მარკეტინგის საფუძვლები

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Transcript of მარკეტინგის საფუძვლები

  • mmaarrkkeettiinnggiiss safuZvlebimmeeSSvviiddee ggaammoocceemmaa

    Marketing An Introduction7/e

    ggaarrii aarrmmssttrroonnggii Gary ArmstrongCrdiloeT karolinis universiteti University of North Carolina

    ffiilliipp kkoottlleerrii Philip Kotler Crdilo-dasavleTis universiteti Northwestern University

    Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458

  • Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataArmstrong, Gary.

    Marketing : an introduction / Gary Armstrong, Philip Kotler.--7th ed.p. cm.

    Kotlers name appears first on the earlier ed.Includes bibliographical references and indexes.ISBN 0-13-142410-6

    1. Marketing. I. Kotler, Philip. II. Title.HF5415.K625 2004658.8--dc22

    2003060906

    Acquisitions Editor: Katie StevensVP/Editorial Director: Jeff ShelstadEditorial Assistant: Rebecca CummingsAssistant Editor: Melissa PelleranoAVP/Executive Marketing Manager: Michelle OBrienMarketing Assistant: Amanda FisherSenior Managing Editor (Production): Judy LealeProduction Editor: Cindy DurandProduction Assistant: Joe DeProsperoManufacturing Buyer: Diane PeiranoDesign Manager: Maria LangeDesigner: Jill LittleCover Illustration/Photo: N. Gleis/Raw Talent PhotoImage Manager: Keri Jean MikszaPhoto Researcher: Sheila NormanImage Permission Coordinator: Charles MorrisManager, Print Production: Christy MahonComposition/Full-Service Project Management: Lynn Steines, Carlisle CommunicationsPrinter/Binder: Courier/Kendallville

    Credits and acknowledgments borrowed from other sources and reproduced,with permission, in this textbook appear on the appropriate page within text; photo credits appear on page CR1.

    Copyright 2005, 2003, 2000, 1997, 1993 by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458.Prentice-Hall. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. This publication is protected by Copyright andpermission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, ortransmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For informationregarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department.

    Pearson Prentice Hall is a trademark of Pearson Education, Inc.Pearson is a registered trademark of Pearson plcPrentice Hall is a registered trademark of Pearson Education, Inc.

    Pearson Education LTD. Pearson Education Australia PTY, LimitedPearson Education Singapore, Pte., Ltd Pearson Education North Asia LtdPearson Education, Canada, Ltd Pearson Educain de Mexico, S.A. de C.V.Pearson Education-Japan Pearson Education Malaysia, Pte. Ltd

    10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1ISBN 0-13-142410-6

  • eZRvnebaT qeTis, betis, mendis, mats, k.s., kerisa da delanis;

    nensis, emis, melisasa da jesikas

  • Authorized translation from the English language edition, entitled MARKETING: AN INTORDUCTION, 7th Edition,ISBN 0131424106, by ARMSTRONG, GARY and KOTLER, PHILIP, published by Pearson Education, Inc, publishingas Prentice Hall, Copyright 2005 All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic ormechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage retrieval system, without permission fromPearson Education, Inc. GEORGIAN language edition published by the GEORGIAN ASSOCIATION OF MARKETING,copyright 2006

    gari armstrongisa da filip kotleris `marketingis safuZvlebi~ (me-7 gamocema) avtor-izebuli Targmani inglisurenovani gamocemidan. ISBN 0131424106. gamomcemloba Pearson Education,Inc, dabeWdilia Prentice Hall-Si, saavtoro uflebebi, 2005yvela ufleba daculia. am wignis arcerTi nawili ar SeiZleba reproduqcirebuli anTargmnili iqnas aranairi formiT da saSualebiT - eleq-tronuli an meqanikuri, fotokopire-bis, Camweri an informaciis damaxsovrebisa da aRdgenis sistemiT, gamomcemloba PearsonEducation, Inc-is Tanxmobis gareSe. qarTulenovani gamocema gamoica saqarTvelos marketingisasociaciis mier, saavtoro uflebebi 2006

  • vavtorebis Sesaxeb

    gari armstrongisa da filip kotleris unarCvevebi marketingis saxelmZRva-nelos dawerisaTvis saWiro ostatobis unikalur nazavs warmoadgens. pro-fesori armstrongi aris mravali jildos mqone, biznes fakultetis peda-gogi. profesori kotleri ki, msoflio marketingis erT-erTi wamyvanispecialistia. gaerTianebuli ZalebiT, isini marketingis kompleqsur sam-yaros ufro praqtikuls, xelmisawvdomsa da saxalisos xdian.

    ggaarrii aarrmmssttrroonnggii _ krist. v. blekvelis jildos mflobeli profesoriCrdiloeT karolinis universitetis kenan-flagleris biznes skolaSi. manmiiRo bakalavrisa da magistris xarisxebi detroitis veinis saxelmwifouniversitetSi, xolo filosofiis doqtoris xarisxi marketingSi _norTvesternis universitetSi. doqtor armstrongs gamoqveynebuli aqvsmravali statia wamyvan biznes-JurnalebSi. rogorc konsultanti da mkvle-vari, igi bevr kompaniasTan muSaobda marketinguli kvlevis, gayidvebismarTvisa da marketinguli strategiis sakiTxebze. magram profesor arm-strongs yvelaze metad swavleba itacebs. misi blekvelis saxelganTqmuliprofesoris tituli aris erTaderTi jildo, romelic gaicema gamorCeuliswavlebisTvis Crdilo karolinis universitetSi. igi sakmaod aqtiuradaris Cabmuli swavlebasa da administraciul saqmianobaSi. kenan-flaglerisskolaSi misi administraciuli Tanamdebobebis CamonaTvali moicavs mar-ketingis kaTedris gamgis, biznes programebis direqtoris moadgilis, biznesjildoebis programis direqtorisa da sxva Tanamdebobebs. igi mWidrodmuSaobs studentebTan. igi aris erTaderTi pirovneba, romelsac samjer aqvsmiRebuli skolis gansakuTrebuli jildo studentebis warCinebuladswavlebisTvis. 2004 wels, profesorma armstrongma miiRo CrdiloeT karoli-nis universitetis mmarTvelTa sabWos jildo swavlebaSi SetaniliwvlilisaTvis - Capel hilSi Crdilo karolinis universitetis mierminiWebuli swavlebis umaRlesi jildo.

    ffiilliipp kkoottlleerrii _ Crdilo-dasavleTi universitetis, kelogis samagistromenejmentis skolis, S.C. Johnson&Son-is jildos mflobeli saerTaSorisomarketingis gamorCeuli profesori. magistris xarisxi miRebuli aqvsCikagos univer-sitetSi, xolo filosofiis doqtoris xarisxi _ masaCusetisteqnologiur institutSi (M.I.T.) (orive ekonomikis sferoSi). doq. kotleriavtoria wignisa `marketingis menejmenti: analizi,dagegmva, ganxorcieleba dakontroli~ (prentis holi), romelic ukve meTerTmeted gamoica da romelicyvelaze metad gamoiyeneba biznesis samagistro programebSi. igi ramodenimewarmatebuli wignis avtoria da gamoqveynebuli aqvs 100-mde statia wamyvanbiznes JurnalebSi. Journal of Marketing-Si wlis saukeTeso statiisaTvis igi arissanatreli "Alpha Kappa Psi"-is jildos samgzis mflobeli. doq. kotlerisdamsaxurebaze metyvelebs amerikis marketingis asociaciis mier miniWebuliPaul D. Converse-is jildo `marketingul mecnierebaSi Setanili gamorCeuliRvawlisaTvis~, aseve mas, rogorc wlis saukeTeso marketologs, miRebuliaqvs Stuart Henderson Britt-is jildo. igi aris ori umTavresi nominaciispirveli gamarjvebuli: wlis saxelganTqmuli marketingis pedagogi,romelic dawesebulia amerikis marketingis asociaciis mier da `filip kot-leris~ jildos jandacvis marketingSi, warmodgenili jandacvis momsaxure-bis marketingis akademiis mier. mas agreTve miRebuli aqvs Carlz kulij par-linis jildo, romelic yovelwliurad ajildoebs marketingis sferoswarCinebul liderebs. 1995 wels, gayidvebisa da marketingis saerTaSorisoorganizaciisgan miiRo wlis saukeTeso pedagogis wodeba. doq. kotleri iyomarTvis mecnierebaTa institutis (TIMS) marketinguli kolejis Tavjdomareda amerikis marketingis asociaciis direqtori. mas miRebuli aqvs doqtorissapatio wodeba ciuruxis DePaul-isa da aTenis ekonomikisa da biznesis uni-veristetebidan. igi konsultaciebs utarebda mraval aSS-sa da ucxour kom-paniebs marketinguli strategiis sakiTxebSi.

  • vii

    SSeemmookklleebbuullii SSiinnaaaarrssii

    nnaawwiillii ppiirrvveellii | mmaarrkkeettiinnggiissaa ddaa mmaarrkkeettiinngguullii pprroocceessiiss ggaannssaazzRRvvrraa 22

    1 mmaarrkkeettiinnggii:: mmyyiiddvveelleebbTTaann mmoommggeebbiiaannii uurrTTiieerrTToobbeebbiiss mmaarrTTvvaa 3

    2 kkoommppaanniiaa ddaa mmaarrkkeettiinngguullii ssttrraatteeggiiaa:: ppaarrttnniioorroobbaa mmyyiiddvveellTTaannuurrTTiieerrTToobbiiss aaggeebbiissTTvviiss 39

    nnaawwiillii mmeeoorree | ssaabbaazzrroo ssiivvrrcciissaa ddaa mmoommxxmmaarreebblliiss ggaaggeebbaa 6666

    3 mmaarrkkeettiinngguullii ggaarreemmoo 67

    4 mmaarrkkeettiinngguullii iinnffoorrmmaacciiiiss mmaarrTTvvaa 107

    5 mmoommxxmmaarreebblliissaa ddaa oorrggaanniizzaacciiuullii mmyyiiddvveelliiss qqcceevvaa 141

    nnaawwiillii mmeessaammee | mmyyiiddvveellzzee oorriieennttiirreebbuullii mmaarrkkeettiinngguullii ssttrraatteeggiiiissaa

    ddaa mmaarrkkeettiinngguullii kkoommpplleeqqssiiss SSeemmuuSSaavveebbaa 118822

    6 sseeggmmeennttaacciiaa,, mmiizznnoobbrriivvii bbaazzrriiss SSeerrCCeevvaa ddaa ppoozziicciioonniirreebbaa:: zzuussttaaddSSeerrCCeeuull mmyyiiddvveellTTaann sswwoorrii uurrTTiieerrTToobbiiss aaggeebbaa 183

    7 pprroodduuqqttii,, mmoommssaaxxuurreebbaa ddaa bbrreennddiinnggiiss ssttrraatteeggiiaa 221

    8 aaxxaallii pprroodduuqqttiiss ggaannvviiTTaarreebbaa ddaa pprroodduuqqttiiss ssaassiiccooccxxlloo cciikklliissssttrraatteeggiieebbii 261

    9 ffaasswwaarrmmooqqmmnniiss ggaannssaazzRRvvrreebbeebbii ddaa ssttrraatteeggiieebbii 291

    10 ssaaddiissttrriibbuucciioo aarrxxiissaa ddaa mmoommaarraaggeebbiiss jjaaWWvviiss mmaarrTTvvaa 331

    11 ssaaccaalloo ddaa ssaabbiiTTuummoo vvaaWWrroobbaa 365

    12 iinntteeggrriirreebbuullii mmaarrkkeettiinngguullii kkoommuunniikkaacciiaa:: rreekkllaammaa,, ggaayyiiddvviissssttiimmuulliirreebbaa ddaa ssaazzooggaaddooeebbrriivvii uurrTTiieerrTToobbeebbii 397

    13 iinntteeggrriirreebbuullii mmaarrkkeettiinngguullii kkoommuunniikkaacciiaa:: ppeerrssoonnaalluurrii ggaayyiiddvvaa ddaappiirrddaappiirrii mmaarrk