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Page 1: VR14 Augmented Reality - tu-freiberg.deVirtuelle Realität 2 Prof. B. Jung Virtuelle Realität TU Bergakademie Freiberg Mixed Reality The Reality-Virtuality Continuum P. Milgram, H.Takemura,

Virtuelle Realität

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Part 14:

Augmented Reality

Virtuelle RealitätWintersemester 2007/08

Prof. Bernhard Jung

Prof. B. Jung Virtuelle Realität TU Bergakademie Freiberg

Overview

Introduction to Augmented RealityAugmented Reality DisplaysExamplesAR Toolkit – an open source software library for building AR applications

Further ReadingO. Bimber & R. Raskar. Spatial Augmented Reality: A Modern Approach to Augmented

Reality. B & T. 2005. see also: http://www.spatial-ar.com/courses.htm

http://www.augmented-reality.org/http://www.howstuffworks.com/augmented-reality.htm

Page 2: VR14 Augmented Reality - tu-freiberg.deVirtuelle Realität 2 Prof. B. Jung Virtuelle Realität TU Bergakademie Freiberg Mixed Reality The Reality-Virtuality Continuum P. Milgram, H.Takemura,

Virtuelle Realität

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Prof. B. Jung Virtuelle Realität TU Bergakademie Freiberg

Mixed Reality

The Reality-Virtuality Continuum

P. Milgram, H.Takemura, A.Utsumi, F. Kishino:Augmented Reality: A class of Displays on the Reality-Virtuality ContinuumSPIE Vol. 2351, Telemanipulator and Telepresence Technologies, 1994.http://vered.rose.utoronto.ca/publication/1994/Milgram_Takemura_SPIE1994.pdf

Prof. B. Jung Virtuelle Realität TU Bergakademie Freiberg

Augmented Reality (AR)

images projected over the real worldaircraft / automobile head-up displaysemi-transparent goggleshandhelds (PDA, smartphone)projecting onto a desktop…

types of informationunrelated – e.g. reading email with wearable

related – e.g. virtual objects interacting with world

issuesregistration – aligning virtual and realeye gaze direction Vampire Project

Visual Active Memory Processes and Interactive Retrieval (U Bielefeld)

Page 3: VR14 Augmented Reality - tu-freiberg.deVirtuelle Realität 2 Prof. B. Jung Virtuelle Realität TU Bergakademie Freiberg Mixed Reality The Reality-Virtuality Continuum P. Milgram, H.Takemura,

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Prof. B. Jung Virtuelle Realität TU Bergakademie Freiberg

Applications of AR

Navigation SystemsMaintenance

overlay instructionsdisplay schematic

MuseumsGaming…

howstuffworks.com

www.microvision.comhttp://www.research.ibm.com/journal/sj/384/spohrer.html

bmwusa.com

Prof. B. Jung Virtuelle Realität TU Bergakademie Freiberg

Augmented Interaction

Goal: enhance the real world sensation with useful informationUsers see real and virtual objectsLocation-dependent additional information can be provided (display menu cards for restaurants)The real sensation can be partially disabled (replace all billboards with pictures from last holiday ...)Photo-realism not necessarily first goal but in the ultimate system, people cannot decide whether parts are virtual or real

http://www.csl.sony.co.jp/person/rekimoto/uist95/uist95.html

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Virtuelle Realität

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Prof. B. Jung Virtuelle Realität TU Bergakademie Freiberg

Augmented Reality - What do we need for the combination of real and virtual worlds?

Locations and optical properties of the viewer (or camera) and the display

Calibration of all devices

Combination of all local coordinate systems centered on the devices and the objects in the scene in a global coordinate system

Registration of models of all 3D object of interest with their counterparts in the scene

Tracking of objects over time when the user moves and interacts with scene

Realistic merging requires:Objects to behave in physically plausible manner when manipulated

Occlusion

Collision detection

Shadows

Detailed description of the physical scene

Source: Cindy Robertson (Georgia Tech)

Prof. B. Jung Virtuelle Realität TU Bergakademie Freiberg

AR Displays: Overview and Classification

Bimber & Raskar

Page 5: VR14 Augmented Reality - tu-freiberg.deVirtuelle Realität 2 Prof. B. Jung Virtuelle Realität TU Bergakademie Freiberg Mixed Reality The Reality-Virtuality Continuum P. Milgram, H.Takemura,

Virtuelle Realität

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Prof. B. Jung Virtuelle Realität TU Bergakademie Freiberg

Retinal Displays

Bimber & Raskar

Prof. B. Jung Virtuelle Realität TU Bergakademie Freiberg

Head Mounted Displays

Bimber & Raskar

Page 6: VR14 Augmented Reality - tu-freiberg.deVirtuelle Realität 2 Prof. B. Jung Virtuelle Realität TU Bergakademie Freiberg Mixed Reality The Reality-Virtuality Continuum P. Milgram, H.Takemura,

Virtuelle Realität

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Prof. B. Jung Virtuelle Realität TU Bergakademie Freiberg

Handheld Displays Bimber & Raskar

Prof. B. Jung Virtuelle Realität TU Bergakademie Freiberg

Spatial Optical See-Through DisplaysBimber & Raskar

www.laser-magic.comhttp://io2technology.com

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Virtuelle Realität

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Prof. B. Jung Virtuelle Realität TU Bergakademie Freiberg

Projection-based Augmentation

Bimber & Raskar

Prof. B. Jung Virtuelle Realität TU Bergakademie Freiberg

Example: DigitalDesk (Wellner, Xerox, 1992)

Extending the desktop metaphor to the real deskVirtual (displayed) and real documents share the same space

http://www.xrce.xerox.com/competencies/past-projects/ip/digitalDesk.html

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Prof. B. Jung Virtuelle Realität TU Bergakademie Freiberg

Example: Augmented Reality for New Gaming ExperiencesResearch Project: Virtual Reality and Hypermedia in Future Telecommunication Products and ServicesUniversity of Oulu, Finlandhttp://www.infotech.oulu.fi/Annual/2000/VIRGIN.html

Prof. B. Jung Virtuelle Realität TU Bergakademie Freiberg

Example: Augmented Reality for New Gaming Experiences

Mozzies Game on Siemens SX1 mobile phone

The mosquitoes can be seen as they are placed on the live video feed from the camera. Aiming is done by moving the phone around so that the mosquitoes are at the cross hair. The Camera is used to detect the motion.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siemens_SX1

Page 9: VR14 Augmented Reality - tu-freiberg.deVirtuelle Realität 2 Prof. B. Jung Virtuelle Realität TU Bergakademie Freiberg Mixed Reality The Reality-Virtuality Continuum P. Milgram, H.Takemura,

Virtuelle Realität

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Prof. B. Jung Virtuelle Realität TU Bergakademie Freiberg

Example: AR Quakehttp://wearables.unisa.edu.au/projects/ARQuake/www/

Prof. B. Jung Virtuelle Realität TU Bergakademie Freiberg

Example: Steve Mann – "Cyborg"

Steven Mann (MIT, now Toronto University)"Steve Mann is the world’s first real cyborg, a man who exists in harmony with technology." Canadian Film Institute, 2001 Started to develop ‚Cyborg‘ equipment in schoolSince the 1980s he is constantly wearing his ‚WearComp‘His main research is for privacy and social impacts He noticed two main trends:

The technology diminished (everything moved into sunglasses)His ‚Cyborg‘-feeling has been growing over the years

http://www.eyetap.org/

2007

http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0301145/

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Virtuelle Realität

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Prof. B. Jung Virtuelle Realität TU Bergakademie Freiberg

Example: Reality Window Manager (EyeTap)

Window manager for XWindows that overlays xterms and other windows onto planar patched in the environmentAllows for real-time tracking, replacement and rendering

http://www.eyetap.org/, http://wearcam.org/

Prof. B. Jung Virtuelle Realität TU Bergakademie Freiberg

Example: Third-person perspective in augmented reality (???)

Salamin, P., Thalmann, D., and Vexo, F. 2006.http://vrlab.epfl.ch/Publications/pdf/Salamin_Thalmann_Vexo_VRST_06.pdf

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Prof. B. Jung Virtuelle Realität TU Bergakademie Freiberg

ARToolKit – an open source software library for building AR applications

ARToolKit uses computer vision algorithms to solve the problem of tracking the users viewpoint calculates the camera position and orientation relative to physical markers in real timehttp://www.hitl.washington.edu/artoolkit/live demo …