34080945 Automotive Electronics

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    CONTENTSPRINCIPLES electrical / electromagnetic

    Atomic structure ................................................ .................................................. ................................... Electri

    city ............................................... 5 .................................................. .................................... 7 voltage, voltage or potential difference .......................................... .................................................. .... Amperage .............................................. 8 .................................................. .............................. Electrical Resistance ............................................... 10 .................................................. ................................. Association of resistance .............................................. 12 .................................................. ........................ OHM Act .............................................. 13 .................................................. ............................................ Magnetism ................................................ 15 .........

    ......................................... ............................................ Electromagnetism ................................................ 16 ....

    .............................................. .................................Induced electromotive force .............................................. 20 .................................................. .................. Self-induced electromotive force .............................................. 21 .................................................. ............ Inductive pulse generator 24 ............................................. .................................................. .............. 25 Impulse Hall ............................................. .................................................. ...................... Piezoelectric Sensor ............................................... 27 .................................................. ............................... Piezoresistive sensor ............................................... 30

    .................................................. ............................. Electromagnetic relay ............................................... 31 .................................................. ............................. Relay Types .............................................. 33 .................................................. ........................................... 35

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    The multimeter Description ............................................... .................................................. ............................................. Types of polymers ............................................... .................................................. ...............................

    . Analog multimeters ................................................ .................................................. ............................ ..........

    ..................................... Conventional digital multimeter ..........

    ........................................ ............... .......................

    ........................ Advanced digital multimeter ...........................

    ....................... ...................... Precautions .....................

    ......................... measurement ..........................................

    ........ .................... Ohmmeter measurements polymers ...................

    ........................... .................................................. .

    ...................................... Voltmeter ...............................

    .................. .................................................. ..........

    ...................... Ammeter ................................................................................................... ............................

    Reading Exercises ............................................... .................................................. ............................... 48 49 50 51 41 42 43 44 45 47

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    ELECTRONIC PRINCIPLES ............................................. resistors orresistances .................................................. ........................... ................................................ Fixed resistors .................................................. ................................... ................................................ Variable resistors .................................................. ........................... Special r

    esistance ................................................ .................................................. ......................... Semiconductor diode ................................................ .................................................. ............................ Zener Diode .................................................................. .................................................. ........................ Led LED ............................................... .................................................. .............................. Photodiode ................................................. .................................................. ............................................ Transistor ................................................. .................................................. ............................................ 57 61 63 65 71 74 76 78 80

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    The oscilloscope The oscilloscope ................................................................................................ ........................................ Oscilloscope Types ................................................................................................. .............................Controls ................................................ .................................................. ......................................... The display ................................................ .................................................. ............................................. The probes................................................ .................................................. ............................................. Onda Concepts

    .............................................. signal .................................................. ............................................ 104 97 9899,100,101

    Most common forms of wave ............................................. .................................................. ...... Period ................................................ 105 ........................................................................................ Frequency ................................................. .................................................. ................................ Size ................................................. .................................................. .................................. Pulse ................................................. .................................................. ........................................ 108 110115 123

    Automotive Oscilloscopes ............................................... .................................................. .............. Signal injection .............................................. 124 .................................................. ................................... Lambda Signal ............................................... 126 .................................................. .......................................... 127 idle actuator controlsignal two windings .......................................... ............................................ 128

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    Atomic Structure The matter consists of infinitesimally small particles called molecules, these

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    in turn are divided into atoms.

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    Atoms are made up of protons and neutrons in the nucleus and electrons moving

    elliptical orbits forming the crust. A proton is positively charged (+) and negative electric electron (-). Metals have the property that the atoms that form tend to lose one or more electrons in its last layer, llamndoseles free electrons, which create these holes may be occupied by other free electrons.

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    Atomic Structure As the electrons rotate in the orbit farthest from the nucleus are less boundto the atom, it happens sometimes that some of them escape, perhaps by the shock

    of a free electron approaches them at high speed. Then outweighs the positive charge exists in the nucleus, the atom has become a positive ion. Conversely, the envelope can capture additional electrons free electrons. Then outweighs thenegative charge of the electron shell, the atom has become a negative ion.

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    + + + +

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    + + + +

    + + + +

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    No e-> p + No6

    ELECTRICALLY NEUTRAL BODY

    BODY POSITIVE CHARGE

    BODY negatively charged

    No e-= p + No

    No e-

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    VOLTAGE, VOLTAGE OR POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE It is the electric force with which the electrons are pushed through a conductor. The tension appears in the electrical circuits in two ways: induced electromotive force (emf): The tension that generates a power source, as can be a battery, generator, etc ... Voltage drop: The voltage that is lost in the receivers.

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