Download - The Protestant Reformation

Page 1: The Protestant Reformation


A break from tradition and Catholicism

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Trouble Brewing

Either with them or against them Heretics and the Inquisition

Shifts in priorities The arts Defending Papal States

Celibacy? Corruption

Especially in Germanic Areas John Wycliffe John Huss

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When the timing is right…

The Printing Press By 1500, 250 cities printing 9-10 million

books Erasmus a harsh critic People begin reading the Bible on their own

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Martin Luther

Was a devout Catholic, served as a monk, tried to continually bring himself closer to God

Struggled with his faith Puzzled and inspired by “The

just shall live by faith” Angered by Johann Tetzel

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Johann Tetzel

Sale of Indulgences “Heaven Insurance”

for you and your loved ones – dead or alive!

“No sooner than the coffer ring, than a soul from purgatory doth spring”

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The 95 Theses

Nails his Ninety-five Theses to the door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg, Germany on All Hallows Eve, 1517 Salvation by faith alone;

he opposed the Catholic Church’s beliefs in penance and good works

Bible is the only authority for Christian life; Pope is a false authority

Priesthood of all believers – each person should have an individual relationship with God and should read/interpret the Bible for him/herself

All people are equal in the eyes of God

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Luther’s ideas diffuse quickly Wrote many books, essays, and

letters – which are quickly printed and spread throughout

Luther was not easily silenced – he ideas shake Europe

He did not originally intend to start an entire new branch of Christianity

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Pope Leo X

Giovanni de Medici, son of Lorenzo the Magnificent

Pope Leo X issues a Papal Bull June 15,1520 and threatens to excommunicate Luther unless he recanted

Luther and his students at the University of Witten berg burned the Papal Bull in a bonfire

Pope excommunicates Luther


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Who do you think said this?

“A single friar who goes counter to all Christianity for a thousand years must be wrong…I will proceed against him as a notorious heretic”

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Charles V – HRE 1521 – summons Luther to the

Imperial Diet at Worms to stand trial Refuses to recant his ideas,

“Unless I am convinced by Scripture and plain reason…my conscience is captive to the Word of God. I cannot and I will not recant anything, for to go against conscience is neither right nor safe. Here I stand. I cannot do otherwise. Amen.”

Charles V replies – “A single friar who goes counter to all

Christianity for a thousand years must be wrong…I will proceed against him as a notorious heretic”

Charles V issues Edict of Worms – declaring Luther an outlaw and heretic


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Frederick the Wise – German prince of Saxony, protects Luther in his castle for the first year after the Diet of Worms Spends the year translating the New

Testament into German Luther’s ideas were practiced – priests

began leading worship in German, calling themselves “ministers”

People give up on trying to reform the Catholic Church and become a group known as Lutherans

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Group of princes loyal to the Pope join forces and create an alliance against Luther’s ideas

The princes who support Luther sign a statement protesting this alliance – become known as the Protestants

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Spreading Luther’s Ideas

Luther becomes friends with Erasmus who refused to fully support the Reformation

Rising humanistic influences lead people to emphasize the role man should play in religion

Peasants embrace the ideas and Luther’s criticisms of monastic landowners; rebel and solicit Luther’s support; demand release from serfdom Writes “Against the Robbing and Murdering Hordes

of Peasants” to the nobles; denounces peasants Why? He needs the princes support for Protestantism to survive

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Spreading Ideas, cont.

European rulers want to reduce the influence of the Church and the HRE

Princes continue to protect Luther from the Catholics What is in it for the princes?

Want to weaken the HRE. Want as much power as possible.

Diet of Speyer 1526 Emperor (distracted) agrees that each German territory

was free to enforce the Edict of Worms against Luther Gives the German princes territorial sovereignty in

religious matters Buys the Reformation concepts to take hold in Germany

and Switzerland

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Women and the Reformation Which idea do you think appealed to women the most?

Concept of equality in God’s eyes Protestant teachings emphasized more compassionate

marriages More compassionate Increased education for women More grounds for divorce if a husband violated his

vows During the early years, women were major writers and

preachers As Protestant groups become more formal, women’s

opportunities decrease

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Religious Warfare

Charles V decides to fight against the Protestants Diet at Augsburg 1530 – meeting of the princes

Diet ended with a blunt order to revert Lutherans to Catholicism Augsburg Confession –Protestants enter a defensive alliance called the

Schmalkaldic League Schmalkaldic Articles – Luther League reaches a stalemate with Charles V

1547 – Charles V unleashes the military on the Protestants, crush the Schmalkaldic League, imperial law mandates Protestants reconvert

Peace of Augsburg 1552 – allows each German ruler to decide what their region’s religion will be Latin phrase “cuius regio, eius religo” – he who rules establishes

religion Technically only allows Lutheranism or Catholicism Ecclesiastical reservation added – prevents converters from taking

church lands with them

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Charles is worn out

Gave Spain (including land in the Americas, part of Italy, and the Netherlands, to his son Philip II

Holy Roman Empire to Ferdinand Retires to a monastery in Spain before

dying in 1558

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The Reformation Ripple…

For each of the following construct a chart that addresses: Who, where, and when What they believed Significance in the Protestant Reformation

and beyond Zwingli John Calvin Anabaptists John Knox Henry VIII

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Reformation Skits

Please write a script for a skit that demonstrates the dialogue for 2-4 Protestant Reformation theologians (depends on group size) and one political figure. 

You may choose the setting and the purpose of the meeting/dialogue, but must have a dialogue that demonstrates an understanding of the different reformation ideas and challenges. 

Each dialogue should last 4-5 minutes.  Everyone must have a speaking part. 

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Ulrich Zwingli

First major reformer to follow Luther (no denomination though)

Preached in Zurich, ideas spread outward to Switzerland and S. Germany

“community discipline” Churches become more

“puritanical” Transubstantiation?

Consubstantiation? Symbolic?

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John Calvin

The Elect Predestination City of Saints –

set up a model gov’t in Geneva

Inspires Puritanism

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John Knox

Inspired by Calvin Brings

Protestantism to Scotland

Presbyters Leads a coup

d’etat to overthrow Mary Stuart

Nationalizes Calvinism

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Henry VIII

Overview: Six Wives Catherine of Aragon – divorced (1533)

Daughter - Mary Anne Boleyn – beheaded (unjustly accused of

adultery) Daughter – Elizabeth

Jane Seymour – died (12 days after giving birth) Son - Edward

Anne of Cleves – divorced Catherine Howard – beheaded (actual adultery) Catherine Parr - survived

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The Church of England

Requested divorce from Pope Clement VII Asks Cardinal Wolsey for the same, fires him Charles V (Cath. Of Aragon’s nephew) marched into

Rome and held the Pope hostage to prevent divorce Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer will annul

the marriage Reformation Parliament

Asks them to strip the Pope’s power in England Legalize Henry’s divorce, Pope not supposed to interfere

Act of Supremacy 1534 Declares King as the head of England’s Church

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William Tyndale – new English version of the Bible

Henry VIII Closed Catholic monasteries and other

church lands Sells the land for profit

Church of England (Anglican or Episcopal) “Six Articles” affirm CofE doctrines

celibacy, literal confession etc (this will change)

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The Kids Edward VI

crowned at 9 reigned for six years 1st Protestant King

Mary – Bloody Mary Reigned five years M. Felipe II of Spain Very Catholic Had over 300 murdered

Elizabeth – The Virgin Queen

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Elizabeth I

Converts England back to Protestantism – for good.

Church of England 39 Articles – define Anglican doctrine

Move away from some traditional Catholic practices (literal confession, Latin, allegiance to the Pope, clerical

celibacy, etc) Include elements of Protestantism

Book of Common Prayer Created under Edward VI Officialized under Elizabeth I

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The Spread of Protestantism

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Protestant Work Ethic

Protestant Bourgeoisie – middle class (especially in the North) tended to react against authority (like the Church and the Nobility); thus, they usually chose to become Protestant

A new value system develops Every man (rich or poor) can serve God in his job Labor and thrift are Godly virtues Profits are permissible if used to benefit society and to glorify

God Results?

Explosion of capitalism from Dutch, English, and Swiss Protestants Capitalism = economy based on competition and individual


“Protestant Work Ethic”

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Don Quixote – Miguel de Cervantes William Shakespeare