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Page 1: Lesson Eleven

Lesson Eleven

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Page 2: Lesson Eleven

1. Their goal was to provide emergency medical aid, no matter where it was needed or who needed it.(第 3行) no matter 可以跟 what 、 who 、 which 、 where 、

when 、 how 連用。 這種用法跟

whatever 、 whoever 、 whichever 、 wherever 、whenever 、 however 看情況有時可以互相代換。 Please tell me everything you know about this

case, no matter what it is.= Whatever you know about this case,

please tell me.= Please tell me whatever you know about

this case.

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1. Their goal was to provide emergency medical aid, no matter where it was needed or who needed it.(第 3行)

No matter who wins, it will be a fair game.= Whoever wins, it will be a fair game.= It will be a fair game, whoever wins.

I always carry an umbrella, so no matter when it rains, I am prepared.= I always carry an umbrella, so whenever

it rains, I am prepared.= I always carry an umbrella, so I am

prepared whenever it rains.

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1. Their goal was to provide emergency medical aid, no matter where it was needed or who needed it.(第 3行) No matter how upset you are, you still have to go to

school. = However upset you are, you still have to go to

school. = You still have to go to school, however upset

you are. No matter which dress you buy, just make sure it

goes with your shoes. = Whichever dress you buy, just make sure it

goes with your shoes. = Just make sure the dress goes with your

shoes, whichever one you buy.

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1. Their goal was to provide emergency medical aid, no matter where it was needed or who needed it.(第 3行) 這裡的 who needed it 前省略了 no matter 。 對等連接詞 or 連接的兩部分原來應該是一致的,所以這個子句應為:no matter where it was needed or no matter

who needed it.為了避免重複,因此省略後面的 no matter 。

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2. The philosophy of MSF is that all people have the right to medical care, regardless of race, religion, or nationality.(第 11行) have the right to + N 有… . 的權利 have the right to + V 有做…的權利

Do we have the right to our opinions? I believe we have the right to ask for

compensation. regardless of 意為「不… . ;無……」。

She decided to go ahead with the plan regardless of everyone’s opposition.

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3. MSF began as “a couple of doctors with a suitcase and a dream.” (第 15行)

as 為一介系詞,當「以…」解。 I began my career as an English teacher

after I graduated from college. a couple of 當「兩個;一對;兩、三個;一點點」解。此處的 couple 為名詞用法。of 偶而亦可省略,此時 couple 視為形容詞用法,為較口語的用法,在正式文章裡還是以 a couple of 為主。

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3. MSF began as “a couple of doctors with a suitcase and a dream.” (第 15行)

a couple of times = a couple times 兩、三次 I’ll be there in a couple of days. (兩、三天裡)

I’ve seen him a couple times. (口語用法)

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4. It has offices in twenty countries and has provided medical help in eighty-five countries, including Rwanda, Chechnya, Kosovo, Liberia, Afghanistan, and Iraq.(第 17行)

including 意為「包含」,相關用法如下: including 介系詞用法——

All of us will join the marathon race, including our homeroom teacher.

included 形容詞用法,放在名詞後——All of us will join the marathon race, our

homeroom teacher included.

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4. It has offices in twenty countries and has provided medical help in eighty-five countries, including Rwanda, Chechnya, Kosovo, Liberia, Afghanistan, and Iraq.(第 17行)

inclusive of 形容詞用法,放在名詞前,較formal 的用法——The total cost will be $1,000, inclusive of

postage and handling.

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5. MSF sends teams not only to locations that are in the spotlight but also to places where forgotten wars continue to cause suffering.(第 19行) not only ... but also ... 意為「不但… .. 而且… . 」。

由 not only ... but also ... 所連接的結構要一致。 He can speak not only English but also French. He can not only sing but also compose.

not only ... but also ... 若連接主詞時,動詞要與接近的主詞一致。 Not only he but also I am right about the matter.

not only ... but also ... 若放在句首連接子句時, not only 後面的子句要倒裝。 Not only did he come, but he also brought his best

friend with him.

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5. MSF sends teams not only to locations that are in the spotlight but also to places where forgotten wars continue to cause suffering.(第 19行) that are in the spotlight 為關係代名詞所引導的形容詞子句,修飾前面的 locations 。

be in the spotlight 意為「為大…目的」。Education reform has been in the spotlight

recently. where forgotten wars continue to cause

suffering 為關係副詞子句,修飾前面的 places 。此句亦可寫成 in which forgotten wars

continue to cause suffering 。

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6. MSF workers have been shot at, wounded, kidnapped, and killed.(第 23行) 如果動詞不只一個字,而是包括後面所接的介系詞

或副詞,並且當及物動詞使用的話,如 laugh at 、 speak of 、 take care of 、 make a fool of 等,在改為被動語態時,該介系詞或副詞不可省略。 No one likes to be laughed at. Lucy’s love affair with that married man has not

been spoken of since she left town. Please make sure my child is taken good care of

at your daycare center. When being made a fool of in front of others,

even a good-natured man will lose his temper.

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7. They have also been infected with the diseases that they were trying to fight.(第 24行)

that they were trying to fight 為關係代名詞所引導的形容詞子句,修飾前面的 diseases 。

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8. Only a small number of the volunteers are doctors.(第 26行) a number of 幾… . ;一些… .. a good number of 相當多的… a large number of / large numbers of 許多的;大

量的… a great number of 許多的;大量的… .. a small number of 少數的;為數不多的…… 以上片語須接複數名詞,動詞與這複數名詞一致。

Only a small number of the participants were female.

A large number of tourists poured in during the tourist season.

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8. Only a small number of the volunteers are doctors.(第 26行)

要注意的是,若是 the number of ... 作主詞時,動詞要與 number 一致,用單數。The number of victims of the plane crash

was estimated at over 200.

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9. Most volunteers serve as nurses, medical technicians, sanitation engineers, and administrators.(第 27行) serve as 當「擔任… .. 職務」解。

Don’t worry. I’ll continue to serve as your secretary until a new one arrives.

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10. Although the volunteers are paid only a small amount to cover their cost of living, they are rewarded in many other ways.(第 29行) although 的用法

儘管: despite the fact thatAlthough Mr. Peterson knew it was

dangerous to go to Africa to practice medicine, he still decided to go.

但是: even thoughShe is really smart, although she seldom

gets good grades at school.

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10. Although the volunteers are paid only a small amount to cover their cost of living, they are rewarded in many other ways.(第 29行) cover v. (金錢)足以付……;(範圍)占,(主

題)涵蓋;蓋,遮蔽;報導 Jack is paid very little for the odd jobs he does---

barely enough to cover his cost of living. The rain forest covers a small part of this country. Did the president cover the issue of

environmental protection in his speech? Don’t cover your eyes with your hands or you will

bump into something. The touching story about a bowl of yang-chun

noodles was covered by a lot of newspapers.

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11. One doctor said that practicing medicine at a refugee camp was like getting a hands-on lesson in the history of medicine, far away from his everyday experiences in a modern medical center.(第 31行) 和 medicine 相關的用詞:

(1) medicine 當「醫學」解。practice medicine 行醫study medicine 讀醫preventive medicine 預防醫學

My brother is studying medicine at NTU.She plans to practice medicine in some

poor areas after she graduated.

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11. One doctor said that practicing medicine at a refugee camp was like getting a hands-on lesson in the history of medicine, far away from his everyday experiences in a modern medical center.(第 31行) 和 medicine 相關的用詞:

(2) medicine 當「藥;醫藥」解。a prescription medicine/prescribed

medication 處方藥an over-the-counter medicine/medication 無醫師處方也可合法出售的藥

internal medicine 內服藥external medicine 外用藥

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11. One doctor said that practicing medicine at a refugee camp was like getting a hands-on lesson in the history of medicine, far away from his everyday experiences in a modern medical center.(第 31行) far away from 此片語本為 far from ...

當「遠遠不… . ;完全不… .. 」解。away 在此是副詞,用以強調後面的介詞。

What I actually experienced here was far from what I learned in school.

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12. Another volunteer summed up her work this way: “It’s a life-changing experience.”(第 34行)

sum up 當「總結」解。The only word that can sum up my situation

during this time is CHAOS. life-changing 是一複合形容詞,修飾後面的

experience ,當「改變一生的;改變生命的」解。a life-changing experience

= an experience that can change life因此本句亦可寫成 It is an experience that

can change one’s life.

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【補充】 複合形容詞( compound adjectives )是指那些由兩個或兩個以上的字所組合起來的形容詞,字詞中間用連字號來連接。

英文中的複合形容詞有許多不同的組合方式,以下是幾種常見的組合方式:N-N : nineteen-century Englandadj.-N+ed : a red-haired woman數詞 -N : a five-story building N-V-ing : a time-consuming job N-p.p. : a sun-dried tomato

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adj.-V-ing : a good-looking young man adj.-p.p. : a red-painted roofadv.-V-ing : a fast-moving stormadv.-p.p. : a well-done steak

上述最後兩項裡的 adv. 如果是以 ly 結尾,字與字之間不需加上連字號。a brightly shining stara carefully made cake

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13. MSF is best known for its rapid response in times of crisis.(第 37行)

be known for 當「以… .. 出名」解。此片語加了一個 best 是強調「最… .. 」。

同義的片語有: be famous for 、 be noted forBeitou is famous for its hot springs.The young artist is noted for his originality.

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13. MSF is best known for its rapid response in times of crisis.(第 37行) in times of 在……的時候 in times like this 在像這樣的時候 good / hard times 安和樂利的時候 / 艱難時候

You should always seek help in times of difficulty.

In times like this, we just have to make do with whatever we have.

There were some good times after the prince became king, but not for long.

People had some hard times when the war broke out.

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14. When a medical emergency occurs, MSF sends in an advance team to find out what kind of help is needed.(第 39行)

send in 在此當「調動」解。A large number of rescue workers were sent

in to the disaster area.

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15. The advance team then contacts one of its four regional centers, located in Europe, East Africa, Central America, and East Asia.(第 44行) located in Europe, East Africa, Central America,

and East Asia 是分詞片語,用以說明前面的 four regional centers 的所在地。

此分詞片語亦可寫成:which are located in Europe, East Africa, Central America, and East Asia 。

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17. ..., MSF sends in medical teams with emergency-room experience and fully equipped surgical tents, electrical generators, medicine, food, and clean water.(第 49行) 整個句子從結構上看,應該是:

MSF sends in medical teams with emergency-room experience and fully equipped surgical tents, electrical generators, medicine, food, and clean water. MSF 送來的醫療團隊具備緊急救護經驗, medical teams with emergency-room experience (軟體)

和醫療器材與補給品等 fully equipped surgical tents, electrical generators… (硬體)

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17. ..., MSF sends in medical teams with emergency-room experience and fully equipped surgical tents, electrical generators, medicine, food, and clean water.(第 49行) 從邏輯上看,這句話應該是:

MSF sends in medical teams with emergency-room experience and fully equipped surgical tents, electrical generators, medicine, food, and clean water.

MSF 送來的醫療團隊除了有急診室急救經驗外,並具有充分裝備的器材與補給品(共五樣)。

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17. ..., MSF sends in medical teams with emergency-room experience and fully equipped surgical tents, electrical generators, medicine, food, and clean water.(第 49行) with emergency-room experience and fully

equipped surgical tents ... 為介詞片語,修飾前面的 medical teams 。

此片語亦可改寫成形容詞子句:that have emergency-room experience and fully equipped surgical tents ... 。

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登山露營( camping )除了帳篷( tent )外,還可能需要攜帶的其它裝備:backpack 背包 first aid kit 急救箱sleeping bag 睡袋 raincoat 雨衣canteen 水壺compass 羅盤pocketknife 折疊式小刀 flashlight 手電筒 lighter/matches 打火機/火柴

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18. Every year, the group publishes a list called the Top Ten Underreported Humanitarian Stories about wars and disasters that receive little attention from the international media.(第 54行) called the Top ... media 是分詞片語,修飾 a list 。

在此片語前加上 which is就形成關係代名詞所引導的形容詞子句。

that receive little attention from the international media 是形容詞子句,修飾前面的 wars and disasters 。

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20. However, out of 1,393 new drugs developed since 1975, only about 1% were targeted at these diseases.(第 62行) out of 當「從… .. 之中」解。

One out of ten adults is susceptible to this disease.

developed since 1975 為分詞片語,修飾前面的new drugs 。在 developed 前面加上 which / that were就形成關係代名詞所引導的形容詞子句。

1% were = 1% of the new drugs were ... percent of + N 當主詞時,動詞要與 of 後面的名詞一致。Forty percent of his income comes from

investments in stocks.

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21. In 1999, the Norwegian Nobel Committee awarded MSF the Peace Prize for its “pioneering humanitarian work on several continents.” (第 64

行) award 的用法:

award somebody something (for...) award something to somebody (for...)

The committee awarded John a silver medal for his bravery.

The committee awarded a silver medal to John for his bravery.

John was awarded a silver medal for his bravery.

A silver medal was awarded to John for his bravery.

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21. In 1999, the Norwegian Nobel Committee awarded MSF the Peace Prize for its “pioneering humanitarian work on several continents.” (第 64行) pioneering adj. 開拓的;先驅的 pioneer n. [C] 開拓者;先鋒,先驅 pioneering work / research / efforts / techniques 開創性的工作 / 研究 / 努力成果 / 技術He was given the award because of his

pioneering work in the biochemical industry.Claude Monet and Paul Cezanne were

among the pioneers of the Impressionist movement in art.

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21. In 1999, the Norwegian Nobel Committee awarded MSF the Peace Prize for its “pioneering humanitarian work on several continents.” (第 64行) continent n. [C] 大陸

There are seven continents in the world: including Europe, Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Australia, and Antarctica.

continental adj. 大陸的,大陸型的 continental climate 大陸性氣候

This region has a typical continental climate; that is, winters are usually freezing.

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21. In 1999, the Norwegian Nobel Committee awarded MSF the Peace Prize for its “pioneering humanitarian work on several continents.” (第 64行) continental drift 大陸漂移說

Some geologists still do not agree with the idea of continental drift.

continental shelf 大陸礁They are studying the bottom of the sea,

especially the continental shelf of Australia. continental breakfast 歐洲式早餐(只供應麵包與咖啡)The hotel provides a simple continental

breakfast.

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22. ... medical aid should not be tied to wars or politics, but only to the dignity of people.(第 68行) not ... but ... 當「不是… . 而是… .. 」解。

He came to the meeting not because he wanted to but because he had to.

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23. He went on to say, “An organization like this shows how much can be accomplished with simple and affordable methods.” (第 69行) go on + to V 表「接著做(另一事)…」之意。 go on to + N 表「接著(另一事)……」之意。

The teacher went on to announce the new project.

Let’s go on to the next topic. go on + V-ing 表「繼續做… . 」之意。 go on with + N 表「繼續……」之意。

He went on speaking after a short break. After the phone stopped ringing, I went on

with my reading.

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23. He went on to say, “An organization like this shows how much can be accomplished with simple and affordable methods.” (第 69行) organization n. [C] 組織 a nonprofit organization 一個非營利事業的組織

A nonprofit organization is an organization that aims mainly to help people, without making a profit.

an international organization 一個國際組織The World Conservation Union is an

international organization that works to preserve wildlife.

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23. He went on to say, “An organization like this shows how much can be accomplished with simple and affordable methods.” (第 69行) a terrorist organization 一個恐怖組織

It is believed that the World Trade Center towers in New York were destroyed by a terrorist organization led by Osama bin Ladin.

the Palestine Liberation Organization 巴勒斯坦解放組織

the World Health Organization (WHO) 世界衛生組織

the World Trade Organization (WTO) 世界貿易組織

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23. He went on to say, “An organization like this shows how much can be accomplished with simple and affordable methods.” (第 69行) affordable adj. 買得起的;供得起的 affordable housing 一般買得起的房子

The government has promised to provide affordable housing for everybody.

affordable price 一般買得起的價格To find a used car at an affordable price, I

looked in the classified ads in the newspapers.

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23. He went on to say, “An organization like this shows how much can be accomplished with simple and affordable methods.” (第 69行) afford v. 有足夠的(金錢、時間)可以…… afford + N 負擔得起;足以享有(休假)

How can he afford such luxuries? He does not have a high-paying job.

I am trying to impress my new boss, so I cannot afford any mistakes at work.

afford + to V 有餘力能做… .. ;堪得起 …… Sally couldn’t afford to go to Paris on vacation

like some of her wealthier classmates. I can’t afford to go to Joe’s party tonight, since I

have a lot of studying to do.