14 CE Chapter 6 - Analyzing Consumer Markets

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Marketing kotler 14 CE Chapter 6 - Analyzing Consumer Markets

Transcript of 14 CE Chapter 6 - Analyzing Consumer Markets

  • Copyright 2013 Pearson Canada Inc.

    Analyzing Consumer Markets

    Marketing Management Canadian Fourteenth Edition

    6

    6 - 1

  • Copyright 2013 Pearson Canada Inc.

    Chapter Questions How do consumer characteristics influence

    buying behavior?

    What major psychological processes influence consumer responses to the

    marketing program?

    How do consumers make purchasing decisions?

    In what ways do consumers stray from a deliberate rational decision process?

    6 - 2

  • Copyright 2013 Pearson Canada Inc.

    Consumer Behaviour Consumer behavior is the study of how

    individuals, groups, and organizations select,

    buy, use, and dispose of goods, services,

    ideas, or experiences to satisfy their needs

    and wants. Marketers must fully understand

    both the theory and reality of consumer

    behavior.

    6 - 3

  • Copyright 2013 Pearson Canada Inc.

    What Influences Consumer

    Behavior?

    6 - 4

    Cultural Factors

    Social Factors

    Personal Factors

  • Copyright 2013 Pearson Canada Inc.

    What is Culture? Culture is the fundamental determinant of a

    persons wants and behaviors acquired through socialization processes with family

    and other key institutions.

    6 - 5

  • Copyright 2013 Pearson Canada Inc.

    Subcultures Nationalities

    Religions

    Racial groups

    Geographic regions

    6 - 6

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    Social Classes

    6 - 7

    Upper uppers

    Lower uppers

    Upper middles

    Middle

    Working

    Upper lowers

    Lower lowers

  • Copyright 2013 Pearson Canada Inc.

    Social Factors

    6 - 8

    Reference groups

    Family

    Social roles

    Statuses

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    Reference Groups Membership groups

    Primary groups

    Secondary groups

    Aspirational groups

    Disassociative groups

    6 - 9

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    Family The family of orientation consists of

    parents and siblings.

    A more direct influence on everyday buying behavior is the family of procreationnamely, the persons spouse and children.

    6 - 10

  • Copyright 2013 Pearson Canada Inc.

    Personal Factors

    6 - 11

    Age

    Life cycle stage

    Occupation

    Wealth

    Personality

    Values

    Lifestyle

    Self-concept

  • Copyright 2013 Pearson Canada Inc.

    Age and Stage in the Life

    Cycle Our taste in food, clothes, furniture, and

    recreation is often related to our age.

    Consumption is also shaped by the family life cycle and the number, age, and gender of

    people in the household at any point in time.

    Adults experience certain passages or transformations as they go through life.

    6 - 12

  • Copyright 2013 Pearson Canada Inc.

    Occupation and Economic

    Circumstances Occupation also influences consumption

    patterns.

    As the recent recession clearly indicated, both product and brand choice are greatly affected

    by economic circumstances:

    spendable income (level, stability, and time pattern),

    savings and assets (including the percentage that is liquid),

    debts, borrowing power, and attitudes toward spending and saving.

    6 - 13

  • Copyright 2013 Pearson Canada Inc.

    Personality and Brand Personality Personality - a set of distinguishing human

    psychological traits that lead to relatively

    consistent and enduring responses to

    environmental stimuli (including buying

    behaviour).

    Brand personality - the specific mix of human traits that we can attribute to a

    particular brand.

    6 - 14

  • Copyright 2013 Pearson Canada Inc.

    Brand Personality Sincerity

    Excitement

    Competence

    Sophistication

    Ruggedness

    6 - 15

  • Copyright 2013 Pearson Canada Inc.

    Self Concept Consumers often choose and use brands

    with a brand personality consistent with their

    actual self-concept (how we view ourselves),

    although the match may instead be based on

    the consumers ideal self-concept (how we would like to view ourselves) or even on

    others self-concept (how we think others see us).

    6 - 16

  • Copyright 2013 Pearson Canada Inc.

    Lifestyle and Values A lifestyle is a persons pattern of living in

    the world as expressed in activities, interests,

    and opinions.

    Marketers search for relationships between their products and lifestyle groups.

    Core values are the belief systems that underlie attitudes and behaviours.

    Marketers who target consumers on the basis of their values believe that with appeals to peoples inner selves, it is possible to influence their outer

    selvestheir purchase behaviour. 6 - 17

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    Table 6.2 LOHAS Market

    Segments

    6 - 18

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    Figure 6.1 Model of

    Consumer Behavior

    6 - 19

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    Motivation

    6 - 20

    Freuds Theory

    Behavior

    is guided by

    subconscious

    motivations

    Maslows Hierarchy

    of Needs

    Behavior

    is driven by

    lowest,

    unmet need

    Herzbergs Two-Factor

    Theory

    Behavior is

    guided by

    motivating

    and hygiene

    factors

  • Copyright 2013 Pearson Canada Inc.

    Figure 6.2 Maslows Hierarchy of Needs

    6 - 21

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    Perception Selective attention

    Selective retention

    Selective distortion

    Subliminal perception

    6 - 22

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    Learning Learning induces changes in our behavior

    arising from experience.

    A drive is a strong internal stimulus impelling action.

    Cues are minor stimuli that determine when, where, and how a person responds.

    Discrimination means we have learned to recognize differences in sets of similar stimuli

    and can adjust our responses accordingly.

    6 - 23

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    Emotions Consumer response is not all cognitive and

    rational; much may be emotional and invoke

    different kinds of feelings.

    A brand or product may make a consumer feel proud, excited, or confident. An ad may

    create feelings of amusement, disgust, or

    wonder.

    6 - 24

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    Memory Cognitive psychologists distinguish between

    short-term memory (STM)a temporary and limited repository of informationand long-term memory (LTM)a more permanent, essentially unlimited repository.

    6 - 25

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    Memory Processes Memory encoding describes how and

    where information gets into memory.

    Memory retrieval is the way information gets out of memory.

    6 - 26

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    Figure 6.3 Hypothetical Dole

    Mental Map

    6 - 27

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    Figure 6.4 Five- Stage Model of

    the Consumer Buying Process

    6 - 28

    Problem Recognition

    Information Search

    Evaluation of alternatives

    Purchase Decision

    Postpurchase Behavior

  • Copyright 2013 Pearson Canada Inc.

    Sources of Information

    6 - 29

    Commercial Personal

    Public Experiential

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    Figure 6.5 Successive Sets in

    Decision Making

    6 - 30

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    Table 6.4 A Consumers Brand Beliefs about Laptop Computers

    6 - 31

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    Figure 6.6 Steps Between

    Alternative Evaluation & Purchase

    6 - 32

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    Non-Compensatory Models of

    Choice Conjunctive

    Lexicographic

    Elimination-by-aspects

    6 - 33

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    Perceived Risk Functional

    Physical

    Financial

    Social

    Psychological

    Time

    6 - 34

  • Copyright 2013 Pearson Canada Inc.

    Figure 6.7 How Customers

    Use or Dispose of Products

    6 - 35

  • Copyright 2013 Pearson Canada Inc.

    Moderating Effects on

    Consumer Decision Making The manner or path by which a consumer

    moves through the decision-making stages

    depends on several factors, including the

    level of involvement and extent of variety

    seeking.

    6 - 36

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    Decision Heuristics Availability

    Representativeness

    Anchoring and adjustment

    6 - 37

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    Framing Decision framing is the manner in which

    choices are presented to and seen by a

    decision maker.

    6 - 38

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    Mental Accounting Consumers tend to

    Segregate gains

    Integrate losses

    Integrate smaller losses with larger gains

    Segregate small gains from large losses

    6 - 39