel Danesi


    Amazing Logic Puzzles by Norman D. Willis


    Challenging Logic Puzzles by Barry R. Clarke


    CRITICAL THINKINGCritical Thinking by Alec Fisher (Cambridge

    University Press)

    Brainplay: Challenging Puzzles & Thinking

    Games by Tom Werneck (Sterling)

    Challenging Critical Thinking Puzzles by

    Michael A. Dispezio and Myron Miller


    Becoming a Critical Thinker: A User-Friendly

    Manual by Sherry Diestler (Prentice Hall)

    ANALOGIES501 Word Analogy Questions by Learning-


    Analogies for Beginners by Lynne Chatham

    (Dandy Lion Publications)

    Cracking the MAT (3rd Edition) by Marcia

    Lerner (Princeton Review)



  • Ready to test your mental abilities? Your 501 challenging logic and reasoning problems begin on thenext page. Theyre grouped together in sets of 520 questions with a common theme. You can workthrough the sets in order or jump around, whichever you choose. When you finish a set, check youranswers beginning on page 99.



  • Set 1 (Answers begin on page 99.)

    Start off with these simple series of numbers. Number

    series questions measure your ability to reason without

    words. To answer these questions, you must determine

    the pattern of the numbers in each series before you will

    be able to choose which number comes next. These

    questions involve only simple arithmetic. Although

    most number series items progress by adding or sub-

    tracting, some questions involve simple multiplication

    or division. In each series, look for the degree and

    direction of change between the numbers. In other

    words, do the numbers increase or decrease, and by

    how much?

    1. Look at this series: 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, . . . What num-ber should come next?

    a. 11

    b. 12

    c. 13

    d. 14

    2. Look at this series: 58, 52, 46, 40, 34, . . . Whatnumber should come next?

    a. 26

    b. 28

    c. 30

    d. 32

    3. Look at this series: 40, 40, 47, 47, 54, . . . Whatnumber should come next?

    a. 40

    b. 44

    c. 54

    d. 61

    4. Look at this series: 544, 509, 474, 439, . . .