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socialur da politikur mecnierebaTa fakulteti

socialuri samuSao

seqsualuri umciresobebi

qarTul realobaSi

saleqcio kursi: kulturuli mravalferovnebaleqtori: maia mgeliaSvili

studentebi: ana subeliani, ana baramiZe, nikoloz xarebava, ilia guraspauli, Teona TodraZe

Tbilisi 2009Sesavali

seqsualuri umciresobebis Tema dResdReobiT msoflios nebismier qveyanaSi aqtualuria. bibliaSi naxsenebia termini mamaTmavloba, rac imaze miuTiTebs, rom ramdenime aTasi wlis winadac ki arsebobda sazogadoebaSi erTi da imave sqesis adamianTa Soris seqsualuri ltolva da kavSiri, Tumca Riad amaze mxolod me-19 saukunis meore naxevridan saubroben. aris es gadaxra, fsiqikuri aSlilobis Sedegi, garyvnileba Tu ubralod seqsualuri orientacia? amaze sazogadoeba jer-jerobiT ver SeTanmxda, Tumca erTi ram cxadia: yvela adamians aqvs minimum arsebobis, xolo maqsimum TviTgamorkvevisa da TviTrealizaciis ufleba, ganurCevlad kulturuli gansxvavebulobisa.

Tavs uflebas mivcemT da pirvel rigSi ganvmartavT seqsualur orientaciaTa Soris gansxvavebebs:

homoseqsualizmi - adamianis seqsualuri ltolva imave sqesis

warmomadgenlis mimarT. sityva "homoseqsuali" hibridia berZnuli prefiqsis "homo" (msgavsi, romelsac xSirad SecdomiT "mamakaci"-s gviandel laTinur mniSvnelobas miaweren, rogorc mag. homo sapiens-Si) da laTinuri fuZis "sex-", riTac miuTiTebs seqsualur kavSirze da ltolvaze erTi sqesis warmomadgenelTa Soris.

homoseqsualoba miuTiTebs erTi sqesis or adamians Soris seqsualur da romantiul ltolvaze. gacilebiT naklebadaa gavrcelebuli, vidre msgavsi ltolva sapirispiro sqesis adamianebs Soris. termini pirvelad gamoiyena karl-maria kertbenim 1869 wels da mas Semdeg is gavlenas axdens seqsualuri orientaciis Tanamedrove koncefciis ganviTarebaze, asocirdeba romantiul siyvarulsa da piradobasTan, eqskluziurad seqsualur mniSvnelobasTan erTad.

homoseqsualobas, rogorc wesi, heteroseqsualobisa da biseqsualobis sapirispirod ayeneben. zedsarTavi "homoseqsualuri" gamoiyeneba aseve erTi sqesis adamianTa sqesobriv urTierTobaze. anTropologebi homoseqsuluri urTierTobis sam ZiriTad formas ansxvaveben, esenia: egalitaruli, genderul-struqturuli da asakobriv-struqturuli. maT Soris erT-erTi, rogorc wesi, dominanturia mocemul sazogadoebaSi da mocemul droSi. seqsisa da genderis gansxvavebuli biologiuri, istoriuli da fsiqologiuri komponentebis gamo ar arsebobs raime erTgvarovani gansazRvreba, romelic yvelas individualurad mouxdeba.

gei mamrobiTi sqesis adamiani, romelsac seqsualuri ltolva aqvs imave sqesis warmomadgenlis mimarT.

lesboseli _ mdedrobiTi sqesis adamiani, romelsac seqsualuri ltolva aqvs imave sqesis warmomadgenlis mimarT.

termini "gei" umTavresad gamoiyeneba mamakaci homoseqsualebisTvis. lesboseli genderulad specifiuri terminia, romelic mxolod homoseqsual qalTaTvis gamoiyeneba. enis stilis mravali Tanamedrove saxelmZRvanelo winaaRmdegia "homoseqsualis" rogorc arsebiTi saxelis gamoyenebis, romlis magivrad upiratesobas iseT terminebs aniWebs, rogorebicaa "gei" da "lesboseli". aseve, zogierTi am sityvis xmarebidan sruliad amoRebas arCevs, vinaidan man droTa ganmavlobaSi uaryofiTi mniSvneloba SeiZina da aseve, iqidan gamomdinarec, rom is mxolod seqsualur qcevaze miuTiTebs da ara romantiul grZnobebze.

am koncefciis gavrcelebas xeli Seuwyo germaneli fsiqiatris, rixard fraher fon kraft-ebingis 1886 wels gamoqveynebulma naSromma "Psychopathia Sexualis". miuxedavad imisa, rom adreuli mwerlebi am termins rogorc zedsarTavs xSirad iyenebdnen nebismieri erTi sqesis konteqstisTvis (mag. vaJTa gimnazia, qalTa seminaria), amJamad termini mxolod seqsualur orientacias gamoxatavs. Tumca arsebobs aseve sityva romelic erTi sqesis siyvaruls aRniSnavs - homofilia.

heteroseqsualizmi adamianis seqsualuri ltolva sapirispiro sqesis warmomadgenlis mimarT.

biseqsualizmi adamianis seqsualuri ltolva orive sqesis warmomadgenlis mimarT.

miuxedavad mecnieruli dadasturebisa, rom homoseqsualebi yvela aspeqtiT Cveulebrivi adamianebi arian, maT mimarT sazogadoebaSi mainc Camoyalibda stigmatizirebuli damokidebuleba. stigmis matarebeli adamiani diskreditirebulia, misi socialuri identoba ki sazogadoebis mier gaufasurebuli. saqarTveloSi sakmaod arasaxarbielo situaciaa am mxriv. aratradiciuli seqsualuri orientaciis mqoneebi, rogorc wesi, SeniRbulebi arian. maT ar aqvT sakuTari Tavis gamoxatvis, survilebisa da moTxovnilebebis realizebis saSualeba, radgan qveyanaSi arsebuli kanonmdebloba, socialuri struqtura, kulturuli normebi da faseulobebi ar asaxavs maT interesebs. saqarTveloSi seqsualuri umciresobebi arCeven, Riad ar isaubron TavianT seqsualur orientaciasa da cxovrebaze, raTa Tavidan aicilon am Caketili, tradiciuli sazogadoebisgan maTken mimarTuli agresia. miuxedavad amisa, isini mainc Zalian xSirad xdebian Zaladobis, Seuracxyofis, uflebebis Selaxvisa da diskriminaciis msxverplni. homoseqsualebi Cvens sazogadoebaSi marginalur jgufs warmoadgenen. am mosazrebas amyarebs 2005 wels ganxorcielebuli kvleva qarTuli arasamTavrobo organizaciebis saqmianobaTa Sesafaseblad. sazogadoebidan gariyulobis gamo, homoseqsualebs kidev ufro metad umZafrdebaT sakuTari jgufisadmi mikuTvnebulobis gancda. swored am yvelafridan gamomdinare, maT aqvT midrekileba emociuri darRvevebis, depresiisa da suicidisken. seqsualur umciresobaTa warmomadgenlebi imdenad stigmatizirebulni arian, rom maTi Zalian mcire nawili akeTebs e.w. coming out_s (igive aRiareba). gamokiTxul iqna 120 homoseqsuali, ris Sedegadac armoCnda, rom maTi mxolod 13%-ia gaxsnili ojaxTan, 15% kolegebTan, 18% mezoblebTan da 33% ki, megobrebTan.

rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, homoseqsualebis aseTi Caketiloba da SezRuduli cxovrebis wesi sazogadoebis cru da agresiuli damokidebulebebiTaa gamowveuli. homoseqsualizmi: buneba Tu aRzrda

uamravi kvleva aCvenebs, rom seqsualuri prioritetebis ganmapirobebeli nawilobrivad mainc aris genetika. am kuTxiT kvlevebi ZiriTadad xorcieldeboda monozigoturi da dizigotur tyupebis SedarebiT. homoseqsuali mamakacebisa da lezboselebis Seswavla mniSvnelovnad met Tanxvedras aCvenebda monozigoturi tyupebis SemTxvevaSi, vidre dizigotur tyupebSi. eqsperimentatorebi tyupebidan moiZiebdnen calkeul homoseqsual mamakacebsa da qalebs da Semdeg maTgan iRebdnen informacias maTi tyupiscalebis seqsualuri orientaciis Sesaxeb. Sedegebma aCvena, rom qalebSi monozigoturi tyupebis 48%-is orive tyupiscali lesboseli iyo, dizigoturis ki _ 16%-is orive tyupiscali. mamakacebSi monozigoturi tyupebis 52%-is orive tyupiscali homoseqsuali iyo, dizigoturis ki _ 22%-is orive tyupiscali.

aqve Cndeba erTi kontrargumenti, ramac am kvlevis Sedegebi SeiZleba gaaqarwylos. monozigoturi tyupebi SeiZleba izrdebodnen ufro metad identur pirobebSi, vidre dizigoturebi. monozigotur tyupebs mSoblebi ufro erTnairad epyrobian da maT seqsualur orientaciaSi aseTi Tanxvedra SeiZleba garkveulwilad aRzrdis saerTo tipsac mivaweroT.

miuxedavad Catarebuli kvlevebisa da mecnierTa Zalian didi davisa, mainc ar SegviZlia calsaxad davaskvnaT, Tu romeli faqtori ufro metad ganapirobebs seqsualur orientacias, genetika Tu aRzrda. homofobia

homofobia _ (berZn. homoios igive, toli da fobos SiSi) usafuZvlo SiSi, gandgoma, an diskriminacia homoseqsualobisa da homoseqsualTa mimarT. gamomdinareobs sityvebisgan homoseqsuali da fobia. mecnierebma homofobiis Seswavla mxolod gasuli saukunis samocdaaTian wlebSi daiwyes. mas Semdeg, rac 1973 wels, amerikis fsiqologTa asociaciam homoseqsualoba fsiqikur daavadebaTa siidan amoiRo, isini seriozulad dainteresdnen mizezebiT, romlebic ganapirobebs Zlier negatiur ganwyobas homoseqsualobis mimarT. evroparlamentis 2006 wlis 18 ianvars miRebul rezoluciaSi termini homofobia asea ganmartebuli: "homofobia warmoadgens winaswarganwyobaze dafuZnebul iracionalur SiSsa da siZulvils lesboselebis, geebis, biseqsualobisa da transgenderi adamianebis mimarT da msgavsia rasizmis, qsenofobiis, antisemitizmsa da seqsizmisa".

im SiSis an zizRis aRsawerad, romelsac adamianebi geebis an homoseqsualuri qcevis mimarT ganicdian, termini homofobia pirvelad fsiqoTerapevtma jorj vainbergma gamoiyena.. man sakiTxi vrclad ganixila Tavis wignSi sazogadoeba da jansaRi homoseqsuali.

vainbergi homofobias iseve aRwerda rogorc sxva, rigiT fobias: "homofobia, es Cveulebrivi fobiaa. avadmyofuri da iracionaluri SiSi, romelic vlindeba iracionalur qcevaSi, adamianis survilSi - gaanadguros wyaro, rasac misi SiSi ukavSirdeba. vinaidan am konkretul SemTxvevaSi, SiSis wyaros adamianebi warmoadgenen, homofobiuri reaqcia Zalian xSirad sastik mopyrobaSi vlindeba". Tumca, homofobiis gansazRvreba im mniSvnelobiT, romliTac dRes iyeneben, ufro farToa, vidre misi vainbergiseuli axsna.

homofibia moicavs heteroseqsizms da seqsualur winaswarganwyobas, es orive termini aratradiciuli seqsualuri orientaciis adamianiebis mimarT uaryofiTi damokidebulebis aRsawerad gamoiyeneba, Tumca maT Soris mainc aris gansxvaveba. heteroseqsizmi uaryofs, cils swamebs da devnis araheteroseqsualuri qcevis nebismier formas, pirovnebas, urTierTobas an sazogadoebas. seqsualuri winaswarganwyoba naklebi agresiulobiT xasiaTdeba, Tumca isic uaryofiT damokidebulebas atarebs lgbt adamianebis mimarT.

lgbt- lesbi, gei, bi, trans seqsualebi, es termini gamoiyeneba yvela seqsualuri umciresobis erTad aRsaniSnad.sazogadoebaSi homofobiis xarisxis gasazomad Catarebulma erTerTma kvlevam, aseTi Sedegebi daafiqsira: 363 gamokiTxuli mozardidan 68% ,,aucileblad an ,,nawilobriv daeTanxma debulebas: ,,seqsi or mamakacs Soris aSkara garyvnilebaa; maTi 64% ki ,,aucileblad an ,,nawilobriv daeTanxma debulebas: ,,seqsi or qals Soris aSkara garyvnilebaa.sazogadoebaSi arsebuli homofobia aisaxeba lgbt adamianebis cxovrebazec, isini adamianebisgan uaryofiTi damokidebulebis da diskriminaciis acilebis mizniT xelovnurad iqcevian heteroseqsualurad da uaryofen TavianT realur orientacias, an piriqiT, zog SemTxvevaSi amayoben kidec TavianTi gansxvavebulobiT.

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