1998 FIFA World Cup

1998 FIFA World Cup “World Cup 98” redirects here. For the video game, see World Cup 98 (video game). The 1998 FIFA World Cup was the 16th FIFA World Cup, the world championship for men’s national association football teams. It was held in France from 10 June to 12 July 1998. The country was chosen as the host nation by FIFA for the second time in the history of the tournament, defeating Morocco in the bidding process. Qualification for the finals began in March 1996 and con- cluded in November 1997. For the first time in the com- petition, the group stage were expanded from 24 teams to 32, with eight groups of four. A total of 64 matches were played in 10 stadiums located across 10 different host cities, with the opening match and final staged at the Stade de France, Saint-Denis. The tournament was won by France, who beat Brazil 3– 0 in the final. France won their first title, becoming the seventh nation to win a World Cup, and the sixth (after Uruguay, Italy, England, West Germany and Argentina) to win the tournament on home soil. Croatia, Jamaica, Japan and South Africa made their first appearances in the finals. 1 Host selection Main article: FIFA World Cup hosts France was awarded the 1998 World Cup on 2 July 1992 by the executive committee of FIFA during a general meeting in Zürich, Switzerland. They defeated Morocco by 12 votes to 7. [1][2] Switzerland withdrew, due to being unable to meet FIFA’s requirements. This made France the third country to host two World Cups, after Mexico and Italy in 1986 and 1990 respectively. France previ- ously hosted the third edition of the World Cup in 1938. England, who hosted the competition in 1966 and won it, were among the original applicants, but later withdrew their application in favour of an ultimately successful bid to host Euro 96. 2 Bribery & Corruption Investiga- tions On 4 June 2015 Chuck Blazer while co-operating with the FBI and the Swiss authorities confirmed that he and the other members of FIFA’s executive committee were bribed in order to promote the France 1998 and 2010 World Cups. Blazer stated that “we facilitated 'bribes in conjunction with the selection of the host nation for France the 1998 World Cup”. [4][5] 3 Qualification Main article: 1998 FIFA World Cup qualification The qualification draw for the 1998 World Cup finals took place in the Musée du Louvre, Paris on 12 De- cember 1995. [6] As tournament hosts, France was ex- empt from the draw as was Brazil the defending champi- ons. 174 teams from six confederations participated, up 24 from the previous round. In Europe, fourteen coun- tries qualified excluding France. Ten were determined after group play, nine group winners and the best second- placed team. The other eight group runners-up were drawn into pairs of four play-off matches – the winners of which qualifying for the finals as well. [7] Five places were granted by CONMEBOL and CAF each, the governing bodies of South America and Africa respectively while three spots were contested between 30 teams through CONCACAF – the governing body in North America, Central America and the Caribbean. The winner of the Oceanian zone advanced through to an intercontinental play-off against the runner-up of the Asian play-off, de- termined by the two best second placed teams. Four nations qualified for the World Cup for the first time: Croatia, Jamaica, Japan and South Africa. The last team to qualify was Iran by virtue of beating Australia in a two-legged tie on 29 November 1997. [8] It marked their first appearance in the finals since 1978, the last time Tunisia also qualified for the tournament. Paraguay and Denmark qualified for the first time since 1986. Aus- tria, England, Scotland and Yugoslavia return after miss- ing only one final tournament. Among the teams who failed to qualify were two-time winners Uruguay for the second successive tournament and Sweden who finished third in 1994. Russia failed to qualify for the first time since 1978, where they contested as the USSR, after los- 1



Transcript of 1998 FIFA World Cup

  • 1998 FIFA World Cup

    World Cup 98 redirects here. For the video game, seeWorld Cup 98 (video game).

    The 1998 FIFA World Cup was the 16th FIFAWorld Cup, the world championship for mens nationalassociation football teams. It was held in France from 10June to 12 July 1998. The country was chosen as the hostnation by FIFA for the second time in the history of thetournament, defeating Morocco in the bidding process.Qualication for the nals began in March 1996 and con-cluded in November 1997. For the rst time in the com-petition, the group stage were expanded from 24 teamsto 32, with eight groups of four. A total of 64 matcheswere played in 10 stadiums located across 10 dierenthost cities, with the opening match and nal staged at theStade de France, Saint-Denis.The tournament was won by France, who beat Brazil 30 in the nal. France won their rst title, becoming theseventh nation to win a World Cup, and the sixth (afterUruguay, Italy, England, West Germany and Argentina)to win the tournament on home soil. Croatia, Jamaica,Japan and South Africa made their rst appearances inthe nals.

    1 Host selection

    Main article: FIFA World Cup hosts

    France was awarded the 1998 World Cup on 2 July 1992by the executive committee of FIFA during a generalmeeting in Zrich, Switzerland. They defeated Moroccoby 12 votes to 7.[1][2] Switzerland withdrew, due to beingunable to meet FIFAs requirements. This made Francethe third country to host two World Cups, after Mexicoand Italy in 1986 and 1990 respectively. France previ-ously hosted the third edition of the World Cup in 1938.England, who hosted the competition in 1966 and wonit, were among the original applicants, but later withdrewtheir application in favour of an ultimately successful bidto host Euro 96.

    2 Bribery & Corruption Investiga-tions

    On 4 June 2015 Chuck Blazer while co-operating withthe FBI and the Swiss authorities conrmed that he andthe other members of FIFAs executive committee werebribed in order to promote the France 1998 and 2010World Cups. Blazer stated that we facilitated 'bribesin conjunction with the selection of the host nation forFrance the 1998 World Cup.[4][5]

    3 QualicationMain article: 1998 FIFA World Cup qualication

    The qualication draw for the 1998 World Cup nalstook place in the Muse du Louvre, Paris on 12 De-cember 1995.[6] As tournament hosts, France was ex-empt from the draw as was Brazil the defending champi-ons. 174 teams from six confederations participated, up24 from the previous round. In Europe, fourteen coun-tries qualied excluding France. Ten were determinedafter group play, nine group winners and the best second-placed team. The other eight group runners-up weredrawn into pairs of four play-omatches the winners ofwhich qualifying for the nals as well.[7] Five places weregranted by CONMEBOL and CAF each, the governingbodies of South America and Africa respectively whilethree spots were contested between 30 teams throughCONCACAF the governing body in North America,Central America and the Caribbean. The winner of theOceanian zone advanced through to an intercontinentalplay-o against the runner-up of the Asian play-o, de-termined by the two best second placed teams.Four nations qualied for theWorld Cup for the rst time:Croatia, Jamaica, Japan and South Africa. The last teamto qualify was Iran by virtue of beating Australia in atwo-legged tie on 29 November 1997.[8] It marked theirrst appearance in the nals since 1978, the last timeTunisia also qualied for the tournament. Paraguay andDenmark qualied for the rst time since 1986. Aus-tria, England, Scotland and Yugoslavia return after miss-ing only one nal tournament. Among the teams whofailed to qualify were two-time winners Uruguay for thesecond successive tournament and Sweden who nishedthird in 1994. Russia failed to qualify for the rst timesince 1978, where they contested as the USSR, after los-



    ing to Italy in the play-o round.[9] As of 2014, this is thelast time Scotland, Morocco, Norway, Austria, Bulgaria,Romania and Jamaica have qualied for a FIFA WorldCup nals.

    3.1 List of qualied teams

    See also: 1998 FIFA World Cup seeding

    The following 32 teams, shown with nal pre-tournamentrankings,[10] qualied for the nal tournament.

    4 VenuesFrances bid to host theWorld Cup centered on a nationalstadium with 80,000 seats and nine other stadiums lo-cated across the country.[11] When the nals were orig-inally awarded in July 1992, none of the regional clubgrounds were of a capacity meeting FIFAs requirements namely being able to safely seat 40,000.[11] The pro-posed national stadium, colloquially referred to as the'Grand stade' met with controversy at every stage of plan-ning; the stadiums location was determined by politics,nance and national symbolism.[12] As Mayor of Paris,Jacques Chirac successfully negotiated a deal with PrimeMinister douard Balladur to bring the Stade de France as it was named now, to the capital city.[12] Constructionon the stadium started in December 1995 and was com-pleted after 26 months of work in November 1997 at acost of 2.67 billion.[13]

    The choice of stadium locations was drafted from an orig-inal list of 14 cities.[14] FIFA and CFO monitored theprogress and quality of preparations, culminating in theformer providing nal checks of the grounds weeks be-fore the tournament commenced. Montpellier was thesurprise inclusion from the nal list of cities because ofits low urban hierarchy in comparison to Strasbourg, whoboasted a better hierarchy and success from its local foot-ball team, having been taken over by a consortium. Mont-pellier however was considered ambitious by the select-ing panel to host World Cup matches. The local cityand regional authories in particular had invested heavilyinto football the previous two decades and were able tomeasure economic eects, in terms of jobs as early as in1997.[15]

    10 stadiums in total were used for the nals; in additionto nine matches being played at the Stade de France, afurther eight took place in the Parc des Princes.

    5 Innovations

    5.1 Technologies

    This was the rst World Cup that fourth ocials usedelectronic boards, instead of cardboard.[16]

    5.2 Rule changes

    This was the rst World Cup since the introduction ofgolden goals,[16] banning of tackles from behind and al-lowance of three substitutions per game.[17]

    6 Match ocials34 referees and 33 assistants ociated in the 1998 WorldCup.[18] As a result of the extension to 32 teams in thenals, there was an increase of 10 referees and 11 ocialsfrom the 1994 World Cup.[18]

    7 Seeds

    8 SquadsFor more details on this topic, see 1998 FIFA WorldCup squads.

    As with the preceding tournament, each teams squad forthe 1998 World Cup nals consisted of 22 players. Eachparticipating national association had to conrm their -nal 22-player squad by 1 June 1998.Out of the 704 players participating in the 1998 WorldCup, 447 were signed up with a European club; 90 inAsia, 67 in South America, 61 in Northern and CentralAmerica and 37 in Africa.[19] 75 played their club foot-ball in England ve more than Italy and Spain. FCBarcelona of Spain was the club contributing to the mostplayers in the tournament with 13 players on their side.[19]

    The average age of all teams was 27 years, 8 months vemonths older than the previous tournament.[20] SamuelEto'o of Cameroon was the youngest player selected inthe competition at 17 years, 3 months while the oldestwas Jim Leighton of Scotland at 39 years, 11 months.[20]

    9 Group stageAll times are Central European Summer Time (UTC+2)In the following tables:

    Pld = total games played W = total games won

  • 9.4 Group D 3

    D = total games drawn (tied)

    L = total games lost

    GF = total goals scored (goals for)

    GA = total goals conceded (goals against)

    GD = goal dierence (GFGA)

    Pts = total points accumulated

    9.1 Group A

    Main article: 1998 FIFA World Cup Group A

    Defending champions Brazil won Group A after only twomatches as the nation achieved victories over Scotland(21) and Morocco (30). Heading into the third game,Brazil had nothing to play for but still started its reg-ulars against Norway, who was looking to upset Brazilonce again. Needing a victory, Norway overturned a 10 decit with 12 minutes remaining to defeat Brazil 21,with Kjetil Rekdal scoring[21] the winning penalty to sendNorway into the knockout stage for the rst time.Norways victory denied Morocco a chance at the Roundof 16, despite winning 30 against Scotland. It was onlyMoroccos second ever victory at a World Cup, havingrecorded its only previous win 12 years earlier on 11 June1986.Scotland managed only one point, coming in a 11 drawagainst Norway, and failed to get out of the rst roundfor an eighth time in the FIFA World Cup, a record thatstands to this date.

    9.2 Group B

    Main article: 1998 FIFA World Cup Group B

    9.3 Group C

    Main article: 1998 FIFA World Cup Group C

    9.4 Group D

    Main article: 1998 FIFA World Cup Group D

    9.5 Group E

    Main article: 1998 FIFA World Cup Group E

    9.6 Group F

    Main article: 1998 FIFA World Cup Group F

    9.7 Group G

    Main article: 1998 FIFA World Cup Group G

    9.8 Group H

    Main article: 1998 FIFA World Cup Group H

    10 Knockout stage

    Main article: 1998 FIFA World Cup knockout stage

    The knockout stage comprised the sixteen teams that ad-vanced from the group stage of the tournament. Therewere four rounds of matches, with each round eliminat-ing half of the teams entering that round. The successiverounds were the round of 16, quarter-nals, semi-nals,and the nal. There was also a play-o to decide thirdand fourth place. For each game in the knockout stage,any draw at 90 minutes was followed by 30 minutes ofextra time; if scores were still level, there was a penaltyshoot-out to determine who progressed to the next round.Golden goal comes into play if a team scores during ex-tra time, thus becoming the winner which concludes thegame.


    10.1 Round of 16

    10.2 Quarter-nals

    10.3 Semi-nals

    10.4 Third place match

    Croatia beat the Netherlands to earn third place in thecompetition. Davor uker scored the winner in the 35thminute to secure the golden boot.[22]

    10.5 Final

    Main article: 1998 FIFA World Cup Final

    The nal was held on 12 July 1998 at the Stade deFrance, Saint-Denis. France defeated holders Brazil 30, with two goals from Zinedine Zidane and a stoppagetime strike from Emmanuel Petit. The win gave Francetheir rst World Cup title, becoming the sixth nationalteam after Uruguay, Italy, England, West Germany andArgentina to win the tournament on their home soil. Theyalso inicted the second-heaviest World Cup defeat onBrazil,[23] later to be topped by their 17 defeat by Ger-many in the semi-nals of the 2014 FIFAWorld Cup.[24]

    The pre-match build up was dominated by the omissionof Brazilian striker Ronaldo from the starting lineup onlyto be reinstated 45 minutes before kick-o.[25] He man-aged to create the rst open chance for Brazil in the 22ndminute, dribbling past defender Thuram before sending across out on the left side that goalkeeper Fabien Barthezstruggled to hold onto. France however took the lead af-ter Brazilian defender Roberto Carlos conceded a cor-ner which Zidane scored via a header. Three minutesbefore half-time, Zidane scored his second goal of thematch, similarly another header from a corner. The tour-nament hosts went down to ten men in the 68th minuteas Marcel Desailly was sent o for a second bookable of-fence. Brazil reacted to this by making an attacking sub-stitution and although they applied pressure France sealedthe win with a third goal: substitute Patrick Vieira set uphis club teammate Petit in a counterattack to shoot lowpast goalkeeper Cludio Taarel.[26]

    French president Jacques Chirac was in attendance tocongratulate and commiserate the winners and runners-up respectively after the match.[27] Several days afterthe victory, winning manager Aim Jacquet announcedhis resignation from the French team with immediateeect.[28][29]

    11 Statistics

    11.1 GoalscorersDavor uker received the Golden Boot for scoring sixgoals. In total, 171 goals were scored by 112 dierentplayers, with six of them credited as own goals.

    6 goals

    Davor uker

    5 goals

    Gabriel Batistuta Christian Vieri

    4 goals

    Ronaldo Marcelo Salas Luis Hernndez

    3 goals

    Bebeto Csar Sampaio

    Rivaldo Thierry Henry Oliver Bierho Jrgen Klinsmann

    Dennis Bergkamp

    2 goals

    Ariel Ortega

    Marc Wilmots Robert Prosineki Brian Laudrup Alan Shearer Michael Owen Emmanuel Petit Lilian Thuram Zinedine Zidane Roberto Baggio

  • 11.1 Goalscorers 5

    Theodore Whitmore Ricardo Pelez Salaheddine Bassir Abdeljalil Hadda

    Phillip Cocu

    Ronald de Boer Patrick Kluivert Viorel Moldovan Shaun Bartlett Fernando Hierro Fernando Morientes Slobodan Komljenovi

    1 goal

    Claudio Lpez

    Mauricio Pineda Javier Zanetti Andreas Herzog

    Toni Polster Ivica Vasti Luc Nilis Emil Kostadinov Patrick M'Boma Pierre Njanka

    Jos Luis Sierra Lider Preciado Robert Jarni Mario Stani Goran Vlaovi Thomas Helveg

    Martin Jrgensen

    Michael Laudrup

    Peter Mller Allan Nielsen Marc Rieper

    Ebbe Sand Darren Anderton David Beckham Paul Scholes Laurent Blanc Youri Djorkae

    Christophe Dugarry

    Bixente Lizarazu David Trezeguet Andreas Mller Mehdi Mahdavikia Hamid Estili Luigi Di Biagio Robbie Earle Masashi Nakayama Cuauhtmoc Blanco Alberto Garca Aspe

    Mustapha Hadji

    Edgar Davids

    Marc Overmars Pierre van Hooijdonk

    Boudewijn Zenden Mutiu Adepoju Tijani Babangida Victor Ikpeba Sunday Oliseh Wilson Oruma Dan Eggen

    Hvard Flo Tore Andr Flo Kjetil Rekdal Celso Ayala Miguel ngel Bentez Jos Cardozo

  • 6 12 SYMBOLS

    Adrian Ilie Dan Petrescu Sami Al-Jaber Yousuf Al-Thunayan Craig Burley John Collins Benni McCarthy

    Ha Seok-Ju Yoo Sang-chul

    Kiko Luis Enrique

    Ral Skander Souayah Brian McBride Sinia Mihajlovi Predrag Mijatovi Dragan Stojkovi

    Own goals

    Georgi Bachev (against Spain)

    Youssef Chippo (against Norway) Tom Boyd (against Brazil)

    Pierre Issa (against France)

    Andoni Zubizarreta (against Nigeria) Sinia Mihajlovi (against Germany)

    11.2 Awards

    11.3 Players who were red-carded duringthe tournament

    Ariel Ortega

    Gert Verheyen Anatoli Nankov Raymond Kalla

    Lauren Rigobert Song

    Miklos Molnar Morten Wieghorst David Beckham Laurent Blanc Marcel Desailly Zinedine Zidane Christian Wrns Darryl Powell Ha Seok-ju Pvel Pardo Ramn Ramrez Patrick Kluivert Arthur Numan Mohammed Al-Khilaiwi Craig Burley Alfred Phiri

    11.4 All-star teamThe All-star team is a squad consisting of the 16 mostimpressive players at the 1998 World Cup, as selected byFIFAs Technical Study Group.[30]

    11.5 Final standingsAfter the tournament, FIFA published a ranking of allteams that competed in the 1998 World Cup nals basedon progress in the competition, overall results and qualityof the opposition.[31]

    12 Symbols

    12.1 MascotThe ocial mascot was Footix, a rooster rst presented inMay 1996.[32] It was created by graphic designer FabricePialot and selected from a shortlist of ve mascots.[33]Research carried out about the choice of having a cock-erel as a mascot was greatly received: 91% associated itimmediately with France, the traditional symbol of thenation.[32] Footix, the name chosen by French televisionviewers, is a portmanteau of football and the ending "-ix from the popular Astrix comic strip.[32] The mascotscolours reect those of the host nations ag and homestrip blue for the jump suit, a red crest and with thewords 'France 98' coloured in white.

  • 13.2 Broadcasting 7

    Footix, France 98 mascot

    12.2 Ocial song

    The ocial song of the 1998 FIFA World Cup was "TheCup of Life, aka La Copa de la Vida recorded byRicky Martin.[34][35]

    12.3 Match ball

    Main article: Adidas Tricolore

    The match ball for the 1998 World Cup, manufacturedby Adidas was named the Tricolore, meaning 'three-coloured' in French.[36] It was the eighth World Cupmatch ball made for the tournament by the Germancompany and was the rst in the series to be multi-coloured.[37] The tricolour ag and cockerel, traditionalsymbols of France were used as inspiration for thedesign.[37]

    13 Media

    13.1 Sponsorship

    The sponsors of the 1998 FIFA World Cup are dividedinto two categories: FIFA World Cup Sponsors andFrance Supporters.[38]

    Coca-Cola was one of the sponsors of FIFA World Cup 1998.

    13.2 Broadcasting

    Main article: 1998 FIFA World Cup broadcasting rights

    FIFA, through several companies, sold the broadcastingrights for the 1998 FIFA World Cup to many broadcast-ers. In the UK BBC and ITV had the broadcasting rights.The pictures and audio of the competition were suppliedto the TV and radio channels by the company TVRS 98,the broadcaster of the tournament.[39]

    TheWorld Cup matches were broadcast in 200 countries.818 photographers were credited for the tournament. Ineverymatch, a stand was reserved for the press. The num-ber of places granted to them reached its maximum in thenal, when 1,750 reporters and 110 TV commentatorswere present in the stand.[40]

    13.3 Video games

    The ocial video game, World Cup 98 was released byEA Sports on 13 March 1998 for Microsoft Windows,PlayStation, Nintendo 64 and the Game Boy. It was therst international football game developed by ElectronicArts since obtaining the rights from FIFA in 1997 andreceived mostly favourable reviews.[41][42][43]

    Many other video games, including International Super-star Soccer 98, World League Soccer 98, Actua Soccer 2and Neo Geo Cup '98: The Road to the Victory were re-leased in the buildup to the 1998World Cup and evidentlywere based on the tournament. FIFA: Road to World Cup98, also by EA Sports focused on the qualication stage.

    14 LegacyHonorary FIFA President Joo Havelange praisedFrances hosting of the World Cup, describing the tour-nament as one that would remain with me forever, as Iam sure they will remain with everyone who witnessedthis unforgettable competition.[44] Lennart Johansson,


    the chairman of the organising committee for the WorldCup and President of UEFA added that France providedsubject matter of a quality that made the world hold itsbreath.[45]

    Cour des Comptes, the quasi-judicial body of the Frenchgovernment released its report on the organisation of the1998 World Cup in 2000.[46]

    15 See also Music of the World Cup: Allez! Ola! Ole! TheOcial 1998 FIFA World Cup music album

    16 References[1] France Gets 1998 World Cup. The New York Times. 3

    July 1992. Retrieved 15 July 2012.

    [2] France awarded 1998 World Cup. The Item. 2 July1992. p. 3. Retrieved 15 July 2012.

    [3] FIFA World Cup host announcement decision(PDF). FIFA.com. Fdration Internationale de FootballAssociation. Retrieved 15 July 2012.

    [4] Vicki Hodges, Giles Mole, JJ Bull, Luke Brown and RobCrilly, Fifa whistleblower Chuck Blazer - bribes acceptedfor 1998 and 2010World Cups: as it happened, The Tele-graph, 3 June 2015. Retrieved 4 June 2015

    [5] Owen Gibson, Paul Lewis, Fifa informant Chuck Blazer:I took bribes over 1998 and 2010 World Cups, TheGuardian, 3 June 2015. Retrieved 4 June 2015

    [6] New Overtime Rule For 1998 World Cup. New YorkTimes. Associated Press. 1 June 1995. Retrieved 27 Jan-uary 2012.

    [7] Shaw, Phil (13 December 1995). Italy and Poland barEnglands road to France. The Independent. Retrieved27 January 2012.

    [8] Celebration and heartbreak. FIFA.com. Fdration In-ternationale de Football Association. 29 November 1997.Retrieved 27 January 2012.

    [9] Soccer: Roundup 1998World Cup qualifying; Belgiumearns berth and eliminates Ireland. New York Times. 15November 1997. Retrieved 27 January 2012.

    [10] FIFA/Coca Cola World Ranking (20 May 1998)".FIFA.com. Fdration Internationale de Football Associ-ation. 27 January 2012.

    [11] Dauncey & Hare, p. 98.

    [12] Dauncey & Hare, p. 99.

    [13] Dauncey & Hare, p. 107.

    [14] Dauncey & Hare, p. 101.

    [15] Dauncey & Hare, p. 104.

    [16] France 1998. Sport24, 2010-05-05 12:12.

    [17] Substitute the subs rule? By Mitch Phillips, 5 November2007 Reuters Soccer Blog.

    [18] Referees and assistants for France 98 chosen.FIFA.com. Fdration Internationale de Football As-sociation. 2 February 1998. Retrieved 28 January2012.

    [19] Players Facts & Figures: Etos the youngest, Leighton theoldest. FIFA.com. Fdration Internationale de FootballAssociation. 8 June 1998. Retrieved 29 January 2012.

    [20] FIFA, p. 15.

    [21] Her er de ti beste sportsyeblikkene

    [22] Debutant takes third place with win over the Nether-lands. CNNSI. Associated Press. 11 July 1998. Re-trieved 28 January 2012.

    [23] Paul, Oberjuerge (12 July 1998). France plays perfecthost; hoists World Cup in Paris.. Gannett News Service.Paris: SoccerTimes. Retrieved 27 January 2012.

    [24] Match report.

    [25] World commentators decry Brazil, Ronaldo. CNNSI.Associated Press. 12 July 1998. Retrieved 27 January2012.

    [26] ZZ Top of the World. New Straits Times. 13 July 1998.Retrieved 19 June 2013.

    [27] Zidane leads France to pinnacle of soccer glory.CNNSI. Associated Press. 12 July 1998. Retrieved 27January 2012.

    [28] Barth, Elie (18 July 1998). Il devrait succder GrardHoullier comme directeur technique national. Le Monde(in French). Retrieved 27 January 2012.

    [29] Jacquet steps down to move up. New Straits Times. 18July 1998. Retrieved 27 January 2012.

    [30] FIFA announces All-Star team. CNNSI. 10 July 1998.

    [31] All-time FIFAWorld Cup Ranking 19302010 (PDF).Fdration Internationale de Football Association. Re-trieved 31 January 2013.

    [32] Hand, David (1998). Footix: the history behind a mod-ern mascot (PDF). Sage Publications. Retrieved 27 Jan-uary 2012.

    [33] Fabrice Pialot l'inventeur de la mascotte Footix. France3 (in French). Institut National de l'Audiovisuel. 22 May1996. Retrieved 27 January 2012.

    [34] FIFA World Cup Ocial Songs 1990 2010. Beem-Bee.com. 10 June 2010. Retrieved 29 May 2013.

    [35] Change to local timeChange to your time (14 June 2014).Brazilian star Claudia Leitte to perform with Pitbull andJennifer Lopez on the ocial song for the 2014 FIFAWorld Cup". FIFA.com. Retrieved 26 June 2014.

  • 9[36] Fifa World Cup match balls through time.Telegraph.co.uk. 27 November 2009. Retrieved 29January 2012.

    [37] 1998: adidas Tricolore. FIFA.com. Fdration Interna-tionale de Football Association. 24 June 2006. Retrieved29 January 2012.

    [38] 2014 FIFA World Cup Brazil ocial partners.FIFA.com. Retrieved 29 December 2013.

    [39] Dutheil, Guy (1998). Ministry of Foreign Aairs and In-ternational Development (France), ed. France 98, vive leFootball ! - Un vritable enjeu mdiatique. Label France(31). Retrieved 2 October 2009.

    [40] (French) (FIFA 1998, p. 128 and 129)

    [41] IGN Sta (15 July 1998). World Cup 98. IGN (IGNEntertainment). Retrieved 15 July 2012.

    [42] Smith, Josh (5 June 1998). World Cup 98 Review.GameSpot. Retrieved 15 July 2012.

    [43] James, Chris (July 1998). Footballs ComingHome. PCGuide (Future Publishing) 4 (4): 5357.

    [44] FIFA, p. 4.

    [45] FIFA, p. 6.

    [46] Chemin, Michel (25 January 2001). Cour des comptes:Coupe du monde. Libration (in French). Retrieved 29January 2012.

    16.1 Sources Dauncey, Hugh; Hare, Geo (1999). France and

    the 1998 World Cup: the national impact of a worldsporting event. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-7146-4887-6.

    Rapport public annuel 2000 : l'organisation de laCoupe du monde de football 1998 (PDF). Cour desComptes (in French). Retrieved 28 January 2012.

    France 1998 Technical report (Part 1)" (PDF).Fdration Internationale de Football Association.Retrieved 28 January 2012.

    France 1998 Technical report (Part 2)" (PDF).Fdration Internationale de Football Association.Retrieved 28 January 2012.

    17 External links Ocial website (English) (French) 1998 FIFA World Cup on FIFA.com RSSSF Archive of nals Planet World Cup France 1998

    RSSSF Archive of qualifying rounds 1998 FIFA World Cup at the Wayback Machine(archived 25 April 2000) at the BBC


    18 Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses18.1 Text

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    Host selectionBribery & Corruption Investigations QualificationList of qualified teams

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