05 Axial Skeleton Vertebral Column And Thoracic Cage
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- 7 cervical
- 12 thoracic
- 5 lumbar
- 5 fused sacral
- 4 fused coccygeal
In an adult there are typically 33 individual vertebrae arranged in 26 moveable parts in the spinal column 2. Thevertebral columnhelps to provide vertical support for the body, supports the head, aides in maintaining an upright position, helps transfer weight to appendicular skeleton, and protects the delicate spinal cord. 3. Cervical curvature Thoracic curvature Lumbar curvature Sacral curvature 4. Read about spinal curvature abnormalities inclinical viewin text 5. ACCORDING TO THE CLINICAL VIEW IN YOUR TEXT, WHAT CAN CAUSE KYPHOSIS? A OSTEOMALACIA B OBESITY C PREGNANCY D PULLING ON ROPES IN BELL TOWERS E ALL OF THE ABOVE 6. 7. Thevertebral foramenis the opening through which the spinal cord passes while theintervertebral foramenallows the spinal nerves to branch off laterally. 8. Intervertebral foraminaeallow for lateral exit of spinal nerves 9. There isone spinous process ,two transverse processes(left and right),two superior articular processesthat interlock with the vertebra above, andtwo inferior articularprocesses (not shown) that interlock with the vertebra below. 10. The interlocking of the superior and inferior articular processes limits the twisting of the vertebral column. 11. Fibrocartilage intervertebral disc 12. Soft pulpy core of disc isnucleus pulposussurrounded by theannulus fibrosis 13. Demonstration ofproper way of lifting heavy loadsso as to minimize injury to lower back. 14. Herniated disc 15. Theseven cervical vertebraeallow for the most flexibility, and the least stability, in the entire vertebral column. 16. Cervical vertebraehavetransverse foramenaeandbifurcated spinous processes , except for C 1 , which has a minimal spinous process. 17. Whiplash of the neck 18. Whiplashof the neck may injure the spinal cord 19. Atlassupports the heavens, not the Earth. 20. Thefirst cervical vertebra (the atlas)articulates with the occipital condyles of the skull on the inferior surface of the occipital bone. 21. Superior view ofatlas .Note lack of a body, minimal spinous process (#1), superior articular processes (#3), and transverse foramen (#4). 22. Nodding yes movement made possible by articulation of occipitalcondyles rocking in superior articular processes of the atlas.This articulation is called theatlantooccipital joint . 23. Anterior view of second cervical vertebrae, theaxis .Note theodontoid process(dens) labeled #5. 24. Anteriorx- ray through open mouth.Noteodontoid process(dens) of axis (#9). 25. Atlantoaxial joint 26. Theatlantoaxial jointallows the atlas to pivot around the odontoid process so the head can make a side-to-side no movement. 27. Method of fracturing odontoid process (dens). 28. 29. Note locations of theatlantoocipitaland atlantoaxial joints. 30. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWINGIS CORRECTABOUT THE ATLAS? A ITS ARTICULATION WITH THE SKULLALLOWSSIDE-TO-SIDE NO MOTIONS B ITS MOST SUPERIOR PART IS CALLED THE DENS C IT ARTICULATES WITH THE TEMPORAL BONE D IT HAS A PROMINENT SPINOUS PROCESS, HENCETHE TERM VERTEBRA PROMINENS E IT HAS HOLES IN ITS TRANSVERSE PROCESSES 31. Thespinous process of C 7(vertebra prominens) is an easily palpable prominence felt at the base of the neck. 32. 33. The classicalhangmans fractureof the cervical vertebrae severs the spinal cord. The large knot is typically positioned just behind the left ear. 34. Thethoracic vertebraeserve as attachments for the ribs so as to form the posterior anchor of the thoracic cage. 35. Thoracic vertebraehavecostal facetsorcostal demifacetson their bodies and transverse processes for attachment of the ribs 36. Note ribs attach to bodies and transverse processes ofthoracic vertebrae 37. Lumbar vertebraehave massive bodies and thick blunt spinous processes.They are the largest vertebrae of the spinal column. 38. 39. 40. (L 3and L 4 ) 41. The L3/L4 intervertebral space islevel with the iliac crests of the pelvis 42. 43. Thesacrumconsists of five fused vertebrae.The sacrum atriculates with the ilia of the pelvis. 44. Thesacrumarticulates with L5 superiorly, with the bones of the os coxae laterally, and with the coccyx inferiorly. 45. Thecoccyxconsists of four fused vertebrae 46. Human tailsrarely occur and are easily removed surgically. 47. The coccyx is easily fractured, particularly by Master Long. 48. Palpation offractured coccyxby inserting index finger in the rectum and applying pressure. 49. Childbirthcan injure both the perineum and the coccyx 50. coccyx 51. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWINGARTICULATESWITH THE BONY PELVIS (OSSA COXAE)? A COCCYX B L 5 C SACRUM D AURICLE E NONE OF THE ABOVE 52. Thethoracic cageis formed by thoracic vertebrae, ribs, costal cartilages, and sternum 53. Contents ofthoracic(chest)cavity . 54. (gladiolus) Sternum Costal notches for rib attachment (Sternal notch) 55. Suprasternal fossais just superior to jugular notch (sternal notch).Note large rope-like muscles that form lateral boundaries of suprasternal fossa. 56. (gladiolus) Sternum Costal notches for rib attachment (Sternal notch) 57. Sternal angle 58. Read aboutsternal foraminain the clinical view in your text. 59. Xiphoid process 60. Master Longknowswhere your heart is located! 61. Anupward and inward blowto the xiphoid can fracture it off and drive it into theheart(a directly inward blow will drive it into the liver) 62. Master Long delivering the potentially fatal blowto his opponents xiphoid. 63. 64. Human sacrifice in Central America 65. Human sacrifice in Central America.Note the sacrificial altarthat is reminiscent of a USU parking barricade.This allows the victim to be bent backwards. 66. A curious mind might ask why Utah State University chose this particular design for use around the campus as a traffic barricade?Was it just by mere chance that it mimics the design of sacrificial altar stones of Aztecs? 67. I urge caution if you should see wild-eyedand bare-breasted collegians with red stained hands! (or with runny cheeseburgers) 68. Ribs #1-7 are true ribsand are directly attached to the sternum.Ribs #8-10 share the costal cartilage attachment of rib #7, while ribs #11-12 dont attach anteriorly at all.Soribs #8-12 are also called false ribs. 69. Posterior view Ribs #11 and #12 not only are false ribs, they are alsofloating ribsbecause they have no attachment to the sternum whatsoever 70. Shaft or Typical rib 71. Cervical rib on C 7 Elongated transverse process Elongated transverse process on C 7 Read about variations in rib development inclinical viewin text 72. IF A WANDERING BUG STARTED ON THE OCCIPITAL BONE OF A SKELETON, TRAVELED DOWN 18 VERTEBRAE, AND THEN MOVED ANTERIORLY ALONG A BONE,WHAT BONEWHOULD THE BUG BE WALKING ON? A FLOATING RIB B FALSE RIB C BONE WITH NO COSTAL CARTILAGE D BONE OF THORACIC CAGE E ALL OF THE ABOVE 73. 74. Christopher Reeve in his role as Superman 75. 76. Christopher Reevebecame a famous respirator-dependent quadriplegic 77. Christopher Reeveeventually died from an infection that began in a diseased bed sore (decubitus ulcer).He did much to promote research in treatment for spinal injuries. 78. There are many ways to suffer aflail chest .One is shown here. 79. 80. Paradoxical motionoccurs when the fractured segment of ribs moves in a direction that is opposite from the rest of the chest wall when the injured person inhales or exhales. 81. Paradoxical motion 82. Spina bifida 83.
- Spina bifida is caused by a failure of the neural tube to close completely during the first month of embryonic development
84. Infants born withspina bifidaare typically paralyzed distal from the defect. 85. Spina bifida occulta (hidden, no opening of the back) 86. myelomeningocele 87. 88. 89. Chiropractorshave been shown to statistically have the best success withmostlower back pain.More so than other healthcare providers. 90. Abdominal crunches that flex the spine strengthen theanteriormuscles (such as therectus abdominus ) that help stabilize the spine Arching or extension of the spine strengthens theposteriormuscles (such as theerector spinae muscles ) that help stabilize the spine. 91. Back surgery should be the last resort as outcome is uncertain. 92. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING HAS BEEN SHOWN TOREDUCE THE RISKOF NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS, SUCH AS ANENCEPHALY? A B VITAMIN B SUNLIGHT C VITAMIN A D FOLIC ACID WITHIN THE FIRST WEEK AFTERBIRTH E ACCUPUNCTURE 93.
- This data indicate that since the addition of folic acid in grain-based foods as mandated by the Food and Drug Administration, the rate of neural tube defects dropped by 25% in the United States.